PURPOSE: To evaluate the use and findings of abdominal plain film in acute ischemic bowel disease (AIBD) in different age subsets, and to correlate the clinical findings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-nine radiographically examined patients with AIBD at Malmö University Hospital, Sweden between 1987 and 1996. RESULTS: In 89%, the plain film displayed pathologic signs. Bowel dilatation was more common in the elderly. Of 68 patients aged > or = 71 years, 19 (28%) had colon gas/fluid levels with/without colon dilatation, and of 19 patients > 84 years 16 (84%) had small-bowel dilatation. Of 20 patients aged or = 71 years (P = 0.001). Of the patients with diarrhea, 13 of 33 (40%) had colon gas/fluid levels with/without colon dilatation compared to 2 of 29 (7%) without (P = 0.003). In the elderly (> or = 71 years), 48 of 53 (91%) patients with bowel dilatation on plain film died, compared to 11 out of 16 (69%) without this finding (P
To explore associations between diet-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), nutrient intakes and adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations among Swedish adults.
Diet was assessed by 4d food records in the Swedish National Dietary Survey. GHGE was estimated by linking all foods to carbon dioxide equivalents, using data from life cycle assessment studies. Participants were categorized into quartiles of energy-adjusted GHGE and differences between GHGE groups regarding nutrient intakes and adherence to nutrient recommendations were explored.
Women (n 840) and men (n 627) aged 18-80 years.
Differences in nutrient intakes and adherence to nutrient recommendations between GHGE groups were generally small. The dietary intake of participants with the lowest emissions was more in line with recommendations regarding protein, carbohydrates, dietary fibre and vitamin D, but further from recommendations regarding added sugar, compared with the highest GHGE group. The overall adherence to recommendations was found to be better among participants with lower emissions compared with higher emissions. Among women, 27 % in the lowest GHGE group adhered to at least twenty-three recommendations compared with only 12 % in the highest emission group. For men, the corresponding figures were 17 and 10 %, respectively.
The study compared nutrient intakes as well as adherence to dietary recommendations for diets with different levels of GHGE from a national dietary survey. We found that participants with low-emission diets, despite higher intake of added sugar, adhered to a larger number of dietary recommendations than those with high emissions.
Extreme climatic events are among the drivers of recent declines in plant biomass and productivity observed across Arctic ecosystems, known as "Arctic browning." These events can cause landscape-scale vegetation damage and so are likely to have major impacts on ecosystem CO2 balance. However, there is little understanding of the impacts on CO2 fluxes, especially across the growing season. Furthermore, while widespread shoot mortality is commonly observed with browning events, recent observations show that shoot stress responses are also common, and manifest as high levels of persistent anthocyanin pigmentation. Whether or how this response impacts ecosystem CO2 fluxes is not known. To address these research needs, a growing season assessment of browning impacts following frost drought and extreme winter warming (both extreme climatic events) on the key ecosystem CO2 fluxes Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Reco ) and soil respiration (Rsoil ) was carried out in widespread sub-Arctic dwarf shrub heathland, incorporating both mortality and stress responses. Browning (mortality and stress responses combined) caused considerable site-level reductions in GPP and NEE (of up to 44%), with greatest impacts occurring at early and late season. Furthermore, impacts on CO2 fluxes associated with stress often equalled or exceeded those resulting from vegetation mortality. This demonstrates that extreme events can have major impacts on ecosystem CO2 balance, considerably reducing the carbon sink capacity of the ecosystem, even where vegetation is not killed. Structural Equation Modelling and additional measurements, including decomposition rates and leaf respiration, provided further insight into mechanisms underlying impacts of mortality and stress on CO2 fluxes. The scale of reductions in ecosystem CO2 uptake highlights the need for a process-based understanding of Arctic browning in order to predict how vegetation and CO2 balance will respond to continuing climate change.
This study focuses on commercial waste, which has received less attention than household waste in regards to greenhouse gas emission research. First, the global warming potential (GWP) of commercial waste management was calculated. Second, the impacts of different waste fractions and the processes of waste management were recognised. Third, the key areas on which to focus when aiming to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of commercial waste management were determined. This study was conducted on the waste generated by a real hypermarket in South-East Finland and included eight different waste fractions. The waste treatment plants were selected based on the actual situation. Three different scenarios were employed to evaluate the environmental impact of managing mixed waste: landfilling, combustion and more accurate source separation. The GaBi software and impact assessment methodology CML 2001 were used to perform a life cycle assessment of the environmental impacts associated with the waste management. The results indicated that the total GWP of commercial waste management could be reduced by 93% by directing the mixed waste to combustion instead of landfill. A further 5% GWP reduction could be achieved by more accurate source separation of the mixed waste. Utilisation of energy waste had the most significant influence (41-52%) on the total GWP (-880 to -860?kgCO2-eq./t), followed by landfilling of mixed waste (influence 15-23% on the total GWP, 430?kgCO2-eq./t), recycling polyethylene (PE) plastic (influence 18-21% on the total GWP, -1800?kgCO2-eq./t) and recycling cardboard (influence 11-13% on the total GWP, 51?kgCO2-eq./t). A key focus should be placed on treatment processes and substitutions, especially in terms of substitutions of energy waste and PE plastic. This study also clarified the importance of sorting PE plastic, even though the share of this waste fraction was not substantial. The results of this paper were compared to those of previous studies. The output of this analysis indicated that the total GWP can be significantly reduced by identifying an alternative recycling or incineration location for cardboard where it is used to substitute virgin material or replace fossil fuels respectively. In conclusion, it is essential to note that waste management companies have a notable influence on the emissions of commercial waste management because they choose the places at which the waste fractions are treated and utilised.
Assessment of body fat (BF) in pregnant women is important when investigating the relationship between maternal nutrition and offspring health. Convenient and accurate body composition methods applicable during pregnancy are therefore needed. Air displacement plethysmography, as applied in Bod Pod, represents such a method since it can assess body volume (BV) which, in combination with body weight, can be used to calculate body density and body composition. However, BV must be corrected for the thoracic gas volume (TGV) of the subject. In non-pregnant women, TGV may be predicted using equations, based on height and age. It is unknown, however, whether these equations are valid during pregnancy. Thus, we measured the TGV of women in gestational week 32 (n 27) by means of plethysmography and predicted their TGV using equations established for non-pregnant women. Body weight and BV of the women was measured using Bod Pod. Predicted TGV was significantly (P = 0·033) higher than measured TGV by 6 % on average. Calculations in hypothetical women showed that this overestimation tended to be more pronounced in women with small TGV than in women with large TGV. The overestimation of TGV resulted in a small but significant (P = 0·043) overestimation of BF, equivalent to only 0·5 % BF, on average. A Bland-Altman analysis showed that the limits of agreement were narrow (from -1·9 to 2·9 % BF). Thus, although predicted TGV was biased and too high, the effect on BF was marginal and probably unimportant in many situations.
A population-based case-referent study provided information on the associations between several types of cancer and 10 types of exhaust and combustion products. All site-exposure combinations were investigated. An increased lung cancer risk, in particular squamous-cell cancers, due to exposure to gasoline and diesel exhausts was found. Among the associations that have not been subject to previous attention, the most promising leads for further investigation are the possible relations between gasoline and diesel exhaust and colorectal cancers, gasoline exhaust and kidney cancer, coal combustion products and pancreatic cancer (and possibly nonadenocarcinoma lung cancer), combustion products of heating oil and prostatic cancer, and natural-gas combustion products and bladder cancer.
Starting from 2009, monitoring studies of swamp regimes have been conducted at the swampland station located in the north-eastern Altai. Here, we present the results of biological activity (indices of microorganisms abundance, respirometric indicator, catalase activity) in peat deposits of eutrophic (Turochak) and mesotrophic (Kutyushskoye) swamps during 2012-2013 vegetation periods with different levels of marsh water and oxidation-reduction conditions.