Snacks are an important part of children's dietary intake, but the role of dried fruit on energy intake in children is unknown. Therefore, the effect of ad libitum consumption of an after-school snack of raisins, grapes, potato chips, and chocolate chip cookies on appetite and energy intake in twenty-six 8- to 11-y-old normal-weight (15th to 85th percentile) children was examined. On 4 separate weekdays, 1 wk apart, children (11 M, 15 F) were given a standardized breakfast, morning snack (apple), and a standardized lunch. After school, children randomly received 1 of 4 ad libitum snacks and were instructed to eat until "comfortably full." Appetite was measured before and 15, 30, and 45 min after snack consumption. Children consumed the least calories from raisins and grapes and the most from cookies (P
Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections have traditionally been associated with animal products, but outbreaks associated with produce have been reported with increasing frequency. In fall 1996, a small cluster of E. coli O157:H7 infections was epidemiologically linked to a particular brand (brand A) of unpasteurized apple juice.
To define the extent of the outbreak, confirm the source, and determine how the apple juice became contaminated.
Descriptive epidemiologic study and traceback investigation.
Western United States and British Columbia, Canada.
Patients with E. coli O157:H7 infection who were exposed to brand A apple juice.
Clinical outcome and juice exposure histories of case-patients, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of case and juice isolates, and juice production practices.
Seventy persons with E. coli O157:H7 infection and exposure to brand A unpasteurized apple juice were identified. Of these persons, 25 (36%) were hospitalized, 14 (20%) developed the hemolytic uremic syndrome, and 1 (1%) died. Recalled apple juice that was produced on 7 October 1996 grew E. coli O157:H7 with a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern indistinguishable from that of case isolates. Apple juice produced on 7 October 1996 accounted for almost all of the cases, and the source of contamination was suspected to be incoming apples. Three lots of apples could explain contamination of the juice: Two lots originated from an orchard frequented by deer that were subsequently shown to carry E. coli O157:H7, and one lot contained decayed apples that had been waxed.
Standard procedures at a state-of-the-art plant that produced unpasteurized juices were inadequate to eliminate contamination with E. coli O157:H7. This outbreak demonstrated that unpasteurized juices must be considered a potentially hazardous food and led to widespread changes in the fresh juice industry.
To understand factors influencing fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption in children, the authors studied the association between F&V consumption in mothers and children in a sample of 1,106 boys and girls in Grades 4-6 in 24 elementary schools in low-income, multiethnic neighborhoods in Montreal, Canada. Approximately 10% of girls and 19% of boys reported not having eaten any vegetables in the week prior to questionnaire administration; 53% of girls and 63% of boys did not consume whole fruits daily. Each unit increase in F&V consumption in mothers was associated with a 10% to 20% increase in F&V consumption in children. Interventions to improve F&V consumption should aim to improve awareness among parents of the importance of fruits and vegetables and of the impact of their own behavior on their children's F&V consumption.
We recently showed that provision of Nordic school meals rich in fish, vegetables and potatoes and with reduced intakes of fat improved blood pressure, insulin resistance assessed by the homeostatic model (HOMA-IR), and plasma triacylglycerol despite increasing waist circumference in Danish 8-11-year-olds. This study explored whether intake or biomarkers of key dietary components in the schools meals were associated with these metabolic syndrome (MetS) markers during the 6-month intervention.
Data from 7-day dietary records and measurements of whole-blood docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), blood pressure, fasting blood MetS markers, waist circumference and android/total fat mass assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months from 523 children were analyzed in linear mixed-effects models adjusted for puberty, growth and fasting.
After adjustment for multiple testing, whole-blood DHA was negatively associated with HOMA-IR (P
To determine associations of diet, physical activity and television (TV) viewing time with obesity among aboriginal and non-aboriginal youth in conjunction with socio-economic variables.
Cross-sectional study of differences between aboriginal and non-aboriginal groups and associations between lifestyle and socio-economic factors with obesity were examined.
Population data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 conducted in 2004 in the ten provinces of Canada.
A total of 198 aboriginal and 4448 non-aboriginal Canadian youth aged 12-17 years.
Compared to non-aboriginal youth, physical activity participation among aboriginal youth was higher, but consumption of vegetables and dairy products was lower, and more aboriginal youth were 'high' TV watchers. Low income adequacy was associated with decreased odds for obesity among aboriginal youth in contrast to higher odds among non-aboriginal youth. Non-aboriginal 'high' TV watchers consumed more soft drinks and non-whole-grain products than did 'low' TV watchers. Physical activity participation did not differ between 'high' and 'low' TV watchers for both groups, and was associated with lowered odds for obesity only among aboriginal youth.
Sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors associated with obesity differ between aboriginal and non-aboriginal youth. These findings may be useful for guiding intervention efforts.
According to results from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey--Nutrition, children and teens get about one-fifth of their daily calories from beverages. As they get older, boys and girls drink less milk and fruit juice, and more soft drinks and fruit drinks. By ages 14 to 18, boys' average daily consumption of soft drinks matches their consumption of milk, and exceeds their consumption of fruit juice and fruit drinks. Beverage consumption by children and teens varies little by province, except in Newfoundland and Labrador where it tends to be comparatively high, and in British Columbia where it tends to be low.
Total IgE, RAST results with tree pollen allergens, and prick test results with birch, grass and mugwort pollen allergens were correlated to 872 hay fever patients' reported food hypersensitivity (FH). A positive correlation was found between FH and the RAST and prick test results with birch pollen allergen. At each level of birch pollen sensitivity the incidence of FH was lower in patients with high total IgE than in those with lower total IgE. A negative correlation was found between grass pollen allergy and FH in birch pollen allergics. It is suggested that antigens in some foods have a specific ability to bridge anti-birch IgE molecules on mast cells. An explanation of the negative correlation between FH and total IgE and grass pollen allergy could be that a high number of non-birch-specific IgE molecules on the mast cells will reduce the probability that two anti-birch IgE molecules should bind on nearby sites.
The Canadian Total Diet Study is a national survey to determine the level of chemical contaminants in the Canadian food supply. Food samples were collected from Whitehorse, Yukon, supermarkets as part of the study in 1998. Whitehorse was chosen as a sampling centre, despite its small population (n = 19,000), to determine if residue levels were different in foods available in northern communities relative to levels observed in previous studies in the more populated south. Foods were prepared as for consumption before pesticide residue analysis. Residue levels observed in most foods were similar to levels observed in samples from previous surveys from southern Canadian cities. Malathion and DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene), a transformation product of DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl(ethane), were the two most frequently detected compounds (26.4 and 25.8%, respectively). The majority of pesticides, however, had a detection frequency of