Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease affecting genetically susceptible individuals. A genome-wide association study performed by the International MS Genetics Consortium identified several putative susceptibility genes; among these, the KLRB1 gene is represented by the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs4763655. We could confirm a marginally significant association between rs4763655 and MS (P=0.046, odds ratio=1.06 (1.00-1.13)) in a large Scandinavian case-control study of 5367 MS patients and 4485 controls. The expression of KLRB1 in blood from MS patients was higher compared with healthy controls (P
Cites: Neurology. 2010 May 4;74(18):1455-6220439848
Cites: Am J Hum Genet. 2010 Apr 9;86(4):621-520362272
We have investigated the genetic involvement of the CD4 and the LAG3 genes, two appealing candidates for MS due to their suggested role in MS pathology. We genotyped a Swedish case-control material consisting of 920 MS patients and 778 controls in an initial study of CD4, three SNPs showed a significant association with MS. An independent material consisting of 1720 Nordic MS patients and 1416 controls were used for confirmation of associated markers in CD4 and to do a confirmative study of the LAG3 gene from previous findings. The result, including a total of 2640 MS patients and 2194 controls shows no significant association with CD4 and LAG3 and MS. We conclude that these genes are of minor importance in regard of genetic predisposition to the MS.
A strong genetic influence by the MHC class II region has been reported in sarcoidosis, however in many studies with different results. This may possibly be caused by actual differences between distinct ethnic groups, too small sample sizes, or because of lack of accurate clinical subgrouping.
In this study we HLA typed a large patient population (n = 754) recruited from one single centre. Patients were sub-grouped into those with L?fgren's syndrome (LS) (n = 302) and those without (non-L?fgren's) (n = 452), and the majority of them were clinically classified into those with recovery within two years (resolving) and those with signs of disease for more than two years (non-resolving). PCR was used for determination of HLA-DRB1 alleles. Swedish healthy blood donors (n = 1366) served as controls.
There was a dramatic difference in the distribution of HLA alleles in LS compared to non-LS patients (p = 4 x 10(-36)). Most notably, DRB1*01, DRB1*03 and DRB1*14, clearly differed in LS and non-LS patients. In relation to disease course, DRB1*07, DRB1*14 and DRB1*15 generally associated with, while DRB1*01 and DRB1*03 protected against, a non-resolving disease. Interestingly, the clinical influence of DRB1*03 (good prognosis) dominated over that of DRB1*15 (bad prognosis).
We found several significant differences between LS and non-LS patients and we therefore suggest that genetic association studies in sarcoidosis should include a careful clinical characterisation and sub-grouping of patients, in order to reveal true genetic associations. This may be particularly accurate to do in the heterogeneous non-LS group of patients.
Cites: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2001 Sep;25(3):272-711588003
Cites: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Sep 1;164(5):840-611549543
Cites: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2002 Oct;27(4):406-1212356573
Cites: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2003 Sep;29(3 Suppl):S59-6214503556
Cites: Am J Hum Genet. 2003 Oct;73(4):720-3514508706
Cites: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004 Mar 15;169(6):696-70214656748
A recent high-density linkage screen confirmed that the HLA complex contains the strongest genetic factor for the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). In parallel, a linkage disequilibrium analysis using 650 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers of the HLA complex mapped the entire genetic effect to the HLA-DR-DQ subregion, reflected by the well-established risk haplotype HLA-DRB1*15,DQB1*06. Contrary to this, in a cohort of 1,084 MS patients and 1,347 controls, we show that the HLA-A gene confers an HLA-DRB1 independent influence on the risk of MS (P = 8.4x10(-10)). This supports the opposing view, that genes in the HLA class I region indeed exert an additional influence on the risk of MS, and confirms that the class I allele HLA-A*02 is negatively associated with the risk of MS (OR = 0.63, P = 7x10(-12)) not explained by linkage disequilibrium with class II. The combination of HLA-A and HLA-DRB1 alleles, as represented by HLA-A*02 and HLA-DRB1*15, was found to influence the risk of MS 23-fold. These findings imply complex autoimmune mechanisms involving both the regulatory and the effector arms of the immune system in the triggering of MS.
The presence of oligoclonal bands (OCB) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a typical finding in multiple sclerosis (MS). We applied data from Norwegian, Swedish and Danish (i.e. Scandinavian) MS patients from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to search for genetic differences in MS relating to OCB status. GWAS data was compared in 1367 OCB positive and 161 OCB negative Scandinavian MS patients, and nine of the most associated SNPs were genotyped for replication in 3403 Scandinavian MS patients. HLA-DRB1 genotypes were analyzed in a subset of the OCB positive (n?=?2781) and OCB negative (n?=?292) MS patients and compared to 890 healthy controls. Results from the genome-wide analyses showed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the HLA complex and six other loci were associated to OCB status. In SNPs selected for replication, combined analyses showed genome-wide significant association for two SNPs in the HLA complex; rs3129871 (p?=?5.7×10(-15)) and rs3817963 (p?=?5.7×10(-10)) correlating with the HLA-DRB1*15 and the HLA-DRB1*04 alleles, respectively. We also found suggestive association to one SNP in the Calsyntenin-2 gene (p?=?8.83×10(-7)). In HLA-DRB1 analyses HLA-DRB1*15:01 was a stronger risk factor for OCB positive than OCB negative MS, whereas HLA-DRB1*04:04 was associated with increased risk of OCB negative MS and reduced risk of OCB positive MS. Protective effects of HLA-DRB1*01:01 and HLA-DRB1*07:01 were detected in both groups. The groups were different with regard to age at onset (AAO), MS outcome measures and gender. This study confirms both shared and distinct genetic risk for MS subtypes in the Scandinavian population defined by OCB status and indicates different clinical characteristics between the groups. This suggests differences in disease mechanisms between OCB negative and OCB positive MS with implications for patient management, which need to be further studied.
Genetic variants in Phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) and 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (ALOX5AP) have been shown to confer risk of Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease (ICVD) in Iceland. We investigated whether these variants associate with ICVD in Sweden.
Previously published PDE4D and ALOX5AP gene variants were genotyped for cases (685) and controls (751). In PDE4D this consisted of SNP41, SNP45 and microsatellite AC008818-1 and in ALOX5AP four SNPs that define the HapA haplotype.
The PDE4D SNPs, showed a non-significant risk in the ICVD group which increased for the Large Artery Atherosclerosis subtype (SNP45: RR=1.43, P=0.063, SNP41: RR=1.57, P=0.018). The SNP haplotype GA (SNP45, SNP41) showed an increased risk for LAA (RR=1.58, P=0.016) and the combined LAA and Cardioembolism (CE) (RR=1.34, P=0.031) subgroups. As the SNPs are in strong LD, this haplotype corresponds to the complement of the protective haplotype in the Icelandic study. No allele of the microsatellite marker, showed association to stroke or any subtype and nor did the Icelandic PDE4D at-risk haplotype (GA0). We did not confirm the association between ALOX5AP HapA haplotype and ICVD, but a non-significant risk was observed in the LAA subtype.
Our PDE4D findings although non-significant considering the number of markers and phenotypes tested, are consistent with the association observed in the original study, with a trend observed in the whole ICVD group, which was strengthened in the stroke subtype LAA and the combined group of LAA and CE stroke. This supports the notion that PDE4D contributes to the risk of developing stroke.
Both genetic and environmental factors display low or modest associations with multiple sclerosis. Hypothetically, gene-environment interactions may exert much stronger effects. In this study, we investigated potential interactions between genetic risk factors and smoking in relation to risk of developing multiple sclerosis. A population-based case-control study involving incident cases of multiple sclerosis (843 cases, 1209 controls) was performed in Sweden. Cases and controls were classified according to their smoking status and human leukocyte antigen DRB1 as well as human leukocyte antigen A genotypes. Subjects with different genotypes and smoking habits were compared with regard to incidence of multiple sclerosis, by calculating odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals employing logistic regression. The potential interaction between different genotypes, as well as between genotype and smoking, was evaluated by calculating attributable proportion due to interaction. A significant interaction between two genetic risk factors, carriage of human leukocyte antigen DRB1*15 and absence of human leukocyte antigen A*02, was observed among smokers whereas such an interaction was absent among non-smokers. There were considerable differences in odds ratios between the various groups. Compared with non-smokers with neither of the genetic risk factors, the odds ratio was 13.5 (8.1-22.6) for smokers with both genetic risk factors. The odds ratio for smokers without genetic risk was 1.4 (0.9-2.1) and the odds ratio for non-smokers with both genetic risk factors was 4.9 (3.6-6.6). Among those with both genetic risk factors, smoking increased the risk by a factor of 2.8 in comparison with a factor of 1.4 among those without the genetic risk factors. The risk of developing multiple sclerosis associated with human leukocyte antigen genotypes may be strongly influenced by smoking status. The findings are consistent with our hypothesis that priming of the immune response in the lungs may subsequently lead to multiple sclerosis in genetically susceptible people.
The risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) is influenced by HLA-DRB1, while protective effects have been proposed for HLA-A*02 and HLA-C*05. Our aim was to further understand the role of HLA class I in MS through a comprehensive investigation.
1529 MS patients and 1814 controls from Sweden and Norway were genotyped for HLA-DRB1, HLA-A, and HLA-C. Simultaneous analysis of all alleles while adjusting for confounding was achieved using logistic regression.
We observed independent effects of all three genes. We confirm the HLA-A*02 (OR=0.73, p=9.2 x 10(-4)) association and report a novel effect of HLA-C*08 (OR=1.85, p=0.0093).
The HLA class I region contains two factors modulating MS risk, characterized by independent associations with HLA-A and HLA-C.
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, often disabling, disease of the central nervous system affecting more than 1 in 1,000 people in most western countries. The inflammatory lesions typical of multiple sclerosis show autoimmune features and depend partly on genetic factors. Of these genetic factors, only the HLA gene complex has been repeatedly confirmed to be associated with multiple sclerosis, despite considerable efforts. Polymorphisms in a number of non-HLA genes have been reported to be associated with multiple sclerosis, but so far confirmation has been difficult. Here, we report compelling evidence that polymorphisms in IL7R, which encodes the interleukin 7 receptor alpha chain (IL7Ralpha), indeed contribute to the non-HLA genetic risk in multiple sclerosis, demonstrating a role for this pathway in the pathophysiology of this disease. In addition, we report altered expression of the genes encoding IL7Ralpha and its ligand, IL7, in the cerebrospinal fluid compartment of individuals with multiple sclerosis.