The study evaluates the prevalence and diagnoses of abdominal complaints in general practice, and compares characteristics and symptoms of patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) and organic diseases.
A cross-sectional study.
Nine centres with 26 participating general practitioners (GPs) in Norway.
3097 out of 3369 consecutive adult patients answered a questionnaire regarding abdominal complaints IN the last 3 months. Those who consulted for the complaints were eligible for this study.
The GPs' diagnoses and patients' characteristics were reported in questionnaires.
460 out of 1499 patients with abdominal complaints consulted for these complaints; 392 were included in this study. The GPs diagnosed an FGID in 167 (42.6%) patients, organic disease in 145 (37.0%), and made no diagnosis in 80 (20.4%). Stress-related symptoms were a statistically significant predictor of a FGID (OR 1.95) and weight loss predicted in addition organic disease (OR 2.7) in 128 patients with a verified diagnosis.
Abdominal complaints are a common problem in general practice. The distinction between FGID, which accounted for half of the diagnoses, and organic disease was difficult. The only significant predictor for FGID was stress-related symptoms.
Comment In: Scand J Prim Health Care. 2005 Jun;23(2):126; author reply 126-716036553
BACKGROUND: In clinical studies there is a strong relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms, anxiety and depression. The results may be biased, however, since anxiety and depression will influence the decision to consult a doctor. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between these symptoms in the population. METHODS: In the Health Study of Nord-Tr?ndelag County of Norway (HUNT) a questionnaire concerning physical and mental health, demographic and life-style factors was sent to all inhabitants aged 20 years and above (a total of 94,197 persons). Valid questionnaires were returned by 62,651 persons (66.5%). Presence of nausea, heartburn, diarrhoea and constipation during the last year was self-reported. Anxiety disorders and depression were based on self-ratings of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: 48% of the population reported one or more of the four gastrointestinal symptoms. Based on the HADS ratings, 15.3% of the population had an anxiety disorder and 10.4% a depression. Anxiety disorder was most strongly associated with nausea (OR 3.42). Anxiety was also associated with heartburn, diarrhoea and constipation, but weaker than with nausea. Depression was less strongly associated with the four gastrointestinal symptoms. Demographic factors, life-style factors and extra-gastrointestinal complaints could not explain the effect of anxiety disorders and depression on these gastrointestinal symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: In this population study there was a strong relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms, anxiety disorders and depression. These findings suggest that mental disorders in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms are not merely a consequence of selection bias in patient materials but connected to the symptoms themselves.
We collected monthly reports on gastrointestinal illness (GII) episodes among 2348 adults in a 1-year cohort in South West Sweden. The GII episodes were collected by SMS (Short Message System) and validated by telephone interviews among the cohort participants and nationwide. The annual incidence was 0.64 and 0.43 cases per person-year for 28-day self-defined GII (any symptom) and acute GII (vomiting and/or =3 episodes of diarrhoea), respectively. The incidence was about 20% higher for the 14-day recall, compared with 28-day recall. The duration of illness was on average 2.3 days. We observed a unimodal seasonal distribution of GII, with the highest prevalence during winter. Responses collected by SMS highly correlated with responses collected by telephone. SMS survey was an efficient tool for the collection of repeated estimates of GII.
Gastrointestinal hypersensitivity to cow milk (CM) may be more common among school-aged children and young adults than previously thought.
The objective was to study various gastrointestinal complaints and the immunologic mechanisms associated with food-related, especially CM-related, gastrointestinal disorders in young adults.
Of 827 subjects aged 16-21 y who completed a questionnaire on food-related gastrointestinal symptoms, 49 symptomatic subjects agreed to a clinical examination, including an interview, blood tests, a lactose-maldigestion test, a blinded CM challenge and, in severely symptomatic subjects (n = 12), an endoscopic examination. Twenty-nine subjects served as controls.
Approximately 10% of the subjects reported having major gastrointestinal symptoms, mainly food-related (n = 70 of 86), during the preceding year. Specific organic disease was found in 2 symptomatic subjects: 1 case of celiac disease and 1 of colitis. The result of the lactose-maldigestion test was positive in 16 of the remaining 47 symptomatic subjects, but only 4 carried the C/C(-13910) genotype for adult-type hypolactasia. The symptomatic subjects had restricted their consumption of certain foods, particularly CM. However, in a blinded challenge, CM-induced symptoms were rare. The symptomatic subjects had higher plasma soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (P = 0.007) and lower granzyme A (P = 0.001) concentrations than did the control subjects. Duodenal biopsy samples tended to have higher intraepithelial CD3(+) cell counts (P = 0.065) and a higher expression of transforming growth factor beta (P = 0.073) and interleukin 12p35 messenger RNA (P = 0.075) than did the control subjects.
In an unselected cohort of young adults, 8% reported food-related gastrointestinal symptoms. The finding of immunologic activity implied the existence of a food-related gastrointestinal syndrome but not one induced by CM.
BACKGROUND/AIM: Short-term fluctuation of gastrointestinal symptoms in the general population is largely unknown. We aimed to determine gastrointestinal symptom fluctuation in an random adult population using a validated questionnaire assessing gastrointestinal symptoms. METHODS: A representative sample (n = 2,860) of the population (n = 21,610, 20-81 years of age; mean age 50.4 years) in Northern Sweden was studied. The subjects were asked to complete the questionnaire on two occasions [mean 2.5 months (range 1-6)], firstly via mail and secondly at a visit to the clinic. An upper endoscopy was performed after the last assessment of symptoms. RESULTS: 2,122 individuals (74.2%) completed the initial questionnaire; 1,001 of these (mean age 54.1 years, 48.8 males) completed the second questionnaire. On the first occasion, 40% of the subjects were symptom-free (20.2%) or could not be classified according to their symptom pattern, of those with symptoms 39% reported troublesome reflux symptoms, 40% dyspeptic symptoms and 30% irritable bowel symptoms. Symptom overlap occurred in more than two thirds of the subjects. At the second visit 75% of the subjects who had reported dyspeptic complaints still reported such complaints. CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based study, gastrointestinal symptoms were common. Some symptom fluctuation occurred in the shorter term, but troublesome gastrointestinal complaints remained in approximately 90% of subjects over a 1-6-month period.
To assess the clinical practice of diagnosis and treatment in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection and to compare this practice with the international guidelines in the European Registry on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection, Hp-EuReg protocol), a multicenter prospective observational study initiated by the European Helicobacter and Microbiota Study Group. MATERIALs AND METHODS: The data of 813 patients infected with H. pylori and entered in the Hp-EuReg register by the Russian centers in 2013-2015 were analyzed.
The most common methods for the primary diagnosis of H. pylori infection are histology (40.3%), rapid urease test (35.7%), and serology (17.2%). The duration of H. pylori eradication therapy was 7, 10, and 14 days in 18.0, 49.3, and 25.1%, respectively. To monitor the effectiveness of treatment, the investigators used a histological examination (34%), a urea breath test (27.3%), H. pylori stool antigen (22.8%), and a rapid urease test (16.3%). A serological test was carried out in 2.5% of the cases. No monitoring was done in 13.5% of the patients. The average eradication efficiency was 82.6%. If the therapy was ineffective, 80% of physicians did not intend to prescribe a new cycle of treatment.
Significant differences were found between clinical practice and the current guidelines.
AIM: To find out the extent to which children at 10-11 y of age suffer from various gastrointestinal complaints and how often a food-induced or other diagnostic disorder might be assessed behind them, we carried out a population-based survey of 404 children in a rural Finnish town. METHODS: A questionnaire filled in retrospectively by their parents was used to describe the frequency of various abdominal symptoms during the previous 2 y and to select the symptomatic subjects for closer clinical examination. In the clinical investigation of the children, an elimination challenge with milk protein and lactose intolerance tests, as well as endoscopic examinations in selected cases and blood tests, were performed. RESULTS: In all, 110 (27%) subjects reported some gastrointestinal (GI) complaints during the last 2 y; 64 (16%) meeting the Apley criteria for recurrent abdominal pain. A specific organic or functional disorder was found in 26 subjects (6%), two having no GI symptoms. Milk protein intolerance was the most common specific disorder diagnosed in nine subjects (2.2%), followed by lactose intolerance in eight (2%), coeliac disease in five (1.2%) and Helicobacter pylori infection in three (0.7%). An endoscopic examination performed on 17 subjects (4.2%) and a colonoscopy on three revealed significant findings in 11; lymphonodular changes being most common, occurring in five subjects. Subjects with milk protein-induced disorders showed significantly lower IgA-class antibodies to milk and its fractions than the non-symptomatic controls. Chronic diseases, short breastfeeding, GI problems and food intolerance during the first year of life were observed as significant risk factors in determining whether a subject belonged to the group experiencing any GI complaints. CONCLUSION: We conclude that in one in five of those with any, even mild, GI complaints we were able to assess a specific organic disease; milk-induced disorders being most common. A milk protein and/or lactose load test, completed in some cases with an endoscopic examination, would help in assessing a proper individual diagnosis.
The incidence and prevalence rates of childhood Helicobacter pylori infection vary greatly by nation, with infection rates of 8.9% to 72.8% reported in developed and developing countries, respectively. To date, few studies have assessed the prevalence of H pylori in Canadian children, with studies limited to Aboriginal communities and single tertiary care centres from Ontario and Quebec.
To determine the prevalence of H pylori in consecutive children referred to three Canadian tertiary care academic centres for upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy due to upper GI symptoms, and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the carbon-13-labelled urea breath test, the rapid urease test and the H pylori stool monoclonal antigen test.
Two hundred four patients were recruited. The prevalence of H pylori was 7.1%. Of the H pylori-positive patients, 41.7% were male, with a mean age of 10.3 years. Ethnic minorities accounted for 42% of the H pylori-positive patients. Consistent with previous observations, the sensitivity and specificity of the carbon-13-labelled urea breath test were 1.0 and 0.98, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid urease test were 1.0 and 0.99, respectively. Stool samples were collected from 34 patients from one centre, with a sensitivity and specificity of 1.0 and 0.68, respectively. No defining symptoms of H pylori infection were evident and no peptic ulcer disease was demonstrated.
H pylori infection rates in Canadian children with upper GI symptoms are low, and are lower than those reported for other developed countries. Further studies are required in Canada to determine the prevalence in the general population and specifically in the populations at risk.
Three large clusters of Salmonella Typhimurium infections in Denmark in 2008 and 2009 were defined by multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). One of these proved to be the hereto largest Danish cluster of salmonellosis with 1446 cases. Two smaller clusters with a total of 197 and 89 cases, respectively, were seen concurrently. These clusters shared epidemiological characteristics such as age distribution, geography, and time. To investigate the possible genetic relationship between the cluster strains, these were further characterized by phage typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and Optical Mapping. Although the MLVA method proved robust and well-performing in detecting and defining clusters, the employment of a second typing method detected an additional fourth cluster among the isolates. The cluster strains were stable throughout the almost 2-year period, even though we detected changes in three of five MLVA loci in a small fraction of isolates. These changes were mainly due to the gain or loss of single repeats. Optical Mapping of the large cluster strain indicated no increased content of virulence genes; however, Optical Mapping did reveal a large insert, a probable prophage, in the main cluster. This probable prophage may give the cluster strain a competitive advantage. The molecular methods employed suggested that the four clusters represented four distinct strains, although they seemed to be epidemiologically linked and shared genotypic characteristics.