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25- to 30-nm virus particle associated with a hospital outbreak of acute gastroenteritis with evidence for airborne transmission.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature233035
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1988 Jun;127(6):1261-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1988
Author
L A Sawyer
J J Murphy
J E Kaplan
P F Pinsky
D. Chacon
S. Walmsley
L B Schonberger
A. Phillips
K. Forward
C. Goldman
Author Affiliation
Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1988 Jun;127(6):1261-71
Date
Jun-1988
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Microbiology
Cross Infection - epidemiology - microbiology - transmission
Disease Outbreaks
Emergency Service, Hospital
Epidemiologic Methods
Female
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - microbiology - transmission
Hospital Units
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norwalk virus - isolation & purification
Ontario
Virion - isolation & purification
Virus Diseases - epidemiology - transmission
Abstract
Between November 1 and 22, 1985, an outbreak of acute, nonbacterial gastroenteritis occurred in a 600-bed hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Illness in 635 of 2,379 (27%) staff was characterized by fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting and had a median duration of 24-48 hours. The finding of virus-like particles measuring 25-30 nm in six stool specimens and low rates of seroresponse to Norwalk virus (3/39) and Snow Mountain agent (1/6) suggest that a Norwalk-like virus was responsible for the outbreak. The outbreak was of abrupt onset and high incidence, affecting 79 people in a single day. No common food or water exposure could be identified. The attack rate was greatest (69%) for staff who had worked in the Emergency Room. Of 100 patients and their companions who visited the Emergency Room on November 11-12 for unrelated problems, 33 (33%) developed gastroenteritis 24-48 hours after their visit, versus 0 of 18 who visited the Emergency Room on November 8 (p less than 0.001). An analysis of housekeepers who worked at least once during the period from November 9-13, which included those who became ill during the period of November 9-14, showed that the risk of becoming ill was four times greater for those who visited or walked through the Emergency Room than for those who did not (p = 0.028). These data are consistent with the possibility of the airborne spread of a virus.
PubMed ID
2835899 View in PubMed
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Aetiology and epidemiology of acute gastro-enteritis in Swedish children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature39181
Source
J Infect. 1986 Jul;13(1):73-89
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1986
Author
I. Uhnoo
G. Wadell
L. Svensson
E. Olding-Stenkvist
E. Ekwall
R. Mölby
Source
J Infect. 1986 Jul;13(1):73-89
Date
Jul-1986
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adenovirus Infections, Human - epidemiology
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Bacterial Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Diarrhea - microbiology - parasitology
Feces - microbiology
Female
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Infant
Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic - epidemiology
Male
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Rotavirus Infections - epidemiology
Seasons
Sex Factors
Sweden
Virus Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology
Abstract
In a prospective 1-year study, 144 children attending or admitted to hospital and 272 children outside hospital with acute gastro-enteritis and 200 controls were investigated by a broad panel of diagnostic methods for enteropathogenic agents in the faeces and for related antibody responses. Enteropathogens were identified in 77% of the inpatients, 63% of the outpatients and 8% of the controls. Rotavirus and Yersinia enterocolitica were detected significantly more often among inpatients. Altogether, viral, bacterial and parasitic agents were found in 58%, 14% and 1% of diarrhoeal patients, respectively. The isolation of more than one pathogenic agent was uncommon (6.5%). Rotavirus (45%) and enteric adenoviruses 40 and 41 (7.9%) predominated among the viruses, while Campylobacter jejuni (4.8%) was most common among the bacteria. Clostridium difficile and/or its cytotoxin, which were found in 14% of the children with gastroenteritis and in 15% of the controls, were significantly associated with antibiotic therapy but not with gastro-intestinal illness. Diarrhoeal infections of unknown aetiology exhibited a seasonal peak in the autumn. The duration of excretion of enteropathogens was investigated. Rotavirus particles were detectable by solid-phase immune electron microscopy for 14-25 days after the diarrhoea had ceased. Transmission of rotavirus and bacterial pathogens within families was studied also.
PubMed ID
3734469 View in PubMed
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An outbreak of acute bacterial gastroenteritis is associated with an increased incidence of irritable bowel syndrome in children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145256
Source
Am J Gastroenterol. 2010 Apr;105(4):933-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2010
Author
Marroon Thabane
Marko Simunovic
Noori Akhtar-Danesh
Amit X Garg
William F Clark
Stephen M Collins
Marina Salvadori
John K Marshall
Author Affiliation
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, and Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Am J Gastroenterol. 2010 Apr;105(4):933-9
Date
Apr-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Campylobacter Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Campylobacter jejuni - isolation & purification
Chi-Square Distribution
Child
Disease Outbreaks
Escherichia coli - isolation & purification
Escherichia coli Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Female
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Incidence
Irritable Bowel Syndrome - epidemiology - microbiology
Logistic Models
Male
Ontario - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Abstract
Acute bacterial gastroenteritis is associated with subsequent post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) in adults. Less is known about this relationship in children. In May 2000, contamination of municipal water by Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Campylobacter species caused a large outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in Walkerton, Ontario. We assessed this association among a cohort of children enrolled in the Walkerton Health Study (WHS).
WHS participants who were under age 16 at the time of the outbreak but who reached age 16 during the 8-year study follow-up were eligible for the pediatric PI-IBS study cohort. Eligibility also required no diagnosis of IBS or inflammatory bowel disease before the outbreak and permanent residency in the Walkerton postal code at the time of the outbreak. Validated criteria were used to classify subjects as having had no gastroenteritis (unexposed controls), self-reported gastroenteritis, or clinically suspected gastroenteritis during the outbreak. From 2002 to 2008, standardized biennial interviews used a modified Bowel Disease Questionnaire to diagnose IBS by Rome I criteria. Risk factors for IBS were identified by logistic regression.
In all, 467 subjects were eligible for the pediatric PI-IBS study cohort (47.1% female; mean age 11.6+/-2.44 years at the time of the outbreak). Of these, 305 were exposed to GE (130 clinically suspected and 175 self-reported) and 162 were unexposed controls. The cumulative incidence of IBS was significantly increased among exposed subjects vs. controls (10.5% vs. 2.5%; odds ratio 4.6, 95% confidence interval (1.6, 13.3)). In an unadjusted risk factor analysis, IBS was associated with a shorter time interval from exposure to assessment of IBS symptoms, female gender, diarrheal illness lasting more than 7 days, weight loss >10 lb, and antibiotic use during the outbreak. In adjusted analyses, both female gender and time interval to assessment of IBS symptoms remained independent predictors of PI-IBS.
Acute bacterial gastroenteritis is associated with subsequent IBS in children as in adults. Risk factors for PI-IBS in children are similar to those identified among adults. Confirmation of these findings in similar cohorts is needed.
PubMed ID
20179687 View in PubMed
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An outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni associated with consumption of chicken, Copenhagen, 2005.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168945
Source
Euro Surveill. 2006;11(5):137-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
A. Mazick
S. Ethelberg
E Møller Nielsen
K. Mølbak
M. Lisby
Author Affiliation
European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET), Department of Epidemiology, Statens Serum Institut, Denmark.
Source
Euro Surveill. 2006;11(5):137-9
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Campylobacter Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Campylobacter jejuni - isolation & purification
Chickens - microbiology
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Disease Outbreaks - statistics & numerical data
Food Contamination - statistics & numerical data
Foodborne Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Incidence
Meat - microbiology
Population Surveillance
Retrospective Studies
Risk Assessment - methods
Risk factors
Abstract
In May/June 2005 an outbreak of diarrhoeal illness occurred among company employees in Copenhagen. Cases were reported from seven of eight companies that received food from the same catering kitchen. Stool specimens from three patients from two companies were positive for Campylobacter jejuni. We performed a retrospective cohort study among employees exposed to canteen food in the three largest companies to identify the source of the outbreak and to prevent further spread. Using self-administered questionnaires we collected information on disease, days of canteen food eaten and food items consumed. The catering kitchen was inspected and food samples were taken. Questionnaires were returned by 295/348 (85%) employees. Of 247 employees who ate canteen food, 79 were cases, and the attack rate (AR) was 32%. Consuming canteen food on 25 May was associated with illness (AR 75/204, RR=3.2, 95%CI 1.3-8.2). Consumption of chicken salad on this day, but not other types of food, was associated with illness (AR=43/97, RR=2.3, 95%CI 1.3-4.1). Interviews with kitchen staff indicated the likelihood of cross-contamination from raw chicken to the chicken salad during storage. This is the first recognised major Campylobacter outbreak associated with contaminated chicken documented in Denmark. It is plausible that food handling practices contributed to transmission, and awareness of safe food handling and storage has since been raised among kitchen staff. The low number of positive specimens accrued in this outbreak suggests a general underascertainment of adult cases in the laboratory reporting system by a factor of 20.
Notes
Erratum In: Euro Surveill. 2006 May;11(5):1 p following 139
PubMed ID
16757851 View in PubMed
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An outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni gastroenteritis linked to meltwater contamination of a municipal well.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature227124
Source
Can J Public Health. 1991 Jan-Feb;82(1):27-31
Publication Type
Article
Author
M. Millson
M. Bokhout
J. Carlson
L. Spielberg
R. Aldis
A. Borczyk
H. Lior
Author Affiliation
Disease Control and Epidemiology Service, Ontario Ministry of Health, Canada.
Source
Can J Public Health. 1991 Jan-Feb;82(1):27-31
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Campylobacter Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - prevention & control
Campylobacter jejuni - pathogenicity
Case-Control Studies
Disease Outbreaks
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Ontario
Water Microbiology
Water supply
Abstract
A large outbreak of Campylobacter jujuni gastroenteritis attributed to contamination of an unchlorinated municipal water system was investigated. Unlike most previous summer outbreaks, this one began in early spring and was attributed to meltwater entering one or more municipal wells. 241 suspected cases were documented, but retrospective information from local health care workers suggested a much larger outbreak. 45 laboratory-confirmed cases participated in a case-control study which showed a significant association between infection and amount of town water consumed. Stool specimens from 29 patients were studied with detailed serotyping by the method of Lior, with eight known serotypes and one previously unknown one identified. It is concluded that intensive surveillance of water quality during periods of spring runoff is essential, and that timely reporting of disease outbreak patterns in emergency department settings is necessary to protect the public's health.
PubMed ID
2009481 View in PubMed
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An outbreak of gastroenteritis from a non-chlorinated community water supply.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature181054
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004 Apr;58(4):273-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2004
Author
M. Kuusi
P. Klemets
I. Miettinen
I. Laaksonen
H. Sarkkinen
M L Hänninen
H. Rautelin
E. Kela
J P Nuorti
Author Affiliation
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland. markuu.kuusi@ktl.fi
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004 Apr;58(4):273-7
Date
Apr-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Campylobacter Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Campylobacter jejuni - isolation & purification
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child, Preschool
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Rural Health
Water Microbiology
Water Supply - analysis
Abstract
To determine the source and the extent of a community wide outbreak of gastroenteritis.
A matched case-control study with postal questionnaires. Subtyping of campylobacter strains by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
A rural municipality with a population of 8600 in southern Finland, August 2000. Two thirds of the population receive non-chlorinated ground water from the municipal water supply.
Cases were randomly selected among residents of the municipality who contacted the municipal health centre because of gastroenteritis and had illness onset between 31 July and 20 August 2000. Community controls were identified from the population registry and matched according to sex, year of birth, and postal code.
Four hundred and sixty three persons contacted the municipal health centre because of gastroenteritis. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from stool samples of 24 persons. One hundred and thirty seven cases and 388 controls were enrolled in the case-control study. In multivariate analysis, drinking unboiled water from the municipal supply was significantly associated with illness (odds ratio 11.1, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 90.2). C jejuni was isolated from one tap water sample. The water isolate and all but one of the patient isolates were indistinguishable by PFGE.
Combining epidemiological investigation with molecular subtyping methods provided strong evidence that water was the source of the outbreak. Non-chlorinated small ground water systems may be susceptible to waterborne outbreaks and constitute a risk to rural populations.
Notes
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PubMed ID
15026434 View in PubMed
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An outbreak of gastrointestinal illness and erythema nodosum from grated carrots contaminated with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature167019
Source
J Infect Dis. 2006 Nov 1;194(9):1209-16
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1-2006
Author
Katri Jalava
Marjaana Hakkinen
Miia Valkonen
Ulla-Maija Nakari
Taito Palo
Saija Hallanvuo
Jukka Ollgren
Anja Siitonen
J Pekka Nuorti
Author Affiliation
Department of Infectious Diseases Epidemiology, National Public Health Institute, FIN-00300 Helsinki, Finland.
Source
J Infect Dis. 2006 Nov 1;194(9):1209-16
Date
Nov-1-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Arthritis, Reactive - epidemiology - microbiology
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child, Preschool
Daucus carota - microbiology
Disease Outbreaks
Erythema Nodosum - epidemiology - microbiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Food Microbiology
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Time Factors
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis - isolation & purification
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Infections - epidemiology
Abstract
Outbreaks of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection have been epidemiologically linked to fresh produce, but the bacterium has not been recovered from the food items implicated. In May 2003, a cluster of gastrointestinal illness and erythema nodosum was detected among schoolchildren who had eaten lunches prepared by the same institutional kitchen.
We conducted a case-control study and trace-back, environmental, and laboratory investigations. Case patients had culture-confirmed Y. pseudotuberculosis O:1 infection, erythema nodosum, or reactive arthritis. Bacterial isolates from clinical and environmental samples were compared using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
Of 7392 persons at risk, 111 (1.5%) met the case definition; 76 case patients and 172 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the case-control study. Only raw grated carrots were significantly associated with illness in a logistic-regression model (multivariable odds ratio, 5.7 [95% confidence interval, 1.7-19.5]); a dose response was found for increasing amount of consumption. Y. pseudotuberculosis O:1 isolates from 39 stool specimens and from 5 (42%) of 12 soil samples that contained carrot residue and were obtained from peeling and washing equipment at the production farm were indistinguishable by PFGE.
Carrots contaminated early in the production process caused a large point-source outbreak. Our findings enable the development of evidence-based strategies to prevent outbreaks of this emerging foodborne pathogen.
Notes
Comment In: J Infect Dis. 2006 Nov 1;194(9):1191-317041842
PubMed ID
17041846 View in PubMed
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[An outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica infection on the Bjärred peninsula. Indications for risks of refrigerated food].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature215550
Source
Lakartidningen. 1995 Mar 22;92(12):1213-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-22-1995

[Are there too many cases of bacterial gastroenteritis?]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature75636
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1989 Mar 20;151(12):751
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-20-1989
Author
J. Scheibel
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1989 Mar 20;151(12):751
Date
Mar-20-1989
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Denmark
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Salmonella Food Poisoning - epidemiology - prevention & control
PubMed ID
2711483 View in PubMed
Less detail

Arthritis risk after acute bacterial gastroenteritis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature159417
Source
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2008 Feb;47(2):200-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2008
Author
A X Garg
J E Pope
H. Thiessen-Philbrook
W F Clark
J. Ouimet
Author Affiliation
London Kidney Research Unit, Division of Nephrology, London Health Sciences Centre, ON, Canada.
Source
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2008 Feb;47(2):200-4
Date
Feb-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arthritis, Reactive - epidemiology - microbiology
Bacterial Infections - complications - microbiology
Campylobacter jejuni - isolation & purification
Disease Outbreaks
Escherichia coli O157 - isolation & purification
Follow-Up Studies
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Ontario - epidemiology
Patient Selection
Risk factors
Time Factors
Water Microbiology
Water Supply - standards
Abstract
Reactive arthritis (ReA) may occur from bacterial gastroenteritis. We studied the risk of arthritis after an outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter species within a regional drinking water supply to examine the relationship between the severity of acute diarrhoea and subsequent symptoms of arthritis.
Participants with no known history of arthritis before the outbreak participated in a long-term follow-up study. Of the 2299 participants, 788 were asymptomatic during the outbreak, 1034 had moderate symptoms of acute gastroenteritis and 477 had severe symptoms that necessitated medical attention. The outcomes of interest were new arthritis by self-report and a new prescription of medication for arthritis during the follow-up period.
After a mean follow-up of 4.5 yrs after the outbreak, arthritis was reported in 15.7% of participants who had been asymptomatic during the outbreak, and in 17.6 and 21.6% of those who had moderate and severe symptoms of acute gastroenteritis, respectively (P-value for trend = 0.009). Compared with the asymptomatic participants, those with moderate and severe symptoms of gastroenteritis had an adjusted relative risk of arthritis of 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99-1.43] and 1.33 (95% CI 1.07-1.66), respectively. No association was observed between gastroenteritis and the subsequent risk of prescription medication for arthritis (P = 0.49).
Acute bacterial gastroenteritis necessitating medical attention was associated with a higher risk of arthritic symptoms, but not arthritic medications, up to 4 yrs afterwards. The nature and chronicity of these arthritic symptoms requires further study.
Notes
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PubMed ID
18184664 View in PubMed
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90 records – page 1 of 9.