A population-based case-referent study provided information on the associations between several types of cancer and 10 types of exhaust and combustion products. All site-exposure combinations were investigated. An increased lung cancer risk, in particular squamous-cell cancers, due to exposure to gasoline and diesel exhausts was found. Among the associations that have not been subject to previous attention, the most promising leads for further investigation are the possible relations between gasoline and diesel exhaust and colorectal cancers, gasoline exhaust and kidney cancer, coal combustion products and pancreatic cancer (and possibly nonadenocarcinoma lung cancer), combustion products of heating oil and prostatic cancer, and natural-gas combustion products and bladder cancer.
The authors provide the results of the follow-up and examination of 57 children with burn disease due to the railway accident. Describe psychopathological disorders which developed in the victims at different stages of burn disease: burn shock, toxemia, septic toxemia , and convalescence. Lay emphasis on the fact that in formation of the psychopathological symptomatology in the acute period, of importance were thermal, traumatic, intoxication and psychogenic factors; during convalescence, of great importance was the appearance of postburn scars on the open parts of the body. The authors distinguish the over-valued complex, related to feelings due to the cosmetic defect; describe its structure and typology. The given work makes it possible to have a more comprehensive idea of the phenomenology of neuropsychic disorders in the burnt, as well as of the principles of organizing the psychiatric and psychotherapeutic aid, and of its position in a complex of treatment measures for burn disease.
In this study, impact of dispersed oil on cardiac mitochondrial function was assessed in a key species of Arctic marine ecosystem, the polar cod Boreogadus saida. Mature polar cod were exposed during 48 h to dispersed oil (mechanically and chemically) and dispersants alone. The increase observed in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in bile indicated no difference in contamination level between fish exposed to chemical or mechanical dispersion of oil. Oil induced alterations of O2 consumption of permeabilised cardiac fibres showing inhibitions of complexes I and IV of the respiratory chain. Oil did not induce any modification of mitochondrial proton leak. Dispersants did not induce alteration of mitochondrial activity and did not increase oil toxicity. These data suggest that oil exposure may limit the fitness of polar cod and consequently could lead to major disruption in the energy flow of polar ecosystem.
A cohort study of agricultural practices and the mortality experience (1971 to 1987) of male farmers in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta has been conducted. The census records of 156, 242 male farmers identified on the 1971 Census of Agriculture and the corresponding Census of Population were linked to mortality records through 1987. We observed associations between multiple myeloma mortality and fuel/oil expenditures (relative risk for top quartile of exposure = 1.69, 95% confidence interval = 1.08 to 2.65). No significant associations were found between multiple myeloma and herbicide use or with selected sociodemographic variables.
Some aircraft personel and airline industry workers are exposed to jet fuel, a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons (petroleum 80%) and some organic solvents (petroleum 80%) and some organic solvents (aromatic hydrocarbons 20%). In order to evaluate the possible neuropsychiatric sequeale of such long-term occupational exposure, we examined 30 workers exposed at about 250 mg/m3 for 4-32 years at a jet motor factory. They were compared with two control groups (2 x 30) of matched non-exposed workers. The medical history was first assessed by standardized interviews and examination of medical records kept by the factory physician. The exposed subjects had, after their employment, much more often sought medical advice because of emotional dysfunctions, such as depression and anxiety, than had the control groups (P less than 0.005). When the prevalent mental symptoms, indicative of brain lesion, later were rated by psychiatrists, the exposed workers scored higher than did the controls (P less than 0.001). 14 subjects showing most symptoms were then selected for a thorough neuropsychiatric clinical investigation comprising psychosocial inquiries, psychological testing, personality assessment and neurological/neurophysiological examination. Seven were judged to suffer from mild organic brain syndrome (i.e. "organic neurasthenia") of which one subject was a severe case. The subjects had all undergone a slow but steady personality change over the years--starting from an ordinary strength without neurotic traits and moving towards an asthenic state with fatigue, anxiety and vegetative hyperreactivity. No other cause for this change could be identified as an alternative to the occupational exposure to jet fuel. It is concluded that personality changes and emotional dysfunctions are the foremost effects of such long-term exposure to petroleum products.
The aim of this study was to provide an update of a cohort study (1971-1985) that previously reported a significant trend in the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among male Saskatchewan farm operators according to fuel-oil expenditures and herbicide spraying for farms less than 1000 acres (2570 hectares) by including two additional Canadian prairie provinces, two additional years of follow-up, and data from the 1981 Census of Agriculture.
Information on farmers from 1971 records of the Census of Agriculture was linked to 1971 records of the Census of Population, to 1981 records of the Census of Agriculture, and to death records. Poisson regression was used to estimate risks according to herbicide spraying and fuel and oil expenditures.
The addition of a further two years of follow-up resulted in lower risk estimates associated with herbicide spraying for Saskatchewan. No excess risk was observed between herbicide spraying and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma for Alberta or Manitoba in the 1971 data. However, a significantly increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma according to acres sprayed with herbicides was observed for the three provinces combined when the herbicide spraying data from the 1981 Census of Agriculture was used [> or = 380 acres (> or = 939 hectares) sprayed, rate ratio 2.11, 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.9].
Although the current results are not entirely consistent with the original Saskatchewan analysis, they support the overall finding of an association between herbicides and risk of fatal non-Hodgkins lymphoma. Prospective cohort studies are needed to overcome the limitations of existing epidemiologic studies.