OBJECTIVE: To examine whether fruit and vegetable consumption in pregnancy is associated with birth weight in a Western population. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study based on telephone interviews, a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and extractions of birth characteristics from national health registries. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: The 43,585 Danish women from the Danish National Birth Cohort who had completed the FFQ in mid-pregnancy and on whom information about birth outcome was available. The exposures were frequency of green leafy vegetable (GLV) intake and quantified intake of fruit, fruit and vegetables, and fruit and vegetables and juice. The outcomes were birth weight and z-score for expected birth weight adjusted for sex and gestation week. Information on maternal height, weight, smoking, and other potential confounders was obtained through telephone interviews. RESULTS: Significant associations were found for all exposures to fruit and vegetable intake with birth weight and most with z-score. The strongest association was found for fruit intake in which case birth weight increased by 10.7 g (95% CI 7.3-14.2) per quintile. All associations were stronger among lean women (BMI
Diet is recognised as one modifiable lifestyle factor for ischaemic heart disease (IHD). We aimed at investigating the associations between adherence to the Danish Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) indicated by a Dietary Quality Index (DQI) and selected cardiometabolic risk factors in a cross-sectional study with 219 Danish adult participants (59 %women; age 31-65years) with a minimum of one self-rated risk marker of IHD. Information regarding diet was obtained using web-based dietary assessment software and adherence to the Danish FBDG was expressed by a DQI calculated from 5 food and nutrient indicators (whole grain, fish, fruit and vegetables, energy from saturated fat and from added sugar). Background information, blood samples and anthropometrics were collected and blood pressure was measured. Linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between DQI and cardiometabolic risk factors. DQI was inversely associated with LDL:HDL ratio and TAG (-0·089 per unit; 95 % CI -0·177, -0·002 and -5 % per unit; 95 % CI -9, 0, respectively) and positively associated with HDL-cholesterol (0·047 mmol/l per unit; 95 % CI 0·007, 0·088). For men, DQI was inversely associated with BMI (-3 %per unit; 95 % CI -5, -1), trunk fat (-1 % per unit; 95 % CI -2, -1), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-30 % per unit; 95 % CI -41, -16 %), HbA1c (-0·09 % per unit; 95 % CI -0·14, -0·04), insulin (-13 % per unit; 95 % CI -19, -7) and homoeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (-14 % per unit; 95 % CI -21, -7). In women, DQI was positively associated with systolic blood pressure (2·6 mmHg per unit; 95 % CI 0·6, 4·6). In conclusion, higher adherence to the current Danish FBDG was associated with a more beneficial cardiometabolic risk profile in a Danish adult population with a minimum of one self-rated risk factor for IHD.
A healthy diet is important for pregnancy outcome and the current and future health of woman and child. The aims of the study were to explore the changes from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy in consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV), and to describe associations with maternal educational level, body mass index (BMI) and age.
Healthy nulliparous women were included in the Norwegian Fit for Delivery (NFFD) trial from September 2009 to February 2013, recruited from eight antenatal clinics in southern Norway. At inclusion, in median gestational week 15 (range 9-20), 575 participants answered a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) where they reported consumption of FV, both current intake and recollection of pre-pregnancy intake. Data were analysed using a linear mixed model.
The percentage of women consuming FV daily or more frequently in the following categories increased from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy: vegetables on sandwiches (13 vs. 17%, p?
To examine absolute socio-economic differences in food habits and their changes over time.
A longitudinal study using the cohort baseline mail surveys conducted in 2000-2002 (n 8960, response rate 67 %) and the follow-up in 2007 (n 7332, response rate 83 %), including data on seven food habits recommended in the national dietary guidelines, as well as socio-economic and sociodemographic variables.
Data from the Helsinki Health Study survey, followed up for 5-7 years.
Municipal employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland.
Apart from fish and vegetable-based margarine on bread, the proportions of the recommended food items were higher for women than for men. The consumption of the recommended food items either increased or remained stable over the follow-up period. On the basis of the slope index of inequality (SII) it was observed that socio-economic differences widened with regard to the consumption of fresh vegetables and fish and use of vegetable-based margarine or oil in cooking, with the upper classes consuming these foods more often. The largest differences were observed in the consumption of fresh vegetables, for which the SII value among women was 2·38 (95 % CI 1·93, 2·95) at baseline and 2·47 (95 % CI 2·01, 3·03) at follow-up, and 3·36 (95 % CI 1·80, 6·28) and 3·47 (95 % CI 1·95, 6·19) for men, respectively. Socio-economic differences were non-existent for milk, and the reverse was observed for dark bread and vegetable-based margarine on bread.
Consumption of the recommended food items increased in the examined cohort over time. This increase was mostly similar throughout the socio-economic groups and thus the socio-economic differences remained stable. The upper classes followed the guidelines better with regard to the consumption of vegetables and fish and in the use of vegetable-based margarine or oil in cooking.
Previous studies on individual foods and nutrients and Parkinson's disease (PD) risk have been inconsistent. Furthermore, only one study has examined the association between the quality of diet and PD. We investigated the prediction of food groups and diet quality on PD in the Finnish Mobile Clinic Survey (1966-72). The population comprised 4524 individuals, aged 40-79 years and free from PD at baseline. Data collection included health examinations, a questionnaire and a 1-year dietary history interview. A modified Alternate Healthy Eating Index was formed to assess diet quality. Statistical analyses were based on Cox's model. During a 41-year follow-up, eighty-five incident cases of PD occurred. No statistically significant associations were found between PD incidence and most of the food groups examined. A few exceptions were fruits and berries in men and milk in women, which showed positive associations. An inverse association between the intake of meat products and PD was found in women. The diet quality index did not predict PD, the adjusted relative risk between the highest and lowest quartiles being 1.83 (95 % CI 0.65, 5.18) in men and 0.97 (95 % CI 0.38, 2.48) in women. The present study suggests that since most of the single food groups or the quality of diet did not predict PD occurrence, the role of diet is apparently rather modest.
The association between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been investigated by several studies, whereas fewer studies have examined consumption of vegetables and fruits in relation to all-cause mortality. Studies on berries, a rich source of antioxidants, are rare. The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between intake of vegetables, fruits and berries (together and separately) and the risk of all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality due to cancer and CVD and subtypes of these, in a cohort with very long follow-up.
We used data from a population-based prospective Norwegian cohort study of 10,000 men followed from 1968 through 2008. Information on vegetable, fruit and berry consumption was available from a food frequency questionnaire. Association between these and all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality due to cancers and CVDs were investigated using Cox proportional hazard regression models.
Men who in total consumed vegetables, fruit and berries more than 27 times per month had an 8-10% reduced risk of all-cause mortality compared with men with a lower consumption. They also had a 20% reduced risk of stroke mortality. Consumption of fruit was inversely related to overall cancer mortality, with hazard rate ratios of 0.94, 0.84 and 0.79 in the second, third and firth quartile, respectively, compared with the first quartile.
Increased consumption of vegetables, fruits and berries was associated with a delayed risk of all-cause mortality and of mortality due to cancer and stroke.
In Norway, social inequalities in health and health-related behaviors have been reported despite the well-developed welfare state. The objective of the present study was to analyze; (i) the development in frequency of consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and artificially sweetened beverages (ASB) from childhood to adulthood; (ii) socioeconomic inequalities in the consumption of SSB and ASB using different indicators of socioeconomic status (SES); (iii) time trends in potential disparities in SSB and ASB consumption among different socioeconomic groups to assess the development in socioeconomic inequality from childhood to adulthood.
This study uses data from the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) longitudinal cohort, including participants (n?=?437) from 20 random schools from two Norwegian counties. Data from the first survey in 2001 (mean age 11.8) and follow-up surveys in 2005 (mean age 15.5) and 2016 (mean age 26.5) were used. Consumption of SSB and ASB were measured using a food frequency questionnaire, which the participants completed at school in 2001 and 2005, and online in 2016. Various indicators of SES were included; in 2001, parental education and income were measured, in 2005, participants' educational intentions in adolescence were measured, and in 2016, participants' own education and income were measured. The main analyses conducted were linear mixed effects analysis of the repeated measures.
Between 2001 and 2016, a decrease in frequency of consumption of SSB (2.8 v 1.3 times/week; p?=?
The relation between the intake of retinoids, carotenoids, vitamin E, vitamin C, and selenium and the subsequent risk of lung cancer was studied among 4,538 initially cancer-free Finnish men aged 20-69 years. During a follow-up of 20 years beginning in 1966-1972, 117 lung cancer cases were diagnosed. Inverse gradients were observed between the intake of carotenoids, vitamin E, and vitamin C and the incidence of lung cancer among nonsmokers, for whom the age-adjusted relative risks of lung cancer in the lowest tertile of intake compared with that in the highest tertile were 2.5 (p value for trend = 0.04), 3.1 (p = 0.12), and 3.1 (p less than 0.01) for the three intakes, respectively. Adjustment for various potential confounding factors did not materially alter the results, and the associations did not seem to be due to preclinical cancer. In the total cohort, there was an inverse association between intake of margarine and fruits and risk of lung cancer. The relative risk of lung cancer for the lowest compared with the highest tertile of margarine intake was 4.0 (p less than 0.001), and that for fruits was 1.8 (p = 0.01). These associations persisted after adjustment for the micronutrient intakes and were stronger among nonsmokers. The results suggest that carotenoids, vitamin E, and vitamin C may be protective against lung cancer among nonsmokers. Food sources rich in these micronutrients may also have other constituents with independent protective effects against lung cancer.
Comment In: Am J Epidemiol. 1992 Nov 1;136(9):1167-9; author reply 1169-701462977
Prospective studies of dietary fiber intake in relation to stroke risk have reported inconsistent results.
This study assessed the association between intake of total fiber and fiber sources and stroke incidence in healthy Swedish adults.
The analysis was based on 69,677 participants (aged 45-83 y) from the Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men who were free from cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes at baseline (1 January 1998). Diet was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. Cases of stroke were ascertained through linkage to the Swedish Inpatient Register and the Swedish Cause of Death Register. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to calculate RRs, adjusted for potential confounders.
During 10.3 y of follow-up, 3680 incident stroke cases, including 2722 cerebral infarctions, 363 intracerebral hemorrhages, 160 subarachnoid hemorrhages, and 435 unspecified strokes, were ascertained. High intakes of total fiber and fiber from fruits and vegetables but not from cereals were inversely associated with risk of stroke. After adjustment for other risk factors for stroke, the multivariable RRs of total stroke for the highest vs. lowest quintile of intake were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.99) for total fiber, 0.85 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.95) for fruit fiber, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.00) for vegetable fiber, and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.04) for cereal fiber.
These findings indicate that intake of dietary fiber, especially fruit and vegetable fibers, is inversely associated with risk of stroke.
Diet has been associated with sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. The relationship to the growth rate of adenomas is largely unknown. Previous analyses of our cohort of polyp cases have shown 1) indicators of a healthy diet were inversely associated with adenoma occurrence, 2) diet was related to the fecal profile, 3) obesity was positively associated with adenoma growth, 4) familial predisposition of CRC was positively associated with adenoma growth, and 5) intervention with calcium and antioxidants was not associated with adenoma growth. The present aim was to study the effects of diet on growth and recurrence of adenomas. Data were collected from a 3-yr polyp growth and intervention study. Polyps larger than 9 mm were removed, whereas the remainder and newly discovered polyps smaller than 10 mm were left in situ for 3 yr. Diet was assessed by a 5-day dietary record by weighing (DR) and food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Weak inverse associations were found only between adenoma growth and fruits and berries (adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-0.9) and carbohydrates (aOR = 0.1; 95% CI = 0.1-0.6; both only DR data) and between adenoma recurrence and vegetables (crude odds ratio, cOR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.1-0.9; only FFQ data). Taken together, the present and previous findings from this cohort may indicate an early role for dietary factors in CRC development.