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27 records – page 1 of 3.

Anisakids (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from stomachs of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska: parasitological and pathological analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269344
Source
Parasitol Res. 2014 Dec;113(12):4463-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
T A Kuzmina
E T Lyons
T R Spraker
Source
Parasitol Res. 2014 Dec;113(12):4463-70
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology
Animals
Ascaridida Infections - epidemiology - parasitology - pathology - veterinary
Ascaridoidea - anatomy & histology - classification - isolation & purification
Fur Seals - parasitology
Gastric Mucosa - parasitology - pathology
Islands
Male
Prevalence
Abstract
Anisakid nematodes parasitize the alimentary tracts of aquatic vertebrates, including northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) (NFS). The main purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence, intensity, and species composition of anisakids in NFSs on St. Paul Island, Alaska, and to analyze changes in NFS infection with these nematodes during the last decades. The study was carried out on St. Paul Island, Alaska, in July-August 2011-2013. Stomachs of 443 humanely harvested NFS males were collected from five separate haul-out areas. A total of 4,460 anisakid specimens were collected and identified by morphological criteria. Gross and histological examinations of stomachs were also performed. The overall prevalence of NFS infection was 91.2%; overall mean intensity 10.9, and overall median intensity 6. Five species, Anisakis simplex s. l., Contracaecum osculatum s. l., Pseudoterranova decipiens s. l., P. azarazi and Phocascaris cystophorae, were found. The prevalence of Anisakis was 46.5%, its intensity 7.5. The prevalence and intensity of Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova, and Phocascaris were 33.6% and 3.5, 81.9% and 6.5, and 5.2% and 1.7, respectively. Significant differences in the prevalence of NFS infection were observed between separate haul-outs. Comparison of the present data with the results of studies performed in the North Pacific in the 1960s, showed a significant decrease in the intensity of NFS infection with anisakids during the last decades. The prevalence of mucosal lesions in NFS stomachs caused by anisakids also decreased from 92 to 20.9%. Possible reasons for the changes in NFS infection with anisakids are discussed.
PubMed ID
25216781 View in PubMed
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Apoptosis in normal and Coxiella burnetii-infected placentas from Alaskan northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262014
Source
Vet Pathol. 2013 Jul;50(4):622-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2013
Author
E. Myers
E J Ehrhart
B. Charles
T. Spraker
T. Gelatt
C. Duncan
Source
Vet Pathol. 2013 Jul;50(4):622-5
Date
Jul-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Apoptosis
Caspase 3 - analysis - immunology
Coxiella burnetii - isolation & purification - physiology
Female
Fur Seals - microbiology - physiology
Immunohistochemistry - veterinary
In Situ Nick-End Labeling - methods - veterinary
Placenta - microbiology - pathology
Pregnancy
Q Fever - pathology - veterinary
Trophoblasts - microbiology - pathology
Abstract
In 2010, Coxiella burnetii was identified in 75% of northern fur seal placentas from a single rookery in Alaska, but nothing was known about the significance of this organism in the population. Although many infectious organisms cause increased cell death, C. burnetii has been shown to suppress apoptosis of the host macrophages as an intracellular survival mechanism. To determine if infection induces a similar functional change in the placenta, immunohistochemistry for antibodies to cleaved caspase-3 (activated caspase-3) and the (TDT)-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique were used to compare the amount of placental apoptosis in infected and noninfected placentas. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of apoptotic cells between infected and uninfected placentas, with more apoptosis identified in the uninfected placentas. This finding suggests that the survival mechanism of C. burnetii in host macrophages to reduce apoptosis may also be utilized in trophoblasts. The significance of decreased trophoblastic apoptosis for the northern fur seal fetus requires further investigation.
PubMed ID
23125144 View in PubMed
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Bacterial and fungal flora of wild northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6979
Source
J Wildl Dis. 1982 Oct;18(4):447-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1982
Author
N A Vedros
J. Quinlivan
R. Cranford
Source
J Wildl Dis. 1982 Oct;18(4):447-56
Date
Oct-1982
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Alaska
Animals
Bacteria - isolation & purification
Blood - microbiology
California
Female
Fungi - isolation & purification
Fur Seals - microbiology
Male
Organ Specificity
Pinnipedia - microbiology
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Sex Factors
Species Specificity
Abstract
Tissues from healthy subadult and moribund newborn northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska, and from healthy pups and yearlings on San Miguel Island, California, were sampled for bacteria and fungi. Corynebacterium spp. and Staphylococcus spp. were more frequently present in tissues from animals on St. Paul Island whereas Pseudomonas spp. were frequently isolated on San Miguel Island. Approximately half of the blood samples were positive for bacteria. Salmonella spp. were isolated from rectal swabs of animals only on San Miguel Island. Fungi were isolated from the hair and skin of subadult males.
PubMed ID
7154218 View in PubMed
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Birth decade affects the sensitization pattern and asthma risk in Finnish adult population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292511
Source
Allergy. 2017 Nov; 72(11):1791-1795
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-2017
Author
S Toppila-Salmi
A Luukkainen
R Lemmetyinen
J Karjalainen
H Huhtala
R Renkonen
D Y Wang
M J Mäkelä
J Pekkanen
Author Affiliation
Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Allergy. 2017 Nov; 72(11):1791-1795
Date
Nov-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Allergens - immunology
Animal Fur - immunology
Animals
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Case-Control Studies
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Hypersensitivity, Immediate - diagnosis
Middle Aged
Risk
Skin Tests
Abstract
We have previously shown that sensitizations to several types of allergens distinguish subjects with and without adult-onset asthma in Finland. The aim was to analyze how age affects sensitization and asthma risk. We used previous population-based case-control data (N=456) from Finnish adult asthma patients with one or two matched controls. Asthma was diagnosed based on a typical history of asthmatic symptoms and lung function tests. Allergic sensitization was determined by skin prick test (SPT) to 17 aeroallergens. Information on demographics was obtained by a questionnaire. Sensitization to more than one allergen type and the number of positive SPT reactions associated with younger age and asthma. Atopic subjects aged 65 and above were characterized by sensitization to only one to two allergens, with very few animal danders and without an association with asthma. Multiple sensitizations and animal dander sensitization are more common among Finnish asthmatic adults aged under 56 than among older asthmatics. Cohort studies are needed to understand timing of host-environmental interactions behind this.
PubMed ID
28444953 View in PubMed
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Buoyancy and insulation in the muskrat, Ondatra zibethicus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297262
Source
Alaskan Air Command. Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical report 61-15.
Publication Type
Report
Date
October 1961
1961 CONSORTIUM LIBP~RY, ANCHORAGE, AK. ABSTRACT The amount of air normally trapped in the nonwettable fur of the muskrat has been measured. The average volume of air for 10 muskrats was 176. 9 ml, which represents 21. 5 per cent of their average total dry volume. The large volume of air in
  1 document  
Author
Johansen, Kjell.
Author Affiliation
Department of Physiology, Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory
Source
Alaskan Air Command. Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical report 61-15.
Date
October 1961
Language
English
Publication Type
Report
File Size
383440
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Animals
Muskrats
Fur
Insulation
Buoyancy
Abstract
The amount of air normally trapped in the nonwettable fur of the muskrat has been measured. The average volume of air for 10 muskrats was 176. 9 ml, which represents 21. 5 per cent of their average total dry volume. The large volume of air in the fur gives the muskrats an average specific gravity of O. 790. The importance of the air layer for the buoyancy and insulation of the muskrat is discussed.
Notes
UAA - ALASKA RC955.U9 no.61-15
Documents
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Coxiella burnetii in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) placentas from St. Paul Island, Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130279
Source
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012 Mar;12(3):192-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Colleen Duncan
Gilbert J Kersh
Terry Spraker
Kelly A Patyk
Kelly A Fitzpatrick
Robert F Massung
Tom Gelatt
Author Affiliation
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80524, USA. colleen.duncan@colostate.edu
Source
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012 Mar;12(3):192-5
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology
Animals
Coxiella burnetii - genetics - isolation & purification
DNA, Bacterial - genetics
Female
Fur Seals - microbiology
Humans
Islands
Placenta - microbiology - pathology
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
Prevalence
Q Fever - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
Abstract
The decline in the number of northern fur seal (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) pups on St. Paul Island, Alaska, has led to multidisciplinary research, including investigation into issues of reproductive health and success. Given the recent identification of Coxiella burnetii in the placenta of two other marine mammal species, NFS placentas were collected from Reef rookery on St. Paul Island, Alaska, during the 2010 pupping season, examined histologically, and tested for C. burnetii using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 146 placentas examined, gram-negative intratrophoblastic bacteria that were positive for C. burnetii on immunohistochemistry were observed in 5 (3%) placentas. Placental infection was usually devoid of associated inflammation or significant ancillary pathology. One hundred nine (75%) of the placentas were positive for C. burnetii on PCR. C. burnetii is globally distributed and persists for long periods in the environment, providing ample opportunity for exposure of many species. The significance of this finding for the declining fur seal population, potential human exposure and infection, and impact on other sympatric marine mammal or terrestrial species is unclear; further investigation into the epidemiology of Coxiella in the marine ecosystem is warranted.
Notes
Erratum In: Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2014 May;14(5):382
PubMed ID
22017469 View in PubMed
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Digeneans of northern fur seals Callorhinus ursinus (Pinnipedia: Otariidae) from five subpopulations on St. Paul Island, Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature293021
Source
Parasitol Res. 2018 Apr; 117(4):1079-1086
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-2018
Author
T A Kuzmina
V V Tkach
T R Spraker
E T Lyons
O Kudlai
Author Affiliation
I. I. Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology NAS of Ukraine, B. Khmelnitsky Street, 15, Kyiv, 01030, Ukraine. taniak@izan.kiev.ua.
Source
Parasitol Res. 2018 Apr; 117(4):1079-1086
Date
Apr-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology
Animals
Fur Seals - parasitology
Heterophyidae - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Intestines - parasitology
Phylogeny
Prevalence
RNA, Ribosomal, 28S - genetics
Trematode Infections - epidemiology - parasitology - veterinary
Troglotrematidae - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Abstract
A parasitological survey of 651 northern fur seals Callorhinus ursinus L. from five subpopulations was conducted on St. Paul Island, Alaska, during July-August 2012-2014. Digenean trematodes were found in 210 of 651 fur seals with a total prevalence of 32.3%. Intensity of infection varied from 1 to 1540 parasites with mean intensity 18.4?±?111.1 SD and median intensity of 2 specimens per host. Significant differences in prevalence and intensity of infection in northern fur seals between separate rookeries was not observed (Mann-Whitney test; p?>?0.05). Four species of digeneans belonging to the families Heterophyidae (Apophallus zalophi Price, 1932, Phocitrema fusiforme Goto and Ozaki, 1930, and Galactosomum ubelakeri (Dailey, 1969)) and Troglotrematidae (Nanophyetus salmincola (Chapin, 1926)) were found. Nanophyetus salmincola is reported from C. ursinus for the first time. We obtained partial 28S rDNA sequences for all digenean species and conducted molecular phylogenetic analysis to demonstrate their phylogenetic relationships.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29435720 View in PubMed
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Epsalnguipagtat: How They Weren?t Stifled by Sewing

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257064
Source
First Alaskans, 2013 June/July; (): 66-69
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
  1 website  
Author
Leslie Hsu Oh
Source
First Alaskans, 2013 June/July; (): 66-69
Date
2013
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Multi-National
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Arctic
Customs
Sewing
Furs
Smithsonian
Community
Elders
Online Resources
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Ethnographic summary: The Aleutian-Pribilof Islands region

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature102056
Source
Social Transition in the North, Working Papers, Vol. 1, No. 3
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1993
, however, reasonable to propose that sea otter meat was eaten in times of famine. All three animal species were available year round. Fur seals are available seasonally. In pre-contact times they were available only in the Eastern Aleutians, Social Transition in the North Aleutian-Pribilof lslands
  1 document  
Author
Black, LT
Author Affiliation
Social Research Institute, Anchorage, AK
Source
Social Transition in the North, Working Papers, Vol. 1, No. 3
Date
May-1993
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Aleutian region
Aleuts
Bering Sea
Commandor Islands
Cultural divisions
Dialects
Diseases
Ecological knowledge
Economy
Ethnohistory
Fur hunters
Indigenous societies
Kinship
Language
Near Islands
Orthodox Christianity
Pathology
Polities
Precontact rituals
Russians
Social structure
Warfare
Abstract
The term Aleutian Region refers to the habitat of the Unangan (Aleut) speakers. In pre-contact times this area encompassed, from east to west, the Shumagin Island to the south of the Alaska Peninsula, the area of the Alaska Peninsula west of Port Moller, and all the islands of the Aleutian Archipelago, including the Near Islands in the west. In post-contact time, two Bering Sea island groups, the Pribilof Islands in the United States and the Commandor Islands (Komandorskie ostrova) in Russia, were settled by Aleuts and are incorporated today in the Aleutian Region.
Notes
The entire collection of working papers from the Social Transition in the North project is available at UAA Archives & Special Collections in the Consortium Library.
Documents

STN_Vol 1_No 3_Ethnographic Summary_Aleutian-Pribilof Isla.pdf

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Ethnographic summary: The Chukotka region

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature102057
Source
Social Transition in the North, Working Papers, Vol. 1, No. 4
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1993
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1V.A. Reindeer Breeding 47 ......................................... 1V.B. Hunting Industry 50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1V.C. Fur Breeding 53 V
  1 document  
Author
Pika, AI
Terentyeva, LP
Bogoyavlensky, DD
Author Affiliation
Social Research Institute, Anchorage, AK
Source
Social Transition in the North, Working Papers, Vol. 1, No. 4
Date
May-1993
Language
English
Geographic Location
Russia
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Christianity
Chukchis
Chukotka
Economy
Eskimos
Ethnography
Ethnohistory
Fur breeding
Geography
Health care
Hunting
Indigenous populations
Kinship
Marriage
Reindeer breeding
Sea mammal harvest
Social organization
Subsistence
Traditional culture
Whaling
Abstract
The Providenski district (covering 26.8 thousand square kilometers) occupies the southeastern portion of the Chukotski Peninsula. The southeastern coast of the district is surrounded by the Bering Sea, while the northeast boundary borders the Chukotka district and the western edge neighbors the Yiultinsky district. Prior to 1957, the Providenski district was incorporated into the Chukotka district.
Notes
The entire collection of working papers from the Social Transition in the North project is available at UAA Archives & Special Collections in the Consortium Library.
Documents

STN_Vol 1_No 4_Ethnographic Summary_Chukotka Region_May 1993.pdf

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27 records – page 1 of 3.