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Addressing poor nutrition to promote heart health: moving upstream.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140561
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2010 Aug-Sep;26 Suppl C:21C-4C
Publication Type
Article
Author
Kim D Raine
Author Affiliation
Center for Health Promotion Studies, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. kim.raine@ualberta.ca
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2010 Aug-Sep;26 Suppl C:21C-4C
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Body mass index
Canada
Cardiovascular Diseases - diet therapy - prevention & control
Cereals
Diet, Sodium-Restricted
Dietary Fiber
Energy intake
Evidence-Based Medicine
Fatty acids
Fishes
Food Habits
Fruit
Health promotion
Humans
Life Style
Nutrition Policy
Nuts
Obesity - diet therapy - prevention & control
Patient Education as Topic
Practice Guidelines as Topic
Public Health
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Vegetables
Abstract
Current dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention suggest dietary patterns that promote achieving healthy weight, emphasize vegetables, legumes, fruit, whole grains, fish and nuts, substituting mono-unsaturated fats for saturated fats and restricting dietary sodium to less than 2300 mg/day. However, trends in nutrient intake and food consumption patterns suggest that the need for improvement in the dietary patterns of Canadians is clear. Influencing eating behaviour requires more than addressing nutrition knowledge and perceptions of healthy eating - it requires tackling the context within which individuals make choices. A comprehensive approach to improving nutrition includes traditional downstream strategies such as counselling to improve knowledge and skills; midstream strategies such as using the media to change social norms; and upstream strategies such as creating supportive environments through public policy including regulatory measures. While the evidence base for more upstream strategies continues to grow, key examples of comprehensive approaches to population change provide a call to action.
Notes
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Cites: Obes Rev. 2005 Feb;6(1):23-3315655036
PubMed ID
20847988 View in PubMed
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Anthropometric, metabolic, dietary and psychosocial profiles of underreporters of energy intake: a doubly labeled water study among overweight/obese postmenopausal women--a Montreal Ottawa New Emerging Team study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature148534
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jan;64(1):68-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
A D Karelis
M-E Lavoie
J. Fontaine
V. Messier
I. Strychar
R. Rabasa-Lhoret
E. Doucet
Author Affiliation
Department of Kinanthropology, University of Quebec at Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. karelis.antony@uqam.ca
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jan;64(1):68-74
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue
Anthropometry
Body mass index
C-Reactive Protein - metabolism
Canada
Diet
Energy intake
Energy Metabolism
Female
Fruit
Humans
Intra-Abdominal Fat
Logistic Models
Micronutrients
Middle Aged
Obesity - blood - psychology
Odds Ratio
Overweight - blood - psychology
Oxygen consumption
Postmenopause
Sedentary lifestyle
Self Disclosure
Stress, Psychological
Vegetables
Water - diagnostic use
Abstract
To analyze the anthropometric, metabolic, psychosocial and dietary profiles of underreporters, identified by the doubly labeled water technique, in a well-characterized population of overweight and obese postmenopausal women.
The study population consisted of 87 overweight and obese sedentary postmenopausal women (age: 57.7+/-4.8 years, body mass index: 32.4+/-4.6 kg/m(2)). Subjects were identified as underreporters based on the energy intake to energy expenditure ratio of
PubMed ID
19756035 View in PubMed
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Association between fruit juice consumption and self-reported body mass index among adult Canadians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145750
Source
J Hum Nutr Diet. 2010 Apr;23(2):162-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2010
Author
N. Akhtar-Danesh
M. Dehghan
Author Affiliation
School of Nursing and Department of Clinical Epidemiology & Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada. daneshn@mcmaster.ca
Source
J Hum Nutr Diet. 2010 Apr;23(2):162-8
Date
Apr-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Beverages
Body mass index
Canada
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet
Female
Fruit
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - etiology
Reference Values
Regression Analysis
Self Disclosure
Young Adult
Abstract
The prevalence of obesity and being overweight is rising among adult Canadians and diet is recognised as one of the main causes of obesity. The consumption of fruit and vegetables is shown to be protective against obesity and being overweight but little is known about the association of fruit juice consumption and obesity and being overweight. The present study aimed to investigate the association between fruit juice consumption and self-reported body mass index (BMI) among adult Canadians.
This analysis is based on the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 3.1. A regression method was used to assess the association of fruit juice consumption with self-reported BMI in 18-64-year-old Canadians who had been adjusted for sex, age, total household income, education, self-rated health, and daily energy expenditure. Because the analysis is based on a cross-sectional dataset, it does not imply a cause and effect relationship.
Almost 38.6% of adult Canadians reported a fruit juice intake of 0.5-1.4 times per day and 18.2% consumed fruit juice more than 1.5 times per day. Participants with normal weight were likely to consume more fruit juice than obese individuals. Regression analysis showed a negative association between fruit juice consumption and BMI after adjusting for age, sex, education, marital status, income, total fruit and vegetable intake, daily energy expenditure, and self-rated health. On average, for each daily serving of fruit juice, a -0.22 unit (95% confidence interval = -0.33 to -0.11) decrease in BMI was observed.
The results obtained showed a moderate negative association between fruit juice intake and BMI, which may suggest that a moderate daily consumption of fruit juice is associated with normal weight status.
PubMed ID
20113383 View in PubMed
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Case-control study of dietary patterns and endometrial cancer risk.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134173
Source
Nutr Cancer. 2011;63(5):673-86
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Rita K Biel
Christine M Friedenreich
Ilona Csizmadi
Paula J Robson
Lindsay McLaren
Peter Faris
Kerry S Courneya
Anthony M Magliocco
Linda S Cook
Author Affiliation
Department of Population Health Research, Division of Cancer Care, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, Canada. Rita.Biel@albertahealthservices.ca
Source
Nutr Cancer. 2011;63(5):673-86
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Alberta - epidemiology
Body mass index
Case-Control Studies
Cereals
Diet - adverse effects
Dietary Fiber - administration & dosage
Endometrial Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Female
Fruit
Humans
Middle Aged
Obesity - physiopathology
Overweight - physiopathology
Postmenopause
Principal Component Analysis
Questionnaires
Registries
Risk factors
Vegetables
Abstract
Dietary patterns, rather than intakes of specific foods or nutrients, may influence risk of endometrial cancer (EC). This population-based case-control study in Canada (2002-2006) included incident EC cases (n = 506) from the Alberta Cancer Registry and controls frequency age-matched to cases (n = 981). Past-year dietary patterns were defined using factor analysis of food frequency questionnaire data. Logistic regression was used to estimate EC risk within quartiles of dietary patterns. Three patterns (sweets, meat, plants) explained 23% of the variance in the dietary data. In multivariable models, EC risk was significantly reduced by 30% for women in the highest quartile of the healthier plants pattern (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.50-0.98, P trend = 0.02). When stratified by body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)), risk was further reduced among overweight or obese women with a BMI =25 (OR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.39-0.83; P trend = 0.004). EC was not associated with the less healthy sweets and meat patterns. However, risk was modestly, but not significantly, elevated for higher intakes of the meat pattern among overweight or obese women. A mostly plant-based dietary pattern may reduce EC risk. Recommendations for risk reduction should focus on maintaining a healthy weight and the role of diet should be studied further.
PubMed ID
21614724 View in PubMed
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Changes in fruit, vegetable and juice consumption after the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study in men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature281910
Source
Br J Nutr. 2017 Mar;117(5):712-719
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2017
Author
Camilla Olofsson
Andrea Discacciati
Agneta Åkesson
Nicola Orsini
Kerstin Brismar
Alicja Wolk
Source
Br J Nutr. 2017 Mar;117(5):712-719
Date
Mar-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Beverages
Body mass index
Citrus paradisi
Citrus sinensis
Cohort Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - diagnosis - diet therapy - epidemiology
Diet
Educational Status
Exercise
Fruit
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Smoking - epidemiology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden - epidemiology
Vegetables
Abstract
Given the importance of prevention of complications in type 2 diabetes (T2D), we aimed to examine changes over time in consumption of fruits, vegetables and juice among men who were diagnosed with T2D in comparison with men without diabetes. The prospective Cohort of Swedish Men, aged 45-79 years in 1997, was used to examine changes in diet after diagnosis of T2D. Dietary intake was assessed using FFQ in 1997 and 2009. In all, 23 953 men who were diabetes free at baseline (1997) and completed both FFQ were eligible to participate in the study. Diagnosis of T2D was reported by subjects and ascertained through registers. Multivariable linear mixed models were used to examine changes in mean servings/week over time. In total, 1741 men developed T2D during the study period. Increased consumption of vegetables and fruits was observed among those who developed T2D (equivalent to 1·6 servings/week, 95 % CI 1·08, 2·03) and men who remained diabetes free (0·7 servings/week, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·84). Consumption of juice decreased by 0·6 servings/week (95 % CI -0·71, -0·39) among those who developed T2D and increased by 0·1 servings/week (95 % CI 0·05, 0·15) in those who were diabetes free. Changes over time and between groups were statistically significant. Although improvements in diet were observed, only 36 % of those with T2D and 35 % of those without diabetes consumed =5 servings of fruits and vegetables/d in 2009.
PubMed ID
27409648 View in PubMed
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Changing dietary patterns in the Canadian Arctic: frequency of consumption of foods and beverages by inuit in three Nunavut communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104050
Source
Food Nutr Bull. 2014 Jun;35(2):244-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
Tony Sheehy
Fariba Kolahdooz
Cindy Roache
Sangita Sharma
Source
Food Nutr Bull. 2014 Jun;35(2):244-52
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Animals
Arctic Regions
Beverages
Body mass index
Canada
Cereals
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet - ethnology - trends
Dietary Fats
Dietary Sucrose
Female
Food Preferences - ethnology
Fruit
Humans
Inuits
Male
Meat
Middle Aged
Nunavut
Questionnaires
Vegetables
Abstract
Inuit in Arctic regions are experiencing a rapid diet and lifestyle transition. There are limited data on food consumption patterns among this unique population, raising concerns about assessing the risk for the development of diet-related chronic diseases.
To assess the current frequency of consumption of foods and beverages among Inuit in Nunavut, Arctic Canada.
A cross-sectional dietary study was conducted among randomly selected Inuit adults from three communities in Nunavut using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The participants were 175 women and 36 men with median (IQR) ages of 41.0 (32.5-48.5) and 40.1 (30.0-50.0) years, respectively. The mean and median frequencies of consumption over a 30-day period were computed for 147 individual food items and grouped as foods or beverages.
The 30 most frequently consumed foods were identified. Non-nutrient-dense foods (i.e., high-fat and high-sugar foods) were the most frequently consumed food group (median intake, 3.4 times/day), followed by grains (2.0 times/day) and traditional meats (1.7 times/day). The frequency of consumption of fruits (0.7 times/day) and vegetables (0.4 times/day) was low. The median values for the three most frequently consumed food items were sugar or honey (once/day), butter (0.71 times/day), and Coffee-mate (0.71 times/day). Apart from water, coffee, and tea, the most frequently consumed beverages were sweetened juices (0.71 times/day) and regular pop (soft drinks) (0.36 times/day). This study showed that non-nutrient-dense foods are consumed most frequently in these Inuit communities.
The results have implications for dietary quality and provide useful information on current dietary practices to guide nutritional intervention programs.
PubMed ID
25076772 View in PubMed
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Chitin-glucan fiber effects on oxidized low-density lipoprotein: a randomized controlled trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121000
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jan;67(1):2-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2013
Author
H E Bays
J L Evans
K C Maki
M. Evans
V. Maquet
R. Cooper
J W Anderson
Author Affiliation
Louisville Metabolic and Atherosclerosis Research Center, Louisville, KY, USA.
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jan;67(1):2-7
Date
Jan-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anticholesteremic Agents - administration & dosage - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Atherosclerosis - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Body mass index
Chitin - chemistry
Double-Blind Method
Female
Fruit - chemistry
Glucans - chemistry
Humans
Hypercholesterolemia - blood - complications - diet therapy - physiopathology
Lipoproteins, LDL - blood
Male
Middle Aged
Midwestern United States - epidemiology
Olea - chemistry
Ontario - epidemiology
Overweight - complications
Plant Extracts - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Polysaccharides - administration & dosage - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Prebiotics - adverse effects
Risk
Abstract
Elevated oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) may promote inflammation, and is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and worsening complications of diabetes mellitus. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of chitin-glucan (CG), alone and in combination with a potentially anti-inflammatory olive oil (OO) extract, for reducing OxLDL in subjects with borderline to high LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels.
This 6-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a novel, insoluble fiber derived from the Aspergillus niger mycelium, CG, evaluated 130 subjects free of diabetes mellitus with fasting LDL-C 3.37-4.92?mmol/l and glucose = 6.94?mmol/l. Participants were randomly assigned to receive CG (4.5?g/day; n=33), CG (1.5?g/day; n=32), CG (1.5?g/day) plus OO extract (135?mg/day; n=30), or matching placebo (n=35).
Administration of 4.5?g/day CG for 6 weeks significantly reduced OxLDL compared with placebo (P=0.035). At the end of study, CG was associated with lower LDL-C levels relative to placebo, although this difference was statistically significant only for the CG 1.5?g/day group (P=0.019). CG did not significantly affect high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin or F2-isoprostane levels. Adverse events did not substantively differ between treatments and placebo.
In this 6-week study, CG (4.5?g/day) reduced OxLDL, an effect that might affect the risk for atherosclerosis.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22948945 View in PubMed
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Clustering of specific health-related behaviours among Toronto adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131585
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2011;72(3):e155-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Kaitlin Turner
John J M Dwyer
A Michelle Edwards
Kenneth R Allison
Author Affiliation
Department of Family Relations and Applied Nutrition, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON.
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2011;72(3):e155-60
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Alcohol Drinking
Body mass index
Cluster analysis
Computers
Diet
Female
Food Habits
Fruit
Health Behavior
Humans
Internet
Male
Motor Activity
Ontario
Sedentary lifestyle
Television
Vegetables
Abstract
The clustering of specific health-related behaviours was examined among adolescents.
In 2005, cluster analysis was conducted to identify homogeneous groups of Toronto, Ontario, 14- to 17-year-old adolescents (n=445) with similar behaviour patterns according to self-reported measures of moderate to vigorous physical activity (metabolic equivalent [MET] hours a week of MVPA), sedentary behaviours (viewing television or videos, using a computer/the internet, doing homework, and talking with friends), fruit and vegetable consumption, and alcohol consumption.
Three clusters of adolescents were identified: "active, high screen-time users," "active, low screen-time users," and "less active, least frequent drinkers."
Identifying clusters of adolescents with similar health-related behaviour patterns suggests that researchers and practitioners should develop and implement interventions tailored to specific clusters.
PubMed ID
21896248 View in PubMed
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Consumption of berries, fruits and vegetables and mortality among 10,000 Norwegian men followed for four decades.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270548
Source
Eur J Nutr. 2015 Jun;54(4):599-608
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2015
Author
Anette Hjartåker
Markus Dines Knudsen
Steinar Tretli
Elisabete Weiderpass
Source
Eur J Nutr. 2015 Jun;54(4):599-608
Date
Jun-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Antioxidants - administration & dosage
Body mass index
Cardiovascular Diseases - mortality
European Continental Ancestry Group
Follow-Up Studies
Food Habits
Fruit
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality
Motor Activity
Neoplasms - mortality
Norway
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Vegetables
Abstract
The association between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been investigated by several studies, whereas fewer studies have examined consumption of vegetables and fruits in relation to all-cause mortality. Studies on berries, a rich source of antioxidants, are rare. The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between intake of vegetables, fruits and berries (together and separately) and the risk of all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality due to cancer and CVD and subtypes of these, in a cohort with very long follow-up.
We used data from a population-based prospective Norwegian cohort study of 10,000 men followed from 1968 through 2008. Information on vegetable, fruit and berry consumption was available from a food frequency questionnaire. Association between these and all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality due to cancers and CVDs were investigated using Cox proportional hazard regression models.
Men who in total consumed vegetables, fruit and berries more than 27 times per month had an 8-10% reduced risk of all-cause mortality compared with men with a lower consumption. They also had a 20% reduced risk of stroke mortality. Consumption of fruit was inversely related to overall cancer mortality, with hazard rate ratios of 0.94, 0.84 and 0.79 in the second, third and firth quartile, respectively, compared with the first quartile.
Increased consumption of vegetables, fruits and berries was associated with a delayed risk of all-cause mortality and of mortality due to cancer and stroke.
PubMed ID
25087093 View in PubMed
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Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance among the inuit population of Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3132
Source
Diabetes Care. 2002 Oct;25(10):1766-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2002
Author
Marit E Jørgensen
Peter Bjeregaard
Knut Borch-Johnsen
Author Affiliation
Steno Diabetes Centre, Gentofte, Denmark. National Institute of Public Health, Copenhagen, Denmark. maej@novonordisk.com
Source
Diabetes Care. 2002 Oct;25(10):1766-71
Date
Oct-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Body mass index
Cross-Sectional Studies
Demography
Diabetes Mellitus - epidemiology
Diet
Dietary Proteins
Educational Status
Exercise
Female
Fruit
Geography
Glucose Intolerance - epidemiology
Glucose Tolerance Test
Greenland - epidemiology
Health Surveys
Humans
Inuits
Life Style
Male
Meat
Random Allocation
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) among the Inuit population of Greenland and to determine risk factors for developing glucose intolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 917 randomly selected adult Inuit subjects living in three areas of Greenland. Diabetes and IGT were diagnosed using the oral glucose tolerance test. BMI and waist-to-hip ratio were measured and blood samples were taken from each subject. Sociodemographic characteristics were investigated using a questionnaire. RESULTS: The age-standardized prevalences of diabetes and IGT were 10.8 and 9.4% among men and 8.8 and 14.1% among women, respectively. Of those with diabetes, 70% had not been previously diagnosed. Significant risk factors for diabetes were family history of diabetes, age, BMI, and high alcohol consumption, whereas frequent intake of fresh fruit and seal meat were inversely associated with diabetic status. Age, BMI, family history of diabetes, sedentary lifestyle, and place of residence were significant predictors of IGT. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of diabetes is high among the Inuit of Greenland. Heredity was a major factor, while obesity and diet were important environmental factors. The high proportion of unknown cases suggests a need for increased diabetes awareness in Greenland.
Notes
Erratum In: Diabetes Care. 2002 Dec;25(12):2372
PubMed ID
12351475 View in PubMed
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47 records – page 1 of 5.