Few studies exist on the validity of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) administered to elderly people. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a short FFQ on present dietary intake, developed specially for the AGES-Reykjavik Study, which includes 5,764 elderly individuals. Assessing the validity of FFQs is essential before they are used in studies on diet-related disease risk and health outcomes.
128 healthy elderly participants (74 y ± 5.7; 58.6% female) answered the AGES-FFQ, and subsequently filled out a 3-day weighed food record. Validity of the AGES-FFQ was assessed by comparing its answers to the dietary data obtained from the weighed food records, using Spearman's rank correlation, Chi-Square/Kendall's tau, and a Jonckheere-Terpstra test for trend.
For men a correlation = 0.4 was found for potatoes, fresh fruits, oatmeal/muesli, cakes/cookies, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, tea and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.40-0.71). A lower, but acceptable, correlation was also found for raw vegetables (r = 0.33). The highest correlation for women was found for consumption of rye bread, oatmeal/muesli, raw vegetables, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee and tea (r = 0.40-0.61). An acceptable correlation was also found for fish topping/salad, fresh fruit, blood/liver sausage, whole-wheat bread, and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.28-0.37). Questions on meat/fish meals, cooked vegetables and soft drinks did not show a significant correlation to the reference method. Pearson Chi-Square and Kendall's tau showed similar results, as did the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test.
A majority of the questions in the AGES-FFQ had an acceptable correlation and may be used to rank individuals according to their level of intake of several important foods/food groups. The AGES-FFQ on present diet may therefore be used to study the relationship between consumption of several specific foods/food groups and various health-related endpoints gathered in the AGES-Reykjavik Study.
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Fruit and vegetable intake has been associated with a reduced risk of many chronic diseases. These foods are the main dietary source of carotenoids. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations between dietary intake and serum concentrations of a- and ß-carotene in a sample of young Finnish children from the population-based birth cohort of the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Study. The current analysis comprised 3-day food records and serum samples from 207 children aged 1, 2 and 3 years. Spearman and partial correlations, as well as a cross-classification analyses, were used to assess the relationship between dietary intake and the corresponding biomarkers. Serum concentrations of a- and ß-carotene were significantly higher among the 1-year-old compared to the 3-year-old children. Dietary intakes of a- and ß-carotene correlated significantly with their respective serum concentrations in all age groups, the association being highest at the age of 1 year (a-carotene r = 0.48; p
It has been suggested that antioxidants attenuate oxidative stress and prevent oxidative stress-related diseases. Paradoxically, randomised controlled trials (RCT) using pharmacological doses of antioxidant supplements have demonstrated harmful effects in smokers. The aim of the present study was to test the compliance, tolerability and safety of two food-based antioxidant-rich diets in smokers. One of the diets provided antioxidants at levels similar to that used in RCT using supplements which previously have generated harmful effects. The present study followed a randomised, parallel-arm dietary intervention for 8 weeks (n 102) in male smokers (age = 45 years). Participants were randomised to either antioxidant-rich diet, kiwi fruit or control groups. The antioxidant-rich foods provided about 300 mmol antioxidants/week from a wide range of plant-based food items. The kiwi fruit group consumed three kiwi fruits/d. Compliance to both diets was good. Only mild, undesirable events were reported by a minority of the participants. The safety of both diets was demonstrated as no potentially harmful or pro-oxidative effects were observed. In the antioxidant-rich diet group, the mean intake of antioxidants increased from 30 mmol/d at baseline to 62 mmol/d during the intervention. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that male smokers can comply with two food-based antioxidant-rich diets. Furthermore, the present study is the first to demonstrate the tolerability and safety of dietary antioxidants at levels similar to dosages provided in RCT using supplements. Such diets may be useful in future studies investigating whether dietary antioxidants may reduce oxidative stress and related diseases.
To estimate the intake of some mycotoxins from food in Sweden, approximately 600 samples were collected and analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin and trichothecenes. Intakes were calculated for average and high consumers among adults and children and compared with the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of the respective toxin. Mycotoxin levels in the food samples were generally below the European/national maximum limits. However, high levels of aflatoxins were found in some samples of Brazil nuts and pistachios. The intake of ochratoxin A, patulin and trichothecenes was found to be below the temporary, TDI values (tTDI) proposed for these toxins by international expert groups, although the intake of trichothecenes (expressed as T-2 toxin equivalents) in children with a high consumption of cereals was close to the tTDI for T-2 toxin. Since there is to date no established numerical tTDI for aflatoxins, such a value was estimated for use within the project. The calculated intake of aflatoxins in high consumers exceeded this tTDI by a factor of two. In conclusion, the exposure to mycotoxins in Sweden did not generally, give rise to any major health concerns in the present study. However, the high levels of aflatoxins in certain commodities emphasize the need for preventive measures and improved control of toxin levels in these food items. Furthermore, the need for regulatory levels for trichothecenes in cereal products should be evaluated.
To examine diet costs in relation to dietary quality and socio-economic position, and to investigate underlying reasons for differences in diet costs.
Dietary intake was assessed by a 4 d food diary and evaluated using the 2005 Healthy Eating Index (HEI). National consumer food prices collected by Statistics Sweden and from two online stores/supermarkets were used to estimate diet costs.
A nationally representative sample of 2160 children aged 4, 8 or 11 years.
Higher scores on the HEI resulted in higher diet costs and, conversely, higher diet costs were linked to increased total HEI scores. Children who consumed the most healthy and/or expensive diets ate a more energy-dilute and varied diet compared with those who ate the least healthy and/or least expensive diets. They also consumed more fish, ready meals and fruit. Regression analysis also linked increased food costs to these food groups. There was a positive, but weak, relationship between HEI score and diet cost, parental education and parental occupation respectively.
Healthy eating is associated with higher diet cost in Swedish children, in part because of price differences between healthy and less-healthy foods. The cheapest and most unhealthy diets were found among those children whose parents were the least educated and had manual, low-skill occupations. Our results pose several challenges for public health policy makers, as well as for nutrition professionals, when forming dietary strategies and providing advice for macro- and microlevels in society.
To decrease the intake of sucrose, increase the intake of fibre and the consumption of fruit and vegetables among secondary-school pupils.
Intervention study among eighth grade pupils during one school year. Data were collected by questionnaires and from a subgroup of pupils by 48 h dietary recall at baseline in spring 2007 and after the intervention in 2008.
Twelve secondary schools were randomly allocated to intervention (IS) and control schools (CS) within three cities. Intervention included nutrition education and improvement of the food environment focusing particularly on the quality of snacks at school.
A total of 659 pupils completed the questionnaires and the dietary recall was obtained from 287 pupils both at baseline and follow-up.
The frequency of consumption of rye bread increased (P = 0.03) and that of sweets decreased (P = 0.006) among girls in the IS. The intake of sucrose fell among IS pupils, from 12.8 % to 10.5 % of the total energy intake (P = 0.01). Intake of fruit (g/MJ) remained the same in IS, whereas it decreased in CS (P = 0.04).
Sugar intake can be lowered by improving the quality of snacks, but it is more difficult to increase fibre intake and fruit and vegetable consumption unless the content of school lunches can be modified. It is the responsibility of the adults working in schools to create a healthy environment and to make healthy choices easy for pupils.
Most national surveys examining diet leave large segments of the Aboriginal population under-represented. The present study aimed to: (i) review primary research studies that investigated the dietary intakes of Canadian school-aged Aboriginal youths; (ii) summarise the tools and methodologies currently used to measure diet in this population; and (iii) identify knowledge gaps and suggest areas of future research.
A systematic review of research published between January 2004 and January 2014 related to the diets of Canadian school-aged (6-18 years) Aboriginal youths was undertaken, including Medline, Scopus, ERIC, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases. Studies were summarised based on purpose, year, sample population, setting, dietary assessment method and main findings.
Twenty-four studies were reviewed, all of which were cross-sectional in design. Most (n = 16; 67%) were from Ontario or Quebec, investigated the diets of First Nations (n = 21; 88%) youths and took place in remote or isolated settings (n = 18; 75%). Almost all of the studies used the 24-h recall to assess intake (n = 19; 79%), of which 89% used a single recall. The findings suggest that the diets of Aboriginal youths could be improved. Of particular concern are inadequate intakes of vegetables and fruit, milk and alternatives, fibre, folate, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium and vitamin D, concomitant with an excess consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, snacks and fast foods. Traditional foods remain important but tend to be consumed infrequently.
The diets of Canadian Aboriginal youths are energy-dense and nutrient-poor. The diets of Inuit and Métis youths, in particular, and perceptions of a balanced diet warrant further investigation.
To compare differences in children's diet quality on weekdays (Monday-Thursday), Fridays and weekend days.
A representative cross-sectional study in which participants completed a 7 d pre-coded food record. Mean intakes of energy, macronutrients and selected food items (g/10 MJ) as well as energy density were compared between weekdays, Fridays and weekend days for each gender in three age groups (4-6, 7-10 and 11-14 years) using Tobit analysis to account for zero intakes.
The Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity 2003-2008.
The present study investigates the changes and tracking of dietary behaviours in Norwegian 11-year-olds and examines the association between parental education and dietary tracking over a time period of 20 months.
Longitudinal data from the Norwegian HEalth In Adolescents (HEIA) cohort study followed up at three time points (2007-2009).
Intakes of fruits, vegetables and snacks were assessed by frequency and intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and squash were assessed by frequency and amount. Tracking of dietary behaviours was assessed by adolescents' relative position in rank over time and Cohen's kappa was used to measure tracking coefficients. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between parental education and the tracking of dietary behaviours.
In total, 885 adolescents from the HEIA cohort study participated by answering Internet-based questionnaires at three time points.
The results indicated that boys and girls maintained their relative position in rank of dietary intake over time, when grouped by baseline consumption. Fair to moderate tracking coefficients of dietary variables were observed. An inverse association was found between parental education and stability of soft drink and squash consumption during the 20 months.
The observed tracking pattern indicates the importance of promoting healthy dietary behaviours at an even earlier age. Furthermore, interventions should focus particularly on adolescents from families with low parental education and their consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages.
This study examines the intake of nitrate and nitrite in Swedish children. Daily intake estimates were based on a nationwide food consumption survey (4-day food diary) and nitrite/nitrate content in various foodstuffs. The mean intake of nitrite from cured meat among 2259 children studied was 0.013, 0.010 and 0.007 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) in age groups 4, 8-9 and 11-12 years, respectively. Among these age groups, three individuals (0.1% of the studied children) exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 0.07 mg nitrite kg(-1) body weight day(-1). The mean intake of nitrate from vegetables, fruit, cured meat and water was 0.84, 0.68 and 0.45 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for children aged 4, 8-9 and 11-12 years, respectively. No individual exceeded the ADI of 3.7 mg nitrate kg(-1) body weight day(-1). However, when the total nitrite intake was estimated, including an estimated 5% endogenous conversion of nitrate to nitrite, approximately 12% of the 4-year-old children exceeded the nitrite ADI. Thus, the intake of nitrite in Swedish children may be a concern for young age groups when endogenous nitrite conversion is included in the intake estimates.