Distances computed from vital statistics using the Euclid formula and thus termed "vital" are proposed for use in population studies. An example of use of these statistics for comparison of four large geographically separated Russian populations is given.
Transferrin (Tf) C subtypes were determined in 419 unrelated adult Finns. The calculated gene frequencies were C1 = 0.738, C2 = 0.097 and C3 = 0.133. The Tf phenotypes in 150 mother-child pairs were in accordance with autosomal codominant inheritance. This material included a rare TfC allele product in three individuals, apparently the same in all cases.
A map of gene migration rate m in the indigenous population of Siberia and the Russian Far East was constructed on the basis of data obtained from questionnaires of 1960 to 1990. The mean gene migration rate weighted with respect to the region area and averaged over 3951 grid nodes was m = 0.0083. Weighting with respect to population density yielded a significantly lower rate (m = 0.0053), which reflected a more intense gene exchange in less populous regions of traditional nomadism. The association between gene migration rate m and genetically effective population size Ne was analyzed. The parameter Nem, which characterizes the interpopulation gene diversity, was used to identify regions where this parameter is autoregulated and those where the autoregulatory mechanisms were disrupted. A tree of ethnolinguistic types was constructed. Its analysis did not reveal any association between migration structure and linguistic characteristics, suggesting that the spreading of cultural elements is not necessarily associated with migration. The tree was also used to construct a map of ethnos-forming migration; its major element reflected migration from the Baikal and Altai regions to the ethnic region of modern Yakuts.
Statistics are presented on the incidence of blood groups of 6 systems in the population of the Udmurt Republic. The data are compared with the results of similar surveys in other regions of the Russian Federation.
Subdivision of some isolates and heterogenic populations in Daghestan is analysed by human gene and phen frequencies. Comparative population study of phenotypic variability of quantitative characters (anthropometric, neurodynamic and psychodynamic) is carried out. Common hierarchy of variability for all populations as well as an effect of inbreeding and panmixis on variability of the above-mentioned quantitative characters in different populations is demonstrated.
Individual differences with respect to the sneezing reflex are described. Visual exposure to strong light may induce a sneezing reaction in about 20% of the individuals in the Swedish population. Preliminary data indicate that the ' sneezer trait' may be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. The eventual selective advantage of ST is discussed.
The chemokine receptor CCR5 constitutes the major coreceptor for the macrophage-tropic strains of HIV-1. A mutant allele of the CCR5 gene called delta32 was shown to provide strong resistance to homozygotes against infection by HIV. The frequency of the delta32 allele was investigated in 2522 noninfected unrelated individuals from 16 different European populations. The delta32 allele was found in all populations studied, with a mean frequency of about 9.1%. A north-to-south gradient correlating latitude with delta32 allelic frequencies was found (r = 0.726), with highest allele frequencies in Denmark and Northern France, and the lowest allele frequencies in Corsica.
The distribution of carriers of the gene for Sjögren-Larsson syndrome in Sweden suggests a center of dispersion in the county of Västerbotten in Northern Sweden. The origin of the spread of the gene can be traced back at least 700 years.