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Antifreeze activity in the gastrointestinal fluids of Arctogadus glacialis (Peters 1874) is dependent on food type.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4728
Source
J Exp Biol. 2005 Jul;208(Pt 13):2609-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2005
Author
Kim Praebel
Hans Ramløv
Author Affiliation
University of Tromsø, Norwegian College of Fishery Science, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway. kim.praebel@nfh.uit.no
Source
J Exp Biol. 2005 Jul;208(Pt 13):2609-13
Date
Jul-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antifreeze Proteins - metabolism
Cations - metabolism
Comparative Study
Diet
Digestion - physiology
Electrophoresis
Fishes - metabolism - physiology
Gastrointestinal Tract - metabolism
Greenland
Osmolar Concentration
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Transition Temperature
Abstract
The influence of two food types, Boreogadus saida (Bs) and crustaceans (Cr), on the osmolality, ion concentrations, antifreeze activity and antifreeze glycoprotein (AFGP) distribution in the gastrointestinal fluids of the Arctic gadoid Arctogadus glacialis was determined. The gastrointestinal fluids were hyperosmotic to serum but no significant differences in osmolality were found between the two food types. The food type significantly affected the antifreeze activity of the mid-gut fluids. The hysteresis freezing points, -3.27+/-0.30 degrees C and -2.44+/-0.11 degrees C for B. saida and crustaceans, respectively, were significantly lower than that of serum (-1.99+/-0.07 degrees C). Furthermore, an exceptionally large thermal hysteresis ranging from 1.47+/-0.19 degrees C to 2.04+/-0.30 degrees C was observed in the intestinal fluids of fish feeding on B. saida. Native gel electrophoresis revealed that the gastrointestinal fluids contained AFGPs in all the different size groups. However, differences in band intensities for the two food types suggest that the ingested food has an influence on the concentration of the different AFGP-sizes in these fluids. A decrease in band intensities combined with a drop in thermal hysteresis from mid-gut to hind-gut fluid suggests that absorption of AFGP or possibly degradation occur during digestion.
PubMed ID
15961746 View in PubMed
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Concentrations of inorganic elements in 20 municipal waters in Sweden before and after treatment--links to human health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82503
Source
Environ Geochem Health. 2006 Jun;28(3):215-29
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2006
Author
Rosborg I.
Nihlgård B.
Gerhardsson L.
Sverdrup H.
Author Affiliation
Institute of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, SE-223 62, Lund, Sweden. rosborg@spray.se
Source
Environ Geochem Health. 2006 Jun;28(3):215-29
Date
Jun-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Gastrointestinal Tract - metabolism
Humans
Inorganic Chemicals - analysis
Minerals - metabolism
Seasons
Sensitivity and specificity
Sweden
Water Supply - analysis
Abstract
The water chemistry of 20 municipal water treatment plants in southern Sweden, representing various bedrock situations, and water qualities, were investigated. Four water samples, raw and treated, were collected from each plant and analyzed by predominantly ICP-OES and ICP-MS at four occasions from June to December, 2001. The concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, Na, HCO(3) and a number of micronutrients, varied considerably in treated waters from the studied plants (ranges; Ca: 9.1-53.7 mg L(-1), Mg: 1.4-10.9 mg L(-1), K: 1.1-4.8 mg L(-1), Na; 5.4-75.6 mg L(-1), HCO(3): 27-217 mg L(-1)). The elimination of Fe and Mn from raw water was efficient in all treatments investigated, giving concentrations in treated waters below the detection limits at some plants. Softening filters gave waters with Ca-concentrations comparable to the softest waters in this study. Adjustment of pH by use of chemicals like lye, soda or lime, modified the consumer water composition significantly, besides raising the pH. It was estimated that drinking water contributed to approximately 2.2-13% of the daily Ca uptake, if the gastrointestinal uptake efficiency from food and water was estimated to be around 50%. The corresponding figures for Mg was 1.0-7% and for F 0-59%. None of the studied elements showed any significant time trends in raw or treated waters during the follow-up period. The concentrations of potentially toxic metals such as Al, Pb and U were low and did not indicate risks for adverse health effects (ranges; Al: 0.5-2.3 microg L(-1), Pb: 0-0.3 microg L(-1), U: 0.2.5 microg L(-1)).
PubMed ID
16607567 View in PubMed
Less detail

Dermatitis Herpetiformis: A Common Extraintestinal Manifestation of Coeliac Disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295689
Source
Nutrients. 2018 May 12; 10(5):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
May-12-2018
Author
Timo Reunala
Teea T Salmi
Kaisa Hervonen
Katri Kaukinen
Pekka Collin
Author Affiliation
Celiac Disease Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, 33014 Tampere, Finland. timo.reunala@uta.fi.
Source
Nutrients. 2018 May 12; 10(5):
Date
May-12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Biopsy
Celiac Disease - complications - diagnosis - diet therapy
Dermatitis Herpetiformis - diagnosis - diet therapy - etiology
Diet, Gluten-Free
Epidermis - enzymology
Finland
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Gastrointestinal Tract - metabolism
Humans
Immunoglobulin A - metabolism
Incidence
Prevalence
Transglutaminases - metabolism
United Kingdom
Abstract
Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is a common extraintestinal manifestation of coeliac disease presenting with itchy papules and vesicles on the elbows, knees, and buttocks. Overt gastrointestinal symptoms are rare. Diagnosis of DH is easily confirmed by immunofluorescence biopsy showing pathognomonic granular immunoglobulin A (IgA) deposits in the papillary dermis. A valid hypothesis for the immunopathogenesis of DH is that it starts from latent or manifest coeliac disease in the gut and evolves into an immune complex deposition of high avidity IgA epidermal transglutaminase (TG3) antibodies, together with the TG3 enzyme, in the papillary dermis. The mean age at DH diagnosis has increased significantly in recent decades and presently is 40?50 years. The DH to coeliac disease prevalence ratio is 1:8 in Finland and the United Kingdom (U.K.). The annual DH incidence rate, currently 2.7 per 100,000 in Finland and 0.8 per 100,000 in the U.K., is decreasing, whereas the reverse is true for coeliac disease. The long-term prognosis of DH patients on a gluten-free diet is excellent, with the mortality rate being even lower than for the general population.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29757210 View in PubMed
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[Diabetes mellitus and functional and structural changes in the gastrointestinal tract: a clinical and epidemiological study (a review and the authors' data)].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature135006
Source
Ter Arkh. 2011;83(2):71-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Ia S Tsimmerman
M R Zinnatullin
Source
Ter Arkh. 2011;83(2):71-5
Date
2011
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biological Markers - metabolism
Diabetes Mellitus - metabolism - pathology - physiopathology
Disease Progression
Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal - methods
Gastrointestinal Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Gastrointestinal Tract - metabolism - pathology - physiopathology
Humans
Incidence
Intestinal Mucosa - metabolism - pathology
Russia
Abstract
The paper presents the currently available data on the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), its complications, including functional and structural changes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). A range of unsolved problems associated with the frequency, pattern and mechanisms of gastric functional and structural disorders in DM; the cause-and-effect relationship between DM and upper GIT pathology; and the role of Helicobacter pylori in the development of gastroduodenal mucosal changes in the presence of DM are described. The authors give the results of their own studies on 2 groups of patients with DM: (1) 463 patients treated for GIT pathology in a specialized gastroenterology unit; (2) 1500 patients were followed up by a polyclinic endocrinologist. The study has shown that the number of diabetic patients with GIT dysfunction complaints constantly increases. Ulcerative erosive lesions were detected in 36.6% of the inpatients with DM and only in 1.9 and 3.2% of the outpatients with Types 1 and 2, respectively; moreover, the patients with Type 2 DM more frequently complained of epigastralgia than those with Type 1 DM.
PubMed ID
21516855 View in PubMed
Less detail

Ethanolamine controls expression of genes encoding components involved in interkingdom signaling and virulence in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124354
Source
MBio. 2012;3(3)
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Melissa M Kendall
Charley C Gruber
Christopher T Parker
Vanessa Sperandio
Author Affiliation
Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas, USA.
Source
MBio. 2012;3(3)
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Escherichia coli Infections - metabolism - microbiology
Escherichia coli O157 - genetics - metabolism - pathogenicity
Escherichia coli Proteins - genetics - metabolism
Ethanolamine - metabolism
Gastrointestinal Tract - metabolism - microbiology
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Humans
Signal Transduction
Virulence
Abstract
Bacterial pathogens must be able to both recognize suitable niches within the host for colonization and successfully compete with commensal flora for nutrients in order to establish infection. Ethanolamine (EA) is a major component of mammalian and bacterial membranes and is used by pathogens as a carbon and/or nitrogen source in the gastrointestinal tract. The deadly human pathogen enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) uses EA in the intestine as a nitrogen source as a competitive advantage for colonization over the microbial flora. Here we show that EA is not only important for nitrogen metabolism but that it is also used as a signaling molecule in cell-to-cell signaling to activate virulence gene expression in EHEC. EA in concentrations that cannot promote growth as a nitrogen source can activate expression of EHEC's repertoire of virulence genes. The EutR transcription factor, known to be the receptor of EA, is only partially responsible for this regulation, suggesting that yet another EA receptor exists. This important link of EA with metabolism, cell-to-cell signaling, and pathogenesis, highlights the fact that a fundamental means of communication within microbial communities relies on energy production and processing of metabolites. Here we show for the first time that bacterial pathogens not only exploit EA as a metabolite but also coopt EA as a signaling molecule to recognize the gastrointestinal environment and promote virulence expression.
In order to successfully cause disease, a pathogen must be able to sense a host environment and modulate expression of its virulence genes as well as compete with the indigenous microbiota for nutrients. Ethanolamine (EA) is present in the large intestine due to the turnover of intestinal cells. Here, we show that the human pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7, which causes bloody diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome, regulates virulence gene expression through EA metabolism and by responding to EA as a signal. These findings provide the first information directly linking EA with bacterial pathogenesis.
Notes
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Comment In: MBio. 2012;3(4):e00172-1222761393
PubMed ID
22589288 View in PubMed
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[Experimental simulation of the structure of gastrointestinal microbial biocenosis].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146425
Source
Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 2010;(12):27-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
E A Bogdanova
Iu V Nesvizhinskii
A A Korolev
Source
Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 2010;(12):27-30
Date
2010
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Feed
Animals
Bacteria - drug effects - growth & development - isolation & purification - metabolism - pathogenicity
Biota
Calcium, Dietary - administration & dosage - agonists
Dietary Fiber - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Feces - microbiology
Gastrointestinal Tract - metabolism - microbiology - physiopathology
Humans
Microbial Interactions - drug effects
Models, Animal
Mucins - metabolism
Probiotics - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Rats
Rats, Wistar
Abstract
Structural analysis of human and rat gastrointestinal microbial communities revealed their general similarity. The structure of microbial biocenosis in ileum parietal mucin appears to be highly sensitive to nutritional factors. Inadequate nutrition leads to destruction of microbial microassociations in parietal mucin, a calcium-deficient diet has similar effect in feces. Fiber-rich diets stimulates build-up of indigenous communities while artificial nutrients and calcium-enriched diets promote formation of mixed indigenous-transient microbial associations. Bacteria themselves prove to be weak modifiers of the observed effects.
PubMed ID
21395060 View in PubMed
Less detail

Gut microbiota in obesity and metabolic disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142935
Source
Proc Nutr Soc. 2010 Aug;69(3):434-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2010
Author
Yolanda Sanz
Arlette Santacruz
Paola Gauffin
Author Affiliation
Microbial Ecophysiology and Nutrition Group, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Valencia, Spain. yolsanz@iata.csic.es
Source
Proc Nutr Soc. 2010 Aug;69(3):434-41
Date
Aug-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Atherosclerosis - etiology
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Body Weight
Gastrointestinal Tract - metabolism - microbiology
Gene Expression
Humans
Inflammation - complications - drug therapy
Insulin Resistance
Lipid Metabolism
Mice
Obesity - drug therapy - etiology - microbiology
Peptide Hormones - metabolism
Prebiotics
Probiotics - therapeutic use
Rats
Abstract
Obesity is a major public health issue as it is causally related to several chronic disorders, including type-2 diabetes, CVD and cancer. Novel research shows that the gut microbiota is involved in obesity and metabolic disorders, revealing that obese animal and human subjects have alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota compared to their lean counterparts. Moreover, transplantation of the microbiota of either obese or lean mice influences body weight in the germ-free recipient mice, suggesting that the gut ecosystem is a relevant target for weight management. Indigenous gut microbes may regulate body weight by influencing the host's metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune functions. The intestinal microbiota, as a whole, provides additional metabolic functions and regulates the host's gene expression, improving the ability to extract and store energy from the diet and contributing to body-weight gain. Imbalances in the gut microbiota and increases in plasma lipopolysaccharide may also act as inflammatory factors related to the development of atherosclerosis, insulin resistance and body-weight gain. In contrast, specific probiotics, prebiotics and related metabolites might exert beneficial effects on lipid and glucose metabolism, the production of satiety peptides and the inflammatory tone related to obesity and associated metabolic disorders. This knowledge is contributing to our understanding of how environmental factors influence obesity and associated diseases, providing new opportunities to design improved dietary intervention strategies to manage these disorders.
PubMed ID
20540826 View in PubMed
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Influence of lake trophic structure on iodine-131 accumulation and subsequent cumulative radiation dose to trout thyroids.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258017
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2014 May;131:62-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2014
Author
Nicole E Martinez
Thomas E Johnson
John E Pinder
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Science, Colorado State University, 1618 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523, United States. Electronic address: n.martinez@colostate.edu.
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2014 May;131:62-71
Date
May-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Amphipoda - metabolism
Animals
Astacoidea - metabolism
Carps - metabolism
Chlorophyta - metabolism
Finland
Food chain
Gastrointestinal Tract - metabolism
Iodine Radioisotopes - analysis - metabolism
Lakes
Models, Theoretical
Oncorhynchus mykiss - metabolism
Radiation Dosage
Thyroid Gland - metabolism
Water Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis - metabolism
Abstract
Iodine-131 is a major component of the atmospheric releases following reactor accidents, and the passage of (131)I through food chains from grass to human thyroids has been extensively studied. By comparison, the fate and effects of (131)I deposition onto lakes and other aquatic systems have been less studied. In this study we: (1) reanalyze 1960s data from experimental releases of (131)I into two small lakes; (2) compare the effects of differences in lake trophic structures on the accumulation of (131)I by fish; (3) relate concentrations in fish and fish tissues to that in the water column using empirically estimated uptake (L kg(-1) d(-1)) and loss (d(-1)) parameters; and (4) show that the largest concentrations in the thyroids of trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) may occur from 8 to 32 days after initial release. Iodine-131 concentration in trout thyroids at 30-days post release may be >1000 times that in the water. Estimates of cumulative radiation dose (mGy) to thyroids computed using an anatomically-appropriate model of trout thyroid structure within the Monte Carlo N-particle modeling software predicted cumulative thyroid doses that increased approximately linearly after the first 8 days and resulted in 32-day cumulative thyroid doses that ranged from 6 mGy g(-1) to 18 mGy g(-1) per 1 Bq mL(-1) of initial (131)I in the water depending upon fish size. The majority of this dose is due to beta emissions, and the dose varies with positions in the thyroid tissue.
PubMed ID
24210373 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Intercellular reabsorption in the general systemic absorption of ethanol in the gastrointestinal tract]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98279
Source
Fiziol Zh. 2009;55(5):56-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
M Ia Holovenko
I Iu Borysiuk
O B Likhota
Source
Fiziol Zh. 2009;55(5):56-63
Date
2009
Language
Ukrainian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorption
Administration, Oral
Animals
Biological Transport
Carbon Radioisotopes
Ethanol - administration & dosage - blood - pharmacokinetics
Gastrointestinal Tract - metabolism
Injections, Intravenous
Male
Mice
Tissue Distribution
Abstract
Using the model of different ethanol concentration gradient between gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and blood of white mice, we analyzed kinetics of the intercellular transport of original compound and its metabolites (radioactive material). We showed that with intravenous administration 14C-ethanol (5 mmol/kg), its penetration into various divisions ofGIT (stomach, thin, thick, rectum) was observed. Creating a concentration gradient of ethanol by intravenous injection of ethanol (5 mmol/kg) and peroral intake (5, 10, 20 mmol/kg) led to a reduction in its intake into GIT, which was not entirely restricted under the laws of diffusion. Possible mechanisms for this phenomenon (insufficient gradient of ethanol concentrations in the blood-GIT, intrahepatic circulation, the residual radioactivity in the capillaries) are under discussion. The conclusion was made on possible reabsorption of ethanol in the process of its absorption in GIT.
PubMed ID
20095385 View in PubMed
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Markers of oil exposure in cold-water benthic environments: Insights and challenges from a study with echinoderms.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature293017
Source
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018 Jul 30; 156:56-66
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jul-30-2018
Author
Matthew Osse
Jean-François Hamel
Annie Mercier
Author Affiliation
Department of Ocean Sciences (OSC), Memorial University, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada A1C 5S7. Electronic address: m.osse@mun.ca.
Source
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018 Jul 30; 156:56-66
Date
Jul-30-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Biomarkers - metabolism
Cold Temperature
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 - metabolism
Echinodermata - enzymology
Female
Gastrointestinal Tract - metabolism
Glutathione Peroxidase - metabolism
Gonads - metabolism
Male
Oceans and Seas
Petroleum - metabolism
Petroleum Pollution
Sea Urchins - enzymology
Seasons
Sex Characteristics
Water Pollutants, Chemical - metabolism
Abstract
In spite of increasing naval activities and petroleum exploration in cold environments, there is currently a paucity of tools available to monitor oil contamination in boreal marine life, especially in sedentary (non-fish) species that dominate benthic communities. This research aimed to identify biotic sources of variation in biomarkers using subarctic echinoderms, and to identify suitable biomarkers of their exposure to hydrocarbons. The focal species included the sea star Asterias rubens, the brittle star Ophiopholis aculeata, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa, which are among the most abundant echinoderms in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. The latter two species are also commercially exploited. A series of 96-h acute exposures of the water-accommodating fraction (WAF) of used lubricating oil (ULO) were performed in different seasons (i.e. distinct reproductive stages). Digestive and reproductive tissues were analyzed for baseline and response levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD). GPx activity was detected in the pyloric caecum, stomach, and gonad of sea stars, the intestine and gonad of sea cucumbers, and the gonad of brittle stars and sea urchins. No seasonal variation in baseline GPx activity occurred. Upon exposure to the ULO WAF, sex-based differences were elicited in the GPx activity of sea star stomachs (lower in females than males). EROD activity was present in the pyloric caeca of sea stars, and the gonads of brittle stars and sea urchins. An interaction between season and sex on baseline EROD activity was measured in the gonads of sea urchins. Ovaries exhibited significant seasonal variation in EROD activity and had greater activity than testes during the spawning and post-spawning seasons. Seasonal variation in EROD activity also occurred in sea star pyloric caeca and brittle star gonads. Furthermore, testes of sea urchins exposed to the ULO WAF exhibited suppressed EROD activity compared to baseline levels. The nearly universal presence of GPx activity highlights its potential as a useful biomarker, while EROD activity was much more limited. Findings suggest a complex relationship between temporal and biotic factors on both the baseline and response levels of enzymatic activity, emphasizing the need to consider sex and sampling season in studies of biomarkers of hydrocarbon exposure in boreal indicator species that display annual reproductive cycles.
PubMed ID
29529514 View in PubMed
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