Several healthy dietary patterns have been linked to longevity. Recently, a Nordic dietary pattern was associated with a lower overall mortality. No study has, however, investigated this dietary pattern in relation to cause-specific mortality. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index (consisting of wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, root vegetables, cabbages and fish/shellfish) and overall mortality, and death by cardiovascular disease, cancer, injuries/suicide and other causes. We conducted a prospective analysis in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort, including 44,961 women, aged 29-49 years, who completed a food frequency questionnaire between 1991-1992, and have been followed up for mortality ever since, through Swedish registries. The median follow-up time is 21.3 years, and mortality rate ratios (MRR) were calculated using Cox Proportional Hazards Models. Compared to women with the lowest index score (0-1 points), those with the highest score (4-6 points) had an 18% lower overall mortality (MRR 0.82; 0.71-0.93, p
We analyzed the antiproliferative activity of 6 medicinal wood-destroying mushrooms (Fomes fomentarius, Fomitopsis pinicola, Trametes versicolor, Trichaptum biforme, Inonotus obliquus, and Coniophora puteana) that are common in deciduous and mixed coniferous forests in Central Russia. Morphological identification of strains collected from the wild was confirmed based on ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer phylogenetic analysis. We observed cytotoxic and cell growth-inhibitory effects of hot water extracts from mycelial biomass of 5 species-T. versicolor, C. puteana, F. fomentarius, F. pinicola, and I. obliquus-on leukemia cell lines (Jukart, K562, and THP-1); the effective extract concentrations were mostly less than 50 µg · mL-1. However, we observed no antiproliferative activity of dry biomass from methanol-chloroform (1:1) extracts of C. puteana and F. fomentarius. A chemosensitivity assay showed that the most effective polypore mushroom extract was the methanol extract of T. versicolor (strain It-1), which inhibited the growth of 6 various solid tumors (A-549 and SWi573 [lung], HBL-100 and T-47D [breast], HeLa [cervix], and WiDr [colon]) at concentrations below 45 µg · mL-1, with a concentration as low as 0.7-3.6 µg · mL-1 causing 50% reduction in the proliferation of cancer cells in lung and cervix tumors. Methanol extracts of F. pinicola and I. obliquus were less effective, with proliferation-inhibiting capacities at concentrations below 70 and 200 µg · mL-1, respectively. Thus, T. versicolor is a prospective candidate in the search for and production of new antiproliferative chemical compounds.
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether fruit and vegetable consumption in pregnancy is associated with birth weight in a Western population. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study based on telephone interviews, a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and extractions of birth characteristics from national health registries. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: The 43,585 Danish women from the Danish National Birth Cohort who had completed the FFQ in mid-pregnancy and on whom information about birth outcome was available. The exposures were frequency of green leafy vegetable (GLV) intake and quantified intake of fruit, fruit and vegetables, and fruit and vegetables and juice. The outcomes were birth weight and z-score for expected birth weight adjusted for sex and gestation week. Information on maternal height, weight, smoking, and other potential confounders was obtained through telephone interviews. RESULTS: Significant associations were found for all exposures to fruit and vegetable intake with birth weight and most with z-score. The strongest association was found for fruit intake in which case birth weight increased by 10.7 g (95% CI 7.3-14.2) per quintile. All associations were stronger among lean women (BMI
Dietary quality in relation to bone health has been analysed in relatively few studies. The current study aimed to assess the association of the Baltic Sea diet (BSD) and the Mediterranean diet (MD) with bone mineral density (BMD) among elderly women.
Lumbar, femoral and total body BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and year 3. Dietary intake was measured by 3 d food record at baseline. BSD and MD scores were calculated from food and alcohol consumption and nutrient intake. Information on lifestyle, diseases and medications was collected by questionnaires. Longitudinal associations of BSD and MD scores with BMD were analysed using linear mixed models.
Interventional prospective Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Fracture Prevention study including women aged 65-71 years and residing in Kuopio province, Finland.
Women (n 554) with mean age of 67·9 (sd 1·9) years and mean BMI of 28·8 (sd 4·7) kg/m2.
Higher BSD scores were associated with higher intakes of fruit and berries, vegetables, fish and low-fat dairy products, and lower intake of sausage. Higher MD scores were associated with higher consumption of fruit and berries and vegetables. BSD and MD scores were associated with higher PUFA:SFA and higher fibre intake. Femoral, lumbar or total body BMD was not significantly different among the quartiles of BSD or MD score.
The lack of associations suggest that Baltic Sea and Mediterranean dietary patterns may not adequately reflect dietary factors relevant to bone health.
Given the importance of prevention of complications in type 2 diabetes (T2D), we aimed to examine changes over time in consumption of fruits, vegetables and juice among men who were diagnosed with T2D in comparison with men without diabetes. The prospective Cohort of Swedish Men, aged 45-79 years in 1997, was used to examine changes in diet after diagnosis of T2D. Dietary intake was assessed using FFQ in 1997 and 2009. In all, 23 953 men who were diabetes free at baseline (1997) and completed both FFQ were eligible to participate in the study. Diagnosis of T2D was reported by subjects and ascertained through registers. Multivariable linear mixed models were used to examine changes in mean servings/week over time. In total, 1741 men developed T2D during the study period. Increased consumption of vegetables and fruits was observed among those who developed T2D (equivalent to 1·6 servings/week, 95 % CI 1·08, 2·03) and men who remained diabetes free (0·7 servings/week, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·84). Consumption of juice decreased by 0·6 servings/week (95 % CI -0·71, -0·39) among those who developed T2D and increased by 0·1 servings/week (95 % CI 0·05, 0·15) in those who were diabetes free. Changes over time and between groups were statistically significant. Although improvements in diet were observed, only 36 % of those with T2D and 35 % of those without diabetes consumed =5 servings of fruits and vegetables/d in 2009.
To examine absolute socio-economic differences in food habits and their changes over time.
A longitudinal study using the cohort baseline mail surveys conducted in 2000-2002 (n 8960, response rate 67 %) and the follow-up in 2007 (n 7332, response rate 83 %), including data on seven food habits recommended in the national dietary guidelines, as well as socio-economic and sociodemographic variables.
Data from the Helsinki Health Study survey, followed up for 5-7 years.
Municipal employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland.
Apart from fish and vegetable-based margarine on bread, the proportions of the recommended food items were higher for women than for men. The consumption of the recommended food items either increased or remained stable over the follow-up period. On the basis of the slope index of inequality (SII) it was observed that socio-economic differences widened with regard to the consumption of fresh vegetables and fish and use of vegetable-based margarine or oil in cooking, with the upper classes consuming these foods more often. The largest differences were observed in the consumption of fresh vegetables, for which the SII value among women was 2·38 (95 % CI 1·93, 2·95) at baseline and 2·47 (95 % CI 2·01, 3·03) at follow-up, and 3·36 (95 % CI 1·80, 6·28) and 3·47 (95 % CI 1·95, 6·19) for men, respectively. Socio-economic differences were non-existent for milk, and the reverse was observed for dark bread and vegetable-based margarine on bread.
Consumption of the recommended food items increased in the examined cohort over time. This increase was mostly similar throughout the socio-economic groups and thus the socio-economic differences remained stable. The upper classes followed the guidelines better with regard to the consumption of vegetables and fish and in the use of vegetable-based margarine or oil in cooking.
Previous studies on individual foods and nutrients and Parkinson's disease (PD) risk have been inconsistent. Furthermore, only one study has examined the association between the quality of diet and PD. We investigated the prediction of food groups and diet quality on PD in the Finnish Mobile Clinic Survey (1966-72). The population comprised 4524 individuals, aged 40-79 years and free from PD at baseline. Data collection included health examinations, a questionnaire and a 1-year dietary history interview. A modified Alternate Healthy Eating Index was formed to assess diet quality. Statistical analyses were based on Cox's model. During a 41-year follow-up, eighty-five incident cases of PD occurred. No statistically significant associations were found between PD incidence and most of the food groups examined. A few exceptions were fruits and berries in men and milk in women, which showed positive associations. An inverse association between the intake of meat products and PD was found in women. The diet quality index did not predict PD, the adjusted relative risk between the highest and lowest quartiles being 1.83 (95 % CI 0.65, 5.18) in men and 0.97 (95 % CI 0.38, 2.48) in women. The present study suggests that since most of the single food groups or the quality of diet did not predict PD occurrence, the role of diet is apparently rather modest.
The association between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been investigated by several studies, whereas fewer studies have examined consumption of vegetables and fruits in relation to all-cause mortality. Studies on berries, a rich source of antioxidants, are rare. The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between intake of vegetables, fruits and berries (together and separately) and the risk of all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality due to cancer and CVD and subtypes of these, in a cohort with very long follow-up.
We used data from a population-based prospective Norwegian cohort study of 10,000 men followed from 1968 through 2008. Information on vegetable, fruit and berry consumption was available from a food frequency questionnaire. Association between these and all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality due to cancers and CVDs were investigated using Cox proportional hazard regression models.
Men who in total consumed vegetables, fruit and berries more than 27 times per month had an 8-10% reduced risk of all-cause mortality compared with men with a lower consumption. They also had a 20% reduced risk of stroke mortality. Consumption of fruit was inversely related to overall cancer mortality, with hazard rate ratios of 0.94, 0.84 and 0.79 in the second, third and firth quartile, respectively, compared with the first quartile.
Increased consumption of vegetables, fruits and berries was associated with a delayed risk of all-cause mortality and of mortality due to cancer and stroke.
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence indicates that hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia may be implicated in the development of pancreatic cancer. Frequent consumption of sugar and high-sugar foods may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer by inducing frequent postprandial hyperglycemia, increasing insulin demand, and decreasing insulin sensitivity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine prospectively the association of the consumption of added sugar (ie, sugar added to coffee, tea, cereals, etc) and of high-sugar foods with the risk of pancreatic cancer in a population-based cohort study of Swedish women and men. DESIGN: A food-frequency questionnaire was completed in 1997 by 77 797 women and men aged 45-83 y who had no previous diagnosis of cancer or history of diabetes. The participants were followed through June 2005. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 7.2 y, we identified 131 incident cases of pancreatic cancer. The consumption of added sugar, soft drinks, and sweetened fruit soups or stewed fruit was positively associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer. The multivariate hazard ratios for the highest compared with the lowest consumption categories were 1.69 (95% CI: 0.99, 2.89; P for trend = 0.06) for sugar, 1.93 (1.18, 3.14; P for trend = 0.02) for soft drinks, and 1.51 (0.97, 2.36; P for trend = 0.05) for sweetened fruit soups or stewed fruit. CONCLUSION: High consumption of sugar and high-sugar foods may be associated with a greater risk of pancreatic cancer.
Daily sitting time may be a risk factor for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, this has not yet been extensively studied. Our aim was to study the association of total sitting time with the risk of CVD.
Participants (n = 4516, free of CVD at baseline) from the National FINRISK 2002 Study were followed for fatal and nonfatal CVD using national registers. Participants underwent a health examination and completed questionnaires, including total daily sitting time.
During a mean follow-up of 8.6 years, 183 incident CVD cases occurred. Sitting on a typical weekday, at baseline, was statistically significantly associated with fatal and nonfatal incident CVD. The hazard ratios (with 95% confidence intervals, CI) for the total amount of sitting were 1.05 (95% CI, 1.00-1.10) in the age and gender adjusted model and 1.06 (95% CI, 1.01-1.11) in the fully adjusted model, including age, gender, employment status, education, BMI, smoking status, leisure time physical activity, use of vegetables and fruit, alcohol use, blood pressure or its medication, and cholesterol or its medication.
Our findings suggest that total amount of daily sitting is a risk factor for incident CVD. More research is needed to understand the etiology of sedentary behavior and CVD.