This paper examines a number of demographic and sociocultural factors (e.g., age, marital status, family size, religion, religious assiduity, sex-role ideology) as predictors of women's attitudes toward abortion, using data from the Canadian Fertility Survey of 1984. The findings suggest that women's abortion attitudes are to a greater extent based on ideological positions. It appears that anti-abortion stance affects those women who are religious, presumably by increasing the relationship between their general sex-role ideological stances and abortion attitudes. Abortion attitudes also vary according to a woman's education, her size, and province/region of residence.
The phenomenon of acculturation stress is described with particular reference to the subsequent development of the transitional role conflict. The adolescent and young adult male Eskimo is especially susceptible to the anxiety generated by the process of acculturation and it is the interaction of this external stress with the bio-psychosocial characteristics of the individual within his ecological group, that may lead to an increased incidence of mental disorder. The clinical picture that develops will depend on the complex interaction of this psychosocial stressor and the level of ego development and its accompanying defence and coping strategies. We see how the development of manifest psychopathology in two young Inuit males was intimately associated with the stresses of acculturation acting upon personalities characterized by a low self-esteem and negative self-image, feelings of emasculation and a state of anomie. Coping and defensive strategies exhibited both similarities (drugs, alcohol, withdrawal, actin out) and differences (psychosis versus dissociation). The value of modified supportive therapy with continuity of care aimed at increasing self-esteem through sublimation, identification, reduction of dependency and encouragement of growth and autonomy is described, as are measures aimed at primary prevention.
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 2319.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate activity during unemployment and the relationship between such activity and mental health in a sample (n = 213) of unemployed Norwegians. The results indicate that the unemployed are generally more passive than the average population, and that they are considerably less involved in social activities. However, the unemployed do not constitute a homogeneous group in terms of activity level and activity profile. Women were somewhat more active that men, particularly in connection with domestic chores. Young people were more active than the other age groups, particularly in connection with extra-familial activities. Several significant relationships were found between different activity categories and mental health. The more active the unemployed were, the better their mental health. The results are discussed in relation to similar data for the average population, other unemployment research, subjective and objective factors which can be of importance to the activity level and profile of the unemployed, sex role issues, theoretical models developed to explain and understand the effects of unemployment, methodological considerations, and the possible functions of activity for mental health.
The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of being a father to a prematurely born infant. Eight fathers of prematurely born children were interviewed using a narrative approach, and a thematic content analysis was used to analyse the interviews. The fathers described that the preterm birth gave them the chance to get to know their infant as they had to spend time at the intensive care unit. They also felt better educated by professionals who helped them take care of their infant. Their feelings and attachment for their infant increased over time and the fathers felt that they had a stronger bond with their child compared with friends who had babies born at term. As time passed, they became more confident as a father. In spite of the strain, the experience made them change as a person and they expressed having different values. The relationship with their partner was strengthened as they handled this situation together as a couple. However, the fathers felt fortunate despite everything and described having managed a prematurely born infant rather well. Although there are similarities between being a father to a child born at term and to one born preterm, it is significant to gain further knowledge about the specific experiences of fathers of prematurely born infants. The results of this study have implications for nurses working with families who have children born prematurely.
The study examines the social and cultural experiences of adolescent female belonging to various south Asian immigrant groups in Canada. Applying qualitative research method, the authors interviewed 22 adolescent girls of Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin in Montreal. Like other immigrant communities, south Asian families undergo acculturation stress. South Asians tend to integrate secular European cultural elements with their culture; however, family and community structure remain male dominated. The study showed that gender roles were maintained through gender segregation, control over social activities of girls and arranged marriage. Interviewees felt that their parents and communities have more stringent rules for female socialization than any other community in Canada. The study also found that adolescent girls perceived high social cost attached to protest and dissent, therefore, they accept prevalent conditions and expect to change social situation gradually. Some adolescents undergo stress resulting in behavioral problems.
The aim of this study was to examine ego identity status among Swedish adolescents using the EOM-EIS-II. Identity status scores and distributions were examined for 222 (108 female, 114 male) Swedish high school students. Identity status differences were found between genders. There was a greater likelihood of female adolescents being categorized as moratoriums than were males, and there was a greater likelihood of males being categorized as diffusions than were females. Statistically significant differences were found between genders on the following subscales: moratorium, foreclosure, and diffusion. No statistically significant differences were found between females and males on the identity achievement subscale. To achieve a preliminary construct validation of the results from the EOM-EIS-II, four of the 222 participants were also assessed using Marcia's identity status interview. A fairly good accordance between the interview assessment of identity status and the EOM-EIS-II assessment were found. Interview results showed differences between the interviewers on each subscale (IA, M, F, and D). The same differences were detected on three of four subscales when assessing these individuals' identity statuses using the EOM-EIS-II.
Six hundred young adolescents (11 to 16 years old) from 4 countries (Guatemala, Iceland, Mexico, and the United States) ranked the importance of 10 qualities of the opposite-sex ideal person. Those from the United States responded in an individualistic fashion; they ranked being fun, being sexy, and having considerable money as important for the ideal. Those from Guatemala responded in a collectivistic fashion; they ranked liking children as important, but being fun and good looking as unimportant. Adolescents from Mexico and Iceland reported patterns of values not clearly associated with either collectivism or individualism.
The present study investigated associations in gender dyads of parents' and adolescents' time spent on television and video viewing (TV/DVD), and computer and electronic game use (PC/games) at the ages of 11 and 13 years. Possible mediating effects of parental modelling and parental regulation in the relationship between parental education and adolescents' prospective TV/DVD and PC/game time were further examined.
A total of 908 adolescents, participating at both ages 11 and 13 years in the Norwegian HEalth In Adolescents (HEIA) cohort study (2007-2009), were included in the analyses. Data on adolescents', mothers' and fathers' self reported time spent on TV/DVD and PC/games were measured at both time points by questionnaires. Correlation coefficients were used to examine gender dyads of parents' and adolescents' reports. Mediation analyses using linear regression investigated possible mediation effects of parental modelling and parental regulation in the prospective relationship between parental education and adolescents' time spent on TV/DVD and PC/games between the ages of 11 and 13 years.
Correlations of screen time behaviours in gender dyads of parents and adolescents showed significant associations in time spent on TV/DVD at the age of 11 and 13 years. Associations between mothers and sons and between fathers and daughters were also observed in time spent on PC/games at the age of 11 years. Maternal and paternal modelling was further found to mediate the relationship between parental education and adolescents' prospective TV/DVD time between the ages of 11 and 13 years. No mediation effect was observed for parental regulation, however a decrease in both maternal and paternal regulation at the age of 11 years significantly predicted more TV/DVD time among adolescents at the age of 13 years.
Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships were observed in gender dyads of parents' and adolescents' screen time behaviours at the ages of 11 and 13 years, and further studies including both parents and their children should be emphasized. Moreover, maternal and paternal modelling were found to be important target variables in interventions aiming to reduce social differences by parental education in adolescents' prospective time spent on TV/DVD.
To test the hypothesis that adoptees are overrepresented among a sample of clinic-referred boys with gender identity problems (N = 238). To compare the adoptees and nonadoptees on demographic, behaviour problem, and gender-typed measures.
The percentage of clinic-referred boys with gender identity problems adopted in the first 2 years of life ("early adoptees") was compared to the base rate of boys adopted in Ontario. Parent-report and behavioural measures were used to compare the early adoptees with "late adoptees" (adopted after the second year of life) and nonadoptees.
The percentage of boys with gender identity problems who were early adoptees (7.6%) was significantly higher than the base rate of males adopted in Ontario in the first 2 years of life (1.5%). Both the early and late adoptees were significantly less intelligent than the nonadoptees. The early adoptees also had significantly higher externalizing T scores on the Child Behavior Checklist than did the late adoptees and the nonadoptees. The 3 groups did not differ in the percentage who met the complete Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria for gender identity disorder and on 4 other measures of gender-typed behaviour.
Adoptees are overrepresented among clinic-referred boys with gender identity problems. The reasons for this finding are not clear but may be accounted for by general risk factors that increase the likelihood of clinical referral or by psychosocial and biological factors associated with adoption.