The -112G>A polymorphism of the secretoglobin 3A2 (SCGB3A2) gene encoding uteroglobin-related protein 1 (UGRP1) increases risk for the development of Graves' disease in subsets of patients with elevated levels of immunoglobulin E.
The human secretoglobin 3A2 (SCGB3A2) gene encoding secretory uteroglobin-related protein 1 (UGRP1) resides on the chromosome region 5q31-33 that harbors a susceptibility locus to several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including asthma and Graves' disease (GD). Recently, association between the marker rs1368408 (-112G?>A), located in the promoter region of the SCGB3A2 gene, and susceptibility to GD was found in Chinese and UK Caucasians. The study aim was to evaluate whether this polymorphism confers GD susceptibility in a large population cohort comprising 1,474 Russian GD patients and 1,619 controls. The marker rs1368408 was studied using a TaqMan allele discrimination assay. Serum levels of UGRP1 and immunoglobulin E (IgE) were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analyses. Association between the allele A of SCGB3A2 and a higher risk of GD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.33, P = 2.9 × 10(-5)) was shown. Both affected and non-affected carriers of the higher risk genotype A/A had significantly decreased levels of serum UGRP1 compared to the subjects homozygous for G/G (93 ± 37 pg/ml vs. 132 ± 45 pg/ml, P = 0.0011 for GD patients; 77 ± 28 pg/ml vs. 119 ± 33 pg/ml, P = 0.0019 for controls). Serum IgE levels were significantly higher in non-affected subjects homozygous for A/A compared to control individuals homozygous for G/G (153 ± 46 IU/ml vs. 122 ± 40 IU/ml, P = 0.0095). Our data suggest that the carriage of the SCGB3A2 -112A/A variant increases the risk for GD in subsets of patients with elevated levels of IgE, a hallmark of allergic asthma. Therefore, the SCGB3A2 -112G?>A polymorphism may be considered as a likely marker linking susceptibility to allergy/asthma and GD on chromosome 5q31-33.
Sudden death due to acute intoxication occurs frequently in patients with opioid addiction (OA). To examine whether certain genotypes were associated with this, we examined the frequencies of 29 SNPs located in candidate genes related to opioid pharmacology: ABCB1, OPRM1, UGT2B7, CYP3A5, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, COMT, KCNJ6 and SCN9A in 274 deceased patients with OA (DOA), 309 living patients with OA (LOA) and in 394 healthy volunteers (HV). The main hypothesis of the study was that subjects homozygous for the variant 3435T in ABCB1 (rs1045642) occur more frequently in DOA than in LOA and HV because morphine and methadone more readily cross the blood barrier in these subjects due to a lower efflux transporter activity of the ABCB1 (p-glycoprotein) transporter. Our results did not support this hypothesis, because no statistically significant difference (p = 0.506) in the frequency of the TT genotype of rs1045642 was observed between the DOA, LOA and HV cohorts. However, for another ABCB1 variant, rs9282564, we found that the frequencies of the AG and TT genotypes were 13, 21 and 25% in DOA, LOA and HV, respectively, and after correcting for age, sex and multiple testing, the differences between DOA and LOA were statistically significantly different (p = 0.027). The COMT rs4680 AA genotype frequencies were 25%, 35% and 31% in DOA, LOA and HV, respectively, and the difference between DOA and LOA was also statistically significant (p = 0.0028). In conclusion, this study generated two hypotheses suggesting possible associations of a reduced risk of death and carrying, respectively, the ABCB1 rs9282564 AG and TT genotypes and the COMT rs4680 AA genotype among patients with OA. These findings should be confirmed in independent cohorts, and if a causal relationship between these variants and fatal poisoning in OA is confirmed, then it may be possible at least in theory to personalize prevention of sudden death in this patient group.
Adiponectin is an adipocyte-expressed protein that regulates the glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism via adiponectin receptors 1 and 2. Obesity is a known risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We, therefore, examined associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in Adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and Adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) genes with the prevalence of advanced AMD in Finnish population. Thirty-seven markers for ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 were genotyped in a sample collection of 91 men and 177 women having exudative AMD and 18 men and 26 women having severe atrophic AMD. Patients were diagnosed by fundus photographs and fluorescein angiography. The control group (no signs of AMD in fundus photographs) consisted of 55 men and 111 women. Inclusion criteria age was over 65 years old without diabetes diagnosis. Out of the tested SNPs, rs10753929 located in intron of ADIPOR1 gene was significantly associated (p=0.0471) with AMD status when using a permutation procedure that controlled for the number of tested genotypes and genetic models. Odds ratio (OR) for the association was 1.699 (95% CI 1.192-2.423). The SNP consists of C/T alleles and the risk allele T had a minor allele frequency (MAF) of 20.4%. Distribution of proportion of cases/controls between alleles revealed an additive genetic model. Our findings reveal that rs10753929 ADIPOR1 variant is a novel candidate for AMD genetic risk factor in Finnish population.
Screening of anaplastic lymphoma tyrosine kinase (ALK) gene fusions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients enables the identification of the patients likely to benefit from ALK-targeted therapy. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of ALK fusion in Finnish NSCLC patients, which has not been reported earlier, and to study the presence of ALK fusion in relation to clinicopathological characteristics and other driver gene mutations. A total of 469 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue specimens from Finnish NSCLC patients were screened for ALK fusion by immunohistochemistry (IHC). For confirmation of IHC results, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was conducted for 171 specimens. Next-generation sequencing was performed for all ALK-positive specimens to characterize the association of ALK fusion with mutations in targeted regions of 22 driver genes. Of the 469 tumors screened, 11 (2.3%) harbored an ALK fusion, including nine adenocarcinomas and two large cell carcinomas. The IHC results for all 11 ALK-positive and 160 random ALK-negative specimens were confirmed by FISH. ALK fusion was significantly associated with never/ex-light smoking history (P
Objective To study the association of polymorphisms rs699947, rs2010963, rs3025039 in the VEGFA gene region and rs1870377, rs2305949, rs2071559 in the VEGFR2 gene region with the risk of primary varicose veins in ethnic Russians. Methods Genotypes were determined by real-time PCR allelic discrimination. The case group consisted of 448 patients with primary varicose veins and the control group comprised 609 individuals without a history of chronic venous disease. Association was studied by logistic regression analysis. Results Allele rs2010963 C was associated with the decreased risk of varicose veins (additive model of inheritance: odds ratio?=?0.73, 95% confidence interval?=?0.59-0.91, P?=?0.004). Conclusions Our results provide evidence that polymorphism rs2010963 located in the 5' untranslated region of the VEGFA gene can influence genetic susceptibility to primary varicose veins in Russians. Otherwise, it can be in linkage disequilibrium with another functional single nucleotide polymorphism that can alter the level of vascular endothelial growth factor A protein.
Polymorphisms c.202G > A of prothrombin F2 gene, c.1691G > A of coagulation factor V F5 gene, c.675delinsG of plasminogen activator1 gene, and (-5)T > C Kozak gene of thrombocytic receptor were studied in the Russian and Moldavian ethnic groups. We have found no association between these polymorphisms and the risk of ischemic stroke development in both ethnic groups. No association was revealed between the risk of stroke development and various combinations of the single nucleotide polymorphisms examined in the sample of ischemic stroke patients from Russia.
The molecular basis of pathogenesis of psoriasis remains unclear, but one unifying hypothesis of disease aetiology is the cytokine network model. The class II cytokines (CF2) and their receptors (CRF2) are all involved in the inflammatory processes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in respective genes have been associated with psoriasis in a previous study of the Estonian population.
We performed a replication study of 47 SNPs in CF2 and CRF2 genes in independent cohorts of psoriasis patients of two ethnic groups (Russians and Bashkirs) from the Volga-Ural region of Russia.
DNA was obtained from 395 psoriasis patients of two ethnic groups from the Volga-Ural region of Russia and 476 ethnically matched controls. 47 SNPs in the loci of the genes encoding Class II cytokines and their receptors were selected by SNPbrowser version 3.5. Genotyping was performed using the SNPlex™ (Applied Biosystems) platform.
The genetic variant rs30461 previously associated in original case-control study in Estonians, was also associated in Russians (corrected P-value (Pc=0.008, OR=0.44), but did not reach statistical significance in the Bashkir population. Additionally, the haplotype analysis provided that CC haplotype formed by the SNPs rs30461 and rs955155 had a protective effect in Russians (Pc=0.0024, OR=0.44), supporting the involvement of this locus in the protection against psoriasis. Combined meta-analysis of three populations, including 943 psoriasis patients and 812 healthy controls, showed that the IL29 rs30461 C-allele was not associated with decreased risk of psoriasis (P=0.165, OR=0.68). Moreover, stratification of studies by ethnicity revealed a significant association in the European cohort (P=9.506E-006, OR=0.53).
Therefore, there is no overall evidence of association between psoriasis and SNP rs30461 of the IL29 gene, but there is some evidence to suggest that an association exists in Europeans. However, this current concept should be considered as preliminary and the results need to be confirmed in future independent studies.
Analysis of the genome-specific linkage disequilibrium patterns in certain populations is a highly promising approach to the identification of functional variants that underlie susceptibility to complex diseases. In the present study, the linkage disequilibrium patterns of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) were examined in a group of patients with coronary atherosclerosis (coronary artery disease, CAD) and in a control sample from the Russian population. It was demonstrated that in the samples from one population, which were differentiated by the presence or absence of CAD, the MTHFR linkage disequilibrium patterns had similar features. Association of the MTHFR rs7533315 and rs2066462 polymorphisms with CAD was demonstrated. In addition, the evolution of the haplotypes and their role in the formation of CAD in the Russian population was reconstructed. The data on the association between genetic variability in the MTHFR locus and pathogenetically important indices of lipid metabolism were obtained. The high informativeness of the haplotype approach in case-control tests for associations with CAD was demonstrated.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a genetically complex disorder encompassing several individual susceptibility genes with low risk effects. To assess the risk gene effects in a cohort consisting of ~ 1300 Finnish AD patients and controls, 21 candidate gene polymorphisms were selected for genotyping on the basis of the meta-analyses retrieved from the AlzGene database. A significant genotype and allele association with AD was observed with rs1800629 in the tumor necrosis factor a (TNF). Risk analysis revealed a protective effect for the minor allele carriers of rs1800629. This suggests that genetic alteration in TNF gene may play a role in AD.
Genetic variants of angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) are associated with serum triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration in GWASs. ANGPTL3 deficiency causes declined TG, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein B (apoB) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) serum concentration, a phenotype defined as familial combined hypolipidaemia (FHBL2). Our aim is to establish whether ANGPTL3 serum protein concentration correlates with lipoproteins and lipids in hyper- or hypolipidaemic subjects, and whether ANGPTL3 sequence variants are associated with untypical lipid profiles. Additionally, 10 subjects with very low lipoprotein concentrations were sequenced for ANGPTL3 for possible loss-of-function (LOF) variants. Study subjects were selected from Finnish FINRISK and Health 2000 surveys. ANGPTL protein concentrations were measured by ELISA method. As a result, ANGPTL3 serum concentration correlated positively with age, phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activities, but not with any of the lipid or lifestyle attributes. No ANGPTL3 variants were found among sequenced samples. Subjects who carried ANGPTL3 sequence variants rs12563308 (n?=?4) and rs199772471 (n?=?1) had abnormally high TC and LDL-C concentrations. Whole exome sequencing data of these five subjects were further analyzed for rare and deleterious missense variants in genes associated with cholesterol metabolism. In conclusion, ANGPTL3 serum protein concentration did not predict lipid concentrations, unlike apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) which positively correlated with most of the lipid attributes. ANGPTL3 variant screen yielded five carriers with abnormally high TC concentration; the actual genetic causality, however, could not be verified.