Introduction of a human or Syrian hamster X chromosome (derived from BHK-191-5C cell hybrids) into tumorigenic mouse A9 cells via microcell fusion induced changes in cellular morphology and a retardation of cellular growth. The suppression of growth of the hybrids could be abolished, however, by daily changes of medium containing 20% serum. G-banding analysis showed the absence of a single, cytogenetically identifiable, indigenous X chromosome (marker Z) in two of four hybrid clones after an X chromosome was transferred from either hamster or human cells. All hybrids were tumorigenic when tested in nude mice. Together, these data suggest that the loss of the mouse X chromosome took place probably because of growth inhibitory effects imposed on hybrid cells due to the increase in X chromosome dosage. In addition, our results show a lack of association between the phenotype of cellular growth suppression in vitro and the phenotype of suppression of tumorigenicity in vivo.
BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the two major susceptibility genes involved in hereditary breast cancer. This study was undertaken to provide reliable population-based estimates of genetic influence and to characterize the nature and prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations in early-onset breast cancer. METHODS: In a series comprising all women diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of 41 years in southern Sweden during 1990 through 1995 (n = 262), family history of cancer was evaluated in 95% (n = 250) of the case subjects and germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were analyzed in 89% (n = 234). All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: A total of 97 case subjects had at least one first- or second-degree relative with breast or ovarian cancer; 34 (14%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.6% to 18%) cases had at least two first- or second-degree relatives, 22 (8.8%; 95%CI = 5.3% to 12%) had one first-degree relative, and 41 (16%; 95% CI = 12% to 21%) had one second-degree relative with either cancer. If two females affected with breast or ovarian cancer who were related through an unaffected male were also defined as first-degree relatives, then a higher number of case subjects, 120 (48%; 95% CI = 42% to 54%), had at least one first-degree or second-degree relative with breast or ovarian cancer. Sixteen (6.8%; 95% CI = 4.0% to 11%) BRCA1 mutation carriers and five (2.1%; 95% CI = 0.70% to 4.9%) BRCA2 mutation carriers were identified. Among case subjects with one first- or more than one first- or second-degree relative with breast or ovarian cancer, BRCA mutations were more frequent (P
Comment In: J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001 Aug 15;93(16):1188-911504754
Fifty-nine primary breast carcinomas and 11 metastases were examined to identify genetic alterations in the tumour suppressor gene regions 3p, 11p, 13q, 17p, and 17q. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was frequently observed on chromosome arms 17p (p144D6 lost in 75%, pYNZ22.1 in 55%, and TP53 in 48% of the primary tumours), 13q (RBI lost in 40% of the primary tumours), and 17q (pRMU3 lost in 35%, pTHH59 in 29%, and NM23HI in 26% of the primary tumours). Loss of all the markers except p144D6 was observed even more frequently in the metastases. Pairwise comparisons for concordance of allele losses on 17p indicated that there might be two genes on 17p implicated in breast cancer development; the TP53 gene and a gene located close to the p144D6 and pYNZ22.1 markers. LOH of the RBI gene was associated with LOH of pYNZ22.1 and p144D6, but not with LOH of TP53. LOH of RBI and TP53 was associated with occurrence of ductal carcinomas, RBI and p144D6 losses with tumour size, and p144D6 losses with positive node status as well. LOH of TP53 and the three 17q markers NM23HI, pTHH59, and pRMU3 was most frequently observed in tumours from postmenopausal women. p144D6 losses occurred most frequently in progesterone receptor-negative tumours, whereas pTHH59 losses occurred most frequently in oestrogen receptor-negative tumours. LOH of the investigated loci was not associated with ERBB2 protooncogene amplification, with positive family history of breast cancer, or with survival.
Cowden disease (CD) is an autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome associated with an elevated risk for tumours of the breast, thyroid and skin. Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LDD) cosegregates with a subset of CD families and is associated with macrocephaly, ataxia and dysplastic cerebellar gangliocytomatosis. The common feature of these diseases is a predisposition to hamartomas, benign tumours containing differentiated but disorganized cells indigenous to the tissue of origin. Linkage analysis has determined that a single locus within chromosome 10q23 is likely to be responsible for both of these diseases. A candidate tumour suppressor gene (PTEN) within this region is mutated in sporadic brain, breast and prostate cancer. Another group has independently isolated the same gene, termed MMAC1, and also found somatic mutations throughout the gene in advanced sporadic cancers. Mutational analysis of PTEN in CD kindreds has identified germline mutations in four of five families. We found nonsense and missense mutations that are predicted to disrupt the protein tyrosine/dual-specificity phosphatase domain of this gene. Thus, PTEN appears to behave as a tumour suppressor gene in the germline. Our data also imply that PTEN may play a role in organizing the relationship of different cell types within an organ during development.
More than a decade ago an association between acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was reported, but still the cause of the increased prevalence is unknown. Paraffin sections of formalin-fixed HCC from 17 AIP patients were reexamined and also screened for relevant mutations using several methods. The tumor diagnosis was verified, and in several cases precirrhosis and cirrhosis were also found. The clinically founded AIP diagnosis was verified at the gene level in most cases, demonstrating the Norrland type of mutation, i.e., G(593)-to-A substitution in codon 198 of the porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) gene. The second allele was neither mutated nor missing, contradicting the possibility that the PBGD gene might function as a tumor suppressor gene. Subsequent sequencing showed that cases not cleaved by the restriction enzyme NheI lacked the specific Norrland mutation. In recent years, selective mutations at codons 249 and 166 of the p53 gene have been described in HCC associated with aflatoxin and hepatitis B virus. In our area, with low exposure to those agents, no mutations in codon 249 were found, and mutation in codon 166 was excluded in all tumors except one; no traces of hepatitis B DNA were observed. Nor did we find mutations in H-ras 12 or 61. Intrinsic aberrations in AIP, including reduced heme synthesis and endogenous oxidative damage to DNA, may incite carcinogenic mutations elsewhere in the genome of liver cells. The increased cell proliferation coupled to precirrhosis and cirrhosis perhaps represents promotion in the initiation-promotion sequence of hepatocarcinogenesis.
BACKGROUND: In the Western Hemisphere, 90% of bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas, while only 7% are classified as squamous cell carcinomas. In contrast, in Egypt and regions of the Middle East and Africa, where infection by the trematode Schistosoma haematobium is endemic, squamous cell carcinoma is the most common bladder cancer as well as the most common cancer in men. PURPOSE: We planned experiments to understand the genetic defects underlying the development of squamous cell carcinoma and to determine if the morphologically and clinically distinct squamous cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder evolve following different genetic alterations. METHODS: Squamous cell carcinoma specimens from high-risk (Egypt, n = 19) and low-risk (Sweden, n = 12) populations were examined for genetic defects known to be involved in transitional cell carcinoma tumorigenesis. Homozygous deletions of the CDKN2 tumor suppressor gene were detected by comparative multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Mutations in the CDKN2 and p53 (also known as TP53) genes were analyzed by single-strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing. Immunohistochemical staining of p53 protein was also performed. Allelic losses in chromosome arms 9p, 9q, and 17p were determined by microsatellite analysis. RESULTS: Homozygous deletions and sequence mutations in the CDKN2 gene were found in 67% (eight of 12) of squamous cell carcinoma specimens, a frequency three times higher than that reported for uncultured transitional cell carcinomas (P = .009). Hemizygous and homozygous deletions in 9p, where CDKN2 resides, were found in 92% (11 of 12) of uncultured squamous cell carcinomas, while only about 39% (35 of 90) of transitional cell carcinomas showed these losses (P = .001). Deletions in 9p with no change in 9q were found in 92% (10 of 11) of squamous cell carcinomas compared with only 10% (11 of 110) of transitional cell carcinomas (P
Erratum In: J Natl Cancer Inst 1995 Dec 6;87(23):1807
Lack of tumor suppression but induced loss of copies of indigenous chromosome 10 in vitro following microcell-mediated transfer of a deleted human der(9)t(X;9) chromosome to Syrian hamster BHK-191-5C cells.
We have previously shown that microcell-mediated transfer of a der(9)t(X;9) chromosome, containing an almost complete human chromosome (HSA) 9 derived from the human fibroblast strain GM0705, into the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) cell line BHK-191-5C suppressed the anchorage independence and tumorigenicity of the hybrids. Transfer of a normal HSA X did not have any effect on these phenotypes. Although the recipient cell line contained a 1:1 ratio of near-diploid and near-tetraploid cells, all hybrids retaining the der(9) chromosome were near-tetraploid, in contrast to hybrids retaining a normal X chromosome. In the present study, we have generated microcell hybrids by transferring another der(9)t(X;9) chromosome derived from the human fibroblast strain GM01429. This derivative chromosome contained a deletion on the short arm of HSA 9 and was also missing the distal part of the long arm of HSA 9 due to the involvement in a reciprocal (constitutive) translocation of this chromosome with HSA X. Cytogenetic analysis showed that all hybrid clones were near-tetraploid, confirming our previous finding. We also observed that the introduction of the deleted der(9) chromosome forced the hybrids to lose Syrian hamster chromosome 10. A soft agar test and nude mice assay indicated that none of the hybrids was suppressed for either anchorage independent growth or tumor formation. These data suggest that there is an antagonistic relationship between growth-promoting genes and antiproliferative genes. The observed dosage effects of both growth-promoting and growth-suppressing genes indicate that cellular growth may be a quantitative trait.
Breast cancer is rare in men, and family history of the disease is a risk factor. The recently discovered BRCA2 gene on chromosome 13q is thought to account for some families with increased risk of breast cancer, including male breast cancer. We describe a family with multiple cases of male breast cancer but, interestingly, no increase in female breast cancer. Linkage to the BRCA2 region is demonstrated and all the affected men share the same haplotype for the BCRA2 markers and loss of the other alleles in their tumours.