Snacks are an important part of children's dietary intake, but the role of dried fruit on energy intake in children is unknown. Therefore, the effect of ad libitum consumption of an after-school snack of raisins, grapes, potato chips, and chocolate chip cookies on appetite and energy intake in twenty-six 8- to 11-y-old normal-weight (15th to 85th percentile) children was examined. On 4 separate weekdays, 1 wk apart, children (11 M, 15 F) were given a standardized breakfast, morning snack (apple), and a standardized lunch. After school, children randomly received 1 of 4 ad libitum snacks and were instructed to eat until "comfortably full." Appetite was measured before and 15, 30, and 45 min after snack consumption. Children consumed the least calories from raisins and grapes and the most from cookies (P
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether fruit and vegetable consumption in pregnancy is associated with birth weight in a Western population. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study based on telephone interviews, a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and extractions of birth characteristics from national health registries. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: The 43,585 Danish women from the Danish National Birth Cohort who had completed the FFQ in mid-pregnancy and on whom information about birth outcome was available. The exposures were frequency of green leafy vegetable (GLV) intake and quantified intake of fruit, fruit and vegetables, and fruit and vegetables and juice. The outcomes were birth weight and z-score for expected birth weight adjusted for sex and gestation week. Information on maternal height, weight, smoking, and other potential confounders was obtained through telephone interviews. RESULTS: Significant associations were found for all exposures to fruit and vegetable intake with birth weight and most with z-score. The strongest association was found for fruit intake in which case birth weight increased by 10.7 g (95% CI 7.3-14.2) per quintile. All associations were stronger among lean women (BMI
Diet regulates gene expression profiles by several mechanisms. The objective of this study was to examine gene expression in relation with dietary patterns.
Two hundred and fifty four participants from the greater Quebec City metropolitan area were recruited. Two hundred and ten participants completed the study protocol. Dietary patterns were derived from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by factor analysis. For 30 participants (in fasting state), RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and expression levels of 47,231 mRNA transcripts were assessed using the Illumina Human-6 v3 Expression BeadChips®. Microarray data was pre-processed with Flexarray software and analysed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA).
Two dietary patterns were identified. The Prudent dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of vegetables, fruits, whole grain products and low intakes of refined grain products and the Western dietary pattern, by high intakes of refined grain products, desserts, sweets and processed meats. When individuals with high scores for the Prudent dietary pattern where compared to individuals with low scores, 2,083 transcripts were differentially expressed in men, 1,136 transcripts in women and 59 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. For the Western dietary pattern, 1,021 transcripts were differentially expressed in men with high versus low scores, 1,163 transcripts in women and 23 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. IPA reveals that genes differentially expressed for both patterns were present in networks related to the immune and/or inflammatory response, cancer and cardiovascular diseases.
Gene expression profiles were different according to dietary patterns, which probably modulate the risk of chronic diseases.
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Dietary patterns, rather than intakes of specific foods or nutrients, may influence risk of endometrial cancer (EC). This population-based case-control study in Canada (2002-2006) included incident EC cases (n = 506) from the Alberta Cancer Registry and controls frequency age-matched to cases (n = 981). Past-year dietary patterns were defined using factor analysis of food frequency questionnaire data. Logistic regression was used to estimate EC risk within quartiles of dietary patterns. Three patterns (sweets, meat, plants) explained 23% of the variance in the dietary data. In multivariable models, EC risk was significantly reduced by 30% for women in the highest quartile of the healthier plants pattern (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.50-0.98, P trend = 0.02). When stratified by body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)), risk was further reduced among overweight or obese women with a BMI =25 (OR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.39-0.83; P trend = 0.004). EC was not associated with the less healthy sweets and meat patterns. However, risk was modestly, but not significantly, elevated for higher intakes of the meat pattern among overweight or obese women. A mostly plant-based dietary pattern may reduce EC risk. Recommendations for risk reduction should focus on maintaining a healthy weight and the role of diet should be studied further.
A few studies have investigated tracking of dietary patterns or nutrient intake in pre-school children, but no studies have been identified examining tracking of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), fruit and vegetable intakes in early childhood (1-7 year olds). The purpose of this study was to investigate changes and tracking of intakes of fruit, vegetables and SSB, and association between maternal education and dietary tracking, from 18 months to 7 years of age.
Longitudinal data from the nation-wide Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health were used, including 9025 children participating at three time points (18 months, 36 months and 7 years). Frequencies of fruit, vegetables and SSB were assessed by questionnaire. Slightly different questions were used at each time point to collect information about intake. Maternal education was categorized into =?12 years, 13-16 years, =?17 years. Cross-tabulation, Spearman's rho and multinomial logistic regression were used for assessing change, tracking and differences by maternal education.
Analyses by gender indicated largest changes for intake of fruit and SSB from age 18 months to 7 years. Fair to moderate tracking coefficients (Spearman's rho = 0.23-0.46) for intake of fruit, vegetables and SSB were found and children assigned to low, medium and high frequency of consumption at 18 months continued to be in the same group at age 36 months and 7 years. Children of mothers with low education consumed fruit and vegetables less often and SSB more often compared to children of mothers with high education at 18 months of age. Children with higher educated mothers had lower odds for increasing fruit intake or decreasing SSB intake, compared to children with lower educated mothers showing a stable intake.
The tracking coefficients for intakes were fair to moderate and differences in intakes according to maternal education were found already at age 18 months. This suggests that promotion of healthy dietary behaviours at an early age is important to prevent unfavourable dietary behaviours later in childhood. Moreover, it seems important to target mothers in nutrition interventions for improving dietary habits among children.
To analyse (i) differences in beverage pattern among Norwegian children in 2001 and 2008; (ii) beverage intake related to gender, parental education and family composition; and (iii) potential disparities in time trends among the different groups.
Within the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) project, 6th and 7th grade pupils filled in a questionnaire about frequency of beverage intake (times/week) in 2001 and 2008.
Twenty-seven elementary schools in two Norwegian counties.
In 2001 a total of 1488 and in 2008 1339 pupils participated.
Between 2001 and 2008, a decreased consumption frequency of juice (from 3·6 to 3·4 times/week, P = 0·012), lemonade (from 4·8 to 2·5 times/week, P
The present study aimed to analyse changes in meal pattern among Norwegian children from 2001 to 2008 in general; to analyse associations between meal pattern and gender, parental educational level and number of parents in the household; and to analyse the association between intake of unhealthy snacks, meal pattern and the mentioned variables.
Within the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) project, two cross-sectional studies were conducted, one in 2001 and one in 2008, where participants from the same schools filled in a questionnaire on meals eaten the previous day.
Participants were 6th and 7th grade pupils, n 1488 in 2001 and n 1339 in 2008.
Twenty-seven elementary schools in two Norwegian counties.
There were no significant changes in children's meal pattern from 2001 to 2008. For both years more than 90 % of the participants reported that they had breakfast yesterday, while 95 % had lunch, 94 % had dinner and 82 % had supper. More girls than boys reported that they had lunch yesterday (96 % v. 94 %, P = 0·03). More children with higher v. lower educated parents reported that they had breakfast yesterday (93 % v. 88 %, P
Elevated plasma total homocysteine (p-tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and an inverse association has been shown between the dietary intake of B-vitamins, B-vitamin profile and the concentration of p-tHcy.
The main objective of this investigation was to study the effect of a dietary intervention focusing on an increased intake of vegetables, fruits and bread. The effect of the dietary intervention was determined by the changes in plasma concentrations of tHcy, cysteine (cys), riboflavin, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and serum concentrations of folate and vitamin B(12).
An intervention study with duration of 5 months, including 541 male recruits from the Norwegian National Guard, Vaernes and a control group, including 209 male recruits from the Norwegian Army, Heggelia.
The dietary intervention resulted in decreased concentration of p-tHcy (-10%, P = 0.002), p-cys (-6%, P
To examine absolute socio-economic differences in food habits and their changes over time.
A longitudinal study using the cohort baseline mail surveys conducted in 2000-2002 (n 8960, response rate 67 %) and the follow-up in 2007 (n 7332, response rate 83 %), including data on seven food habits recommended in the national dietary guidelines, as well as socio-economic and sociodemographic variables.
Data from the Helsinki Health Study survey, followed up for 5-7 years.
Municipal employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland.
Apart from fish and vegetable-based margarine on bread, the proportions of the recommended food items were higher for women than for men. The consumption of the recommended food items either increased or remained stable over the follow-up period. On the basis of the slope index of inequality (SII) it was observed that socio-economic differences widened with regard to the consumption of fresh vegetables and fish and use of vegetable-based margarine or oil in cooking, with the upper classes consuming these foods more often. The largest differences were observed in the consumption of fresh vegetables, for which the SII value among women was 2·38 (95 % CI 1·93, 2·95) at baseline and 2·47 (95 % CI 2·01, 3·03) at follow-up, and 3·36 (95 % CI 1·80, 6·28) and 3·47 (95 % CI 1·95, 6·19) for men, respectively. Socio-economic differences were non-existent for milk, and the reverse was observed for dark bread and vegetable-based margarine on bread.
Consumption of the recommended food items increased in the examined cohort over time. This increase was mostly similar throughout the socio-economic groups and thus the socio-economic differences remained stable. The upper classes followed the guidelines better with regard to the consumption of vegetables and fish and in the use of vegetable-based margarine or oil in cooking.
Inuit in Arctic regions are experiencing a rapid diet and lifestyle transition. There are limited data on food consumption patterns among this unique population, raising concerns about assessing the risk for the development of diet-related chronic diseases.
To assess the current frequency of consumption of foods and beverages among Inuit in Nunavut, Arctic Canada.
A cross-sectional dietary study was conducted among randomly selected Inuit adults from three communities in Nunavut using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The participants were 175 women and 36 men with median (IQR) ages of 41.0 (32.5-48.5) and 40.1 (30.0-50.0) years, respectively. The mean and median frequencies of consumption over a 30-day period were computed for 147 individual food items and grouped as foods or beverages.
The 30 most frequently consumed foods were identified. Non-nutrient-dense foods (i.e., high-fat and high-sugar foods) were the most frequently consumed food group (median intake, 3.4 times/day), followed by grains (2.0 times/day) and traditional meats (1.7 times/day). The frequency of consumption of fruits (0.7 times/day) and vegetables (0.4 times/day) was low. The median values for the three most frequently consumed food items were sugar or honey (once/day), butter (0.71 times/day), and Coffee-mate (0.71 times/day). Apart from water, coffee, and tea, the most frequently consumed beverages were sweetened juices (0.71 times/day) and regular pop (soft drinks) (0.36 times/day). This study showed that non-nutrient-dense foods are consumed most frequently in these Inuit communities.
The results have implications for dietary quality and provide useful information on current dietary practices to guide nutritional intervention programs.