Genetical control of the enzymes GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP and LAP has been studied in nine natural Carpathian populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) using polyacrylamide gel elecrophoresis and analysis of isozyme variability in 346 trees. Seventy one allel products of 20 gene loci have been clearly established. Segregation analysis of the revealed allele variants confirms their monogenic inheritance.
17 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17HSDs) regulate the biological activity of sex steroid hormones in a variety of tissues by catalyzing the interconversions between highly active steroid hormones, e.g. estradiol and testosterone, and corresponding less active hormones, estrone and androstenedione. Epidemiological and endocrine evidence indicates that estrogens play a role in the etiology of breast cancer, while androgens are involved in mechanisms controlling the growth of normal and malignant prostatic cells. Using LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines, we have developed a cell model to study the progression of prostate cancer. In the model LNCaP cells are transformed in culture condition into more aggressive cells. Our data suggest that substantial changes in androgen and estrogen metabolism occur in the cells, leading to increased production of active estrogens during the process. In breast cancer, the reductive 17HSD type 1 activity is predominant in malignant cells, while the oxidative 17HSD type 2 mainly seems to be present in non-malignant breast epithelial cells. Deprivation of an estrogen response by using specific 17HSD type 1 inhibitors is a tempting approach in treating estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Our recent studies demonstrate that in addition to sex hormone target tissues, estrogens may be important in the development of cancer in some other tissues previously not considered to be estrogen target tissues, such as the gastrointestinal tract.
Genetic analysis of variation demands large numbers of individuals and even larger numbers of genotypes. The identification of alleles associated with Mendelian disorders has involved sample sizes of a thousand or more. Pervasive and common diseases that afflict human populations--cancer, heart disease, diabetes, neurodegeneration, addiction--are all polygenic and are even more demanding of large numbers. DeCode Genetics (http://www.decode.com) has harnessed the human resources of Iceland to unravel genetic and molecular causes of complex disease. The UK BioBank project (http://www.ukbiobank.ac.uk/) will incorporate 500,000 adult volunteers. The murine Collaborative Cross is the experimental equivalent of these human populations and will consist of a panel of approximately 1000 recombinant strains, expandable by intercrossing to much larger numbers of isogenic but heterozygous F(1)s. Massive projects of these types require efficient technologies. We have made enormous progress on the genotyping front, and it is now important to focus energy on devising ultrahigh-throughput methods to phenotype. Molecular phenotyping of the transcriptome has matured, and it is now possible to acquire hundreds of thousands of mRNA phenotypes at a cost matching those of SNPs. Proteomic and cell-based assays are also maturing rapidly. The acquisition of a personal genome along with a personal molecular phenome will provide an effective foundation for personalized medicine. Rodent models will be essential to test our ability to predict susceptibility and disease outcome using SNP data, molecular phenomes, and environmental exposures. These models will also be essential to test new treatments in a robust systems context that accounts for genetic variation.
Drought (water-deficit) stress is a serious environmental problem in plant growth and cultivation. As one of widely cultivated warm-season turfgrass, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.) exhibits drastic natural variation in the drought stress resistance in leaves and stems of different varieties. In this study, proteomic analysis was performed to identify drought-responsive proteins in both leaves and stems of two bermudagrass varieties contrasting in drought stress resistance, including drought sensitive variety (Yukon) and drought tolerant variety (Tifgreen). Through comparative proteomic analysis, 39 proteins with significantly changed abundance were identified, including 3 commonly increased and 2 decreased proteins by drought stress in leaves and stems of Yukon and Tifgreen varieties, 2 differentially regulated proteins in leaves and stems of two varieties after drought treatment, 23 proteins increased by drought stress in Yukon variety and constitutively expressed in Tifgreen variety, and other 3 differentially expressed proteins under control and drought stress conditions. Among them, proteins involved in photosynthesis (PS), glycolysis, N-metabolism, tricarboxylicacid (TCA) and redox pathways were largely enriched, which might be contributed to the natural variation of drought resistance between Yukon and Tifgreen varieties. These studies provide new insights to understand the molecular mechanism underlying bermudagrass response to drought stress.
Considered are our own data and those found in literature on the properties of yeast mutants impaired in their ability to utilize methanol as sole carbon and energy source; hypotheses about the role of alcohol oxidase and citrate synthase in biogenesis of peroxisomes are proposed. It has been proved that formaldehyde reductase participates in the control of the formaldehyde level in the cell. Properties of mutants defective in the catabolite repression and inactivation of enzymes of methanol metabolism are described. The existence of several autonomous mechanisms of the catabolite repression of alcohol oxidase has been shown. It has been found, that the induction of glyoxysomal enzymes of C2-metabolism is repressed by methanol in the ecr1 mutant of Pichia pinus with the affected repression of alcohol oxidase by ethanol. Data are presented on the regulatory properties of the recently discovered acidification system of the medium induced by methanol. Such acidification occurs due to symport extrusion of protons and formate anions from the cells.
Plant class III peroxidases (POXs) take part in the formation of lignin and maturation of plant cell walls. However, only a few examples of such peroxidases from gymnosperm tree species with highly lignified xylem tracheids have been implicated so far. We report here cDNA cloning of three xylem-expressed class III peroxidase encoding genes from Norway spruce (Picea abies). The translated proteins, PX1, PX2 and PX3, contain the conserved amino acids required for heme-binding and peroxidase catalysis. They all begin with putative secretion signal propeptide sequences but diverge substantially at phylogenetic level, grouping to two subclusters when aligned with other class III plant peroxidases. In situ hybridization analysis on expression of the three POXs in Norway spruce seedlings showed that mRNA coding for PX1 and PX2 accumulated in the cytoplasm of young, developing tracheids within the current growth ring where lignification is occurring. Function of the putative N-terminal secretion signal peptides for PX1, PX2 and PX3 was confirmed by constructing chimeric fusions with EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) and expressing them in tobacco protoplasts. Full-length coding region of px1 was also heterologously expressed in Catharanthus roseus hairy root cultures. Thus, at least the spruce PX1 peroxidase is processed via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) most likely for secretion to the cell wall. Thereby, PX1 displays correct spatiotemporal localization for participation in the maturation of the spruce tracheid secondary cell wall.
Extended-spectrum cephalosporinase resistance is currently the fastest emerging antimicrobial resistance problem worldwide; however, evidence documenting the effect of potential risk factors is limited. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of using third and fourth generation cephalosporins on the occurrence of extended-spectrum cephalosporinase-producing Escherichia coli (ESC-Ec) in Danish pig herds. Conventional, integrated, medium to large herds were selected based on information from the Danish Central Husbandry Register and two groups were formed based on the use of third and fourth generation cephalosporins within a specified period, namely, 20 herds with no cephalosporin use (non-exposed) and 19 herds with frequent use (exposed). Data on prescribed antimicrobials were obtained from the National database (VetStat). Management data were obtained through a questionnaire. At the herd level, three pooled faecal samples were collected from sows with their piglets (farrowing pens), weaners, and finishers. ESC-Ec were then identified using selective enrichment. Because several of the herds only had a low number of weaners and/or finishers, analysis was only performed on samples from the farrowing pens. Logistic regression showed a significant effect of using cephalosporins-III/IV on the occurrence of ESC-Ec in the farrowing pens, even when adjusted for use of other antimicrobials 1 year prior to sampling. No confounding effect was identified in relation to management data. The relative risk ESC-Ec in exposed compared to non-exposed was 4.7 (95% confidence interval 2.0-11.5), confirming that regular use of cephalosporins-III/IV was a significant risk factor for the occurrence of ESC-Ec.
Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato is a serious pathogen causing root and stem rot to conifers in the northern hemisphere and rendering the timber defective for sawing and pulping. In this study we applied next-generation sequencing to i) identify transcriptional responses unique to Heterobasidion-inoculated Norway spruce and ii) investigate the H. annosum transcripts to identify putative virulence factors. To address these objectives we wounded or inoculated 30-year-old Norway spruce clones with H. annosum and 454-sequenced the transcriptome of the interaction at 0, 5 and 15 days post inoculation. The 491,860 high-quality reads were de novo assembled and the relative expression was analysed. Overall, very few H. annosum transcripts were represented in our dataset. Three delta-12 fatty acid desaturase transcripts and one Clavaminate synthase-like transcript, both associated with virulence in other pathosystems, were found among the significantly induced transcripts. The analysis of the Norway spruce transcriptional responses produced a handful of differentially expressed transcripts. Most of these transcripts originated from genes known to respond to H. annosum. However, three genes that had not previously been reported to respond to H. annosum showed specific induction to inoculation: an oxophytodienoic acid-reductase (OPR), a beta-glucosidase and a germin-like protein (GLP2) gene. Even in a small data set like ours, five novel highly expressed Norway spruce transcripts without significant alignment to any previously annotated protein in Genbank but present in the P. abies (v1.0) gene catalogue were identified. Their expression pattern suggests a role in defence. Therefore a more complete survey of the transcriptional responses in the interactions between Norway spruce and its major pathogen H. annosum would probably provide a better understanding of gymnosperm defence than accumulated until now.
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Cites: Nature. 2013 May 30;497(7451):579-8423698360
Knowledge of which genes and pathways are affected by inbreeding may help understanding the genetic basis of inbreeding depression, the potential for purging (selection against deleterious recessive alleles), and the transition from outcrossing to selfing. Arabidopsis lyrata is a predominantly self-incompatible perennial plant, closely related to the selfing model species A. thaliana. To examine how inbreeding affects gene expression, we compared the transcriptome of experimentally selfed and outcrossed A. lyrata originating from two Scandinavian populations that express similar inbreeding depression for fitness (? ˜ 0.80). The number of genes significantly differentially expressed between selfed and outcrossed individuals were 2.5 times higher in the Norwegian population (˜ 500 genes) than in the Swedish population (˜ 200 genes). In both populations, a majority of genes were upregulated on selfing (˜ 80%). Functional annotation analysis of the differentially expressed genes showed that selfed offspring were characterized by 1) upregulation of stress-related genes in both populations and 2) upregulation of photosynthesis-related genes in Sweden but downregulation in Norway. Moreover, we found that reproduction- and pollination-related genes were affected by inbreeding only in Norway. We conclude that inbreeding causes both general and population-specific effects. The observed common effects suggest that inbreeding generally upregulates rather than downregulates gene expression and affects genes associated with stress response and general metabolic activity. Population differences in the number of affected genes and in effects on the expression of photosynthesis-related genes show that the genetic basis of inbreeding depression can differ between populations with very similar levels of inbreeding depression.
Cites: Nature. 1992 Jan 2;355(6355):33-451731198
Cites: Biol Lett. 2014 Sep;10(9). pii: 20140648. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2014.064825232028
Gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus (E. robustus), is a single member of the family Eschrichtiidae, which is considered to be the most primitive in the class Cetacea. Gray whale is often described as a "living fossil". It is adapted to extreme marine conditions and has a high life expectancy (77 years). The assembly of a gray whale genome and transcriptome will allow to carry out further studies of whale evolution, longevity, and resistance to extreme environment.
In this work, we report the first de novo assembly and primary analysis of the E. robustus genome and transcriptome based on kidney and liver samples. The presented draft genome assembly is complete by 55% in terms of a total genome length, but only by 24% in terms of the BUSCO complete gene groups, although 10,895 genes were identified. Transcriptome annotation and comparison with other whale species revealed robust expression of DNA repair and hypoxia-response genes, which is expected for whales.
This preliminary study of the gray whale genome and transcriptome provides new data to better understand the whale evolution and the mechanisms of their adaptation to the hypoxic conditions.
Cites: Bioinformatics. 2015 Jan 15;31(2):166-9 PMID 25260700