There is growing evidence that fruit polyphenols exert beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to analyse the effects of polyphenolic extracts from five types of Arctic berries in a model of diet-induced obesity.
Male C57BL/6 J mice were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose (HFHS) diet and orally treated with extracts of bog blueberry (BBE), cloudberry (CLE), crowberry (CRE), alpine bearberry (ABE), lingonberry (LGE) or vehicle (HFHS) for 8 weeks. An additional group of standard-chow-fed, vehicle-treated mice was included as a reference control for diet-induced obesity. OGTTs and insulin tolerance tests were conducted, and both plasma insulin and C-peptide were assessed throughout the OGTT. Quantitative PCR, western blot analysis and ELISAs were used to assess enterohepatic immunometabolic features. Faecal DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA gene-based analysis was used to profile the gut microbiota.
Treatment with CLE, ABE and LGE, but not with BBE or CRE, prevented both fasting hyperinsulinaemia (mean ± SEM [pmol/l]: chow 67.2?±?12.3, HFHS 153.9?±?19.3, BBE 114.4?±?14.3, CLE 82.5?±?13.0, CRE 152.3?±?24.4, ABE 90.6?±?18.0, LGE 95.4?±?10.5) and postprandial hyperinsulinaemia (mean ± SEM AUC [pmol/l?×?min]: chow 14.3?±?1.4, HFHS 31.4?±?3.1, BBE 27.2?±?4.0, CLE 17.7?±?2.2, CRE 32.6?±?6.3, ABE 22.7?±?18.0, LGE 23.9?±?2.5). None of the berry extracts affected C-peptide levels or body weight gain. Levels of hepatic serine phosphorylated Akt were 1.6-, 1.5- and 1.2-fold higher with CLE, ABE and LGE treatment, respectively, and hepatic carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM)-1 tyrosine phosphorylation was 0.6-, 0.7- and 0.9-fold increased in these mice vs vehicle-treated, HFHS-fed mice. These changes were associated with reduced liver triacylglycerol deposition, lower circulating endotoxins, alleviated hepatic and intestinal inflammation, and major gut microbial alterations (e.g. bloom of Akkermansia muciniphila, Turicibacter and Oscillibacter) in CLE-, ABE- and LGE-treated mice.
Our findings reveal novel mechanisms by which polyphenolic extracts from ABE, LGE and especially CLE target the gut-liver axis to protect diet-induced obese mice against metabolic endotoxaemia, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis, which importantly improves hepatic insulin clearance. These results support the potential benefits of these Arctic berries and their integration into health programmes to help attenuate obesity-related chronic inflammation and metabolic disorders.
All raw sequences have been deposited in the public European Nucleotide Archive server under accession number PRJEB19783 ( https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/data/view/PRJEB19783 ).
Diet is recognised as one modifiable lifestyle factor for ischaemic heart disease (IHD). We aimed at investigating the associations between adherence to the Danish Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) indicated by a Dietary Quality Index (DQI) and selected cardiometabolic risk factors in a cross-sectional study with 219 Danish adult participants (59 %women; age 31-65years) with a minimum of one self-rated risk marker of IHD. Information regarding diet was obtained using web-based dietary assessment software and adherence to the Danish FBDG was expressed by a DQI calculated from 5 food and nutrient indicators (whole grain, fish, fruit and vegetables, energy from saturated fat and from added sugar). Background information, blood samples and anthropometrics were collected and blood pressure was measured. Linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between DQI and cardiometabolic risk factors. DQI was inversely associated with LDL:HDL ratio and TAG (-0·089 per unit; 95 % CI -0·177, -0·002 and -5 % per unit; 95 % CI -9, 0, respectively) and positively associated with HDL-cholesterol (0·047 mmol/l per unit; 95 % CI 0·007, 0·088). For men, DQI was inversely associated with BMI (-3 %per unit; 95 % CI -5, -1), trunk fat (-1 % per unit; 95 % CI -2, -1), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-30 % per unit; 95 % CI -41, -16 %), HbA1c (-0·09 % per unit; 95 % CI -0·14, -0·04), insulin (-13 % per unit; 95 % CI -19, -7) and homoeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (-14 % per unit; 95 % CI -21, -7). In women, DQI was positively associated with systolic blood pressure (2·6 mmHg per unit; 95 % CI 0·6, 4·6). In conclusion, higher adherence to the current Danish FBDG was associated with a more beneficial cardiometabolic risk profile in a Danish adult population with a minimum of one self-rated risk factor for IHD.
A healthy diet is important for pregnancy outcome and the current and future health of woman and child. The aims of the study were to explore the changes from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy in consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV), and to describe associations with maternal educational level, body mass index (BMI) and age.
Healthy nulliparous women were included in the Norwegian Fit for Delivery (NFFD) trial from September 2009 to February 2013, recruited from eight antenatal clinics in southern Norway. At inclusion, in median gestational week 15 (range 9-20), 575 participants answered a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) where they reported consumption of FV, both current intake and recollection of pre-pregnancy intake. Data were analysed using a linear mixed model.
The percentage of women consuming FV daily or more frequently in the following categories increased from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy: vegetables on sandwiches (13 vs. 17%, p?
In Norway, social inequalities in health and health-related behaviors have been reported despite the well-developed welfare state. The objective of the present study was to analyze; (i) the development in frequency of consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and artificially sweetened beverages (ASB) from childhood to adulthood; (ii) socioeconomic inequalities in the consumption of SSB and ASB using different indicators of socioeconomic status (SES); (iii) time trends in potential disparities in SSB and ASB consumption among different socioeconomic groups to assess the development in socioeconomic inequality from childhood to adulthood.
This study uses data from the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) longitudinal cohort, including participants (n?=?437) from 20 random schools from two Norwegian counties. Data from the first survey in 2001 (mean age 11.8) and follow-up surveys in 2005 (mean age 15.5) and 2016 (mean age 26.5) were used. Consumption of SSB and ASB were measured using a food frequency questionnaire, which the participants completed at school in 2001 and 2005, and online in 2016. Various indicators of SES were included; in 2001, parental education and income were measured, in 2005, participants' educational intentions in adolescence were measured, and in 2016, participants' own education and income were measured. The main analyses conducted were linear mixed effects analysis of the repeated measures.
Between 2001 and 2016, a decrease in frequency of consumption of SSB (2.8 v 1.3 times/week; p?=?
The etiology of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), the precursor state of multiple myeloma (MM), is mostly unknown and no studies have been conducted on the effect of diet on MGUS or progression from MGUS to MM. We aimed to explore the association between common foods and MGUS and progression to MM. Data from the population-based AGES Study (N = 5,764) were utilized. Food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake during adolescence, midlife, and late life. Serum protein electrophoresis and serum free light-chain assay was performed to identify MGUS (n = 300) and LC-MGUS cases (n = 275). We cross linked our data with the Icelandic Cancer Registry to find cases of MM in the study group. We found that intake of fruit at least three times per week during adolescence was associated with lower risk of MGUS when compared to lower fruit consumption (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.41-0.95). We additionally found that intake of fruit at least three times per week during the late life period was associated with decreased risk of progressing from MGUS to MM (HR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.13-0.89) when compared to lower intake. Adolescent intake of fruit may reduce risk of MGUS, whereas fruit intake after MGUS onset may reduce risk of progressing to MM. Our findings suggest that diet might alter the risk of developing MGUS and progression to MM.
Foods rich in antioxidants have been associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction. However, findings from randomized clinical trials on the role of antioxidant supplementation remain controversial. It has been suggested that antioxidants interact with each other to promote cardiovascular health. We therefore investigated the association between dietary Non Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity (NEAC), measuring the total antioxidant potential of the whole diet, and the risk of myocardial infarction. We followed 45,882 women aged 30-49 years and free from cardiovascular diseases through record linkages from 1991 until 2012. Dietary NEAC was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire collected at baseline. Total dietary NEAC was categorized into quintiles and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were fitted to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). During a mean follow-up time of 20.3 years we detected 657 incident cases of myocardial infarction. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found a significant 28% lower risk of myocardial infarction among women in the fourth (HR: 0.72; 95% CI 0.55-0.95) and a 40% lower risk among women in the fifth quintile (HR: 0.60, 95% CI 0.45-0.81) of dietary NEAC compared to women in the first quintile, with a significant trend (p-value
To study the associations between home food availability and dietary patterns among pre-school children.
Cross-sectional study in which parents of the participating children filled in an FFQ and reported how often they had certain foods in their homes. We derived dietary pattern scores using principal component analysis, and composite scores describing the availability of fruits and vegetables as well as sugar-enriched foods in the home were created for each participant. We used multilevel models to investigate the associations between availability and dietary pattern scores.
The DAGIS study, Finland.
The participants were 864 Finnish 3-6-year-old children recruited from sixty-six pre-schools. The analyses included 711 children with sufficient data.
We identified three dietary patterns explaining 16·7 % of the variance. The patterns were named 'sweets-and-treats' (high loadings of e.g. sweet biscuits, chocolate, ice cream), 'health-conscious' (high loadings of e.g. nuts, natural yoghurt, berries) and 'vegetables-and-processed meats' (high loadings of e.g. vegetables, cold cuts, fruit). In multivariate models, the availability of fruits and vegetables was inversely associated with the sweets-and-treats pattern (ß=-0·05, P
The prevalence of obesity among populations in the Atlantic provinces is the highest in Canada. Some studies suggest that adequate fruit and vegetable consumption may help body weight management. We assessed the associations between fruit and vegetable intake with body adiposity among individuals who participated in the baseline survey of the Atlantic Partnership for Tomorrow's Health (Atlantic PATH) cohort study.
We carried out a cross-sectional analysis among 26?340 individuals (7979 men and 18?361 women) aged 35-69 years who were recruited in the baseline survey of the Atlantic PATH study. Data on fruit and vegetable intake, sociodemographic and behavioural factors, chronic disease, anthropometric measurements and body composition were included in the analysis.
In the multivariable regression analyses, 1 SD increment of total fruit and vegetable intake was inversely associated with body mass index (-0.12?kg/m2; 95%?CI -0.19 to -0.05), waist circumference (-0.40?cm; 95%?CI -0.58 to -0.23), percentage fat mass (-0.30%; 95%?CI -0.44 to -0.17) and fat mass index (-0.14?kg/m2; 95%?CI -0.19 to -0.08). Fruit intake, but not vegetable intake, was consistently inversely associated with anthropometric indices, fat mass, obesity and abdominal obesity.
Fruit and vegetable consumption was inversely associated with body adiposity among the participant population in Atlantic Canada. This association was primarily attributable to fruit intake. Longitudinal studies and randomised trials are warranted to confirm these observations and investigate the underlying mechanisms.
Three new species of Tomentella (Thelephorales) from Finland, T. globosa, T. lammiensis, and T. longisterigmata, are described and illustrated with morphological characteristics and nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences. T. globosa is characterized by mucedinoid, pale to dark brown basidiocarps adherent to the substrate, generative hyphae with clamps and rarely with simple septa, and echinulate, globose basidiospores (echinuli up to 1.5 µm long). T. lammiensis is characterized by mucedinoid, oxide yellow to golden brown basidiocarps adherent to the substrate, generative hyphae with clamps and rarely with simple septa, and echinulate, ellipsoid, triangular, or lobbed basidiospores (echinuli up to 2 µm long). T. longisterigmata is characterized by mucedinoid, dark brown to chestnut basidiocarps separable from the substrate, generative hyphae clamped and rarely with simple septa, the long basidial sterigmata (7-11 µm long), and echinulate, globose basidiospores (echinuli up to 2 µm long). An absence of rhizomorphs and cystidia is their common morphological feature. Molecular analyses by maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian analyses confirm the phylogenetic position of these three new species. The discriminating characters of these new species and their closely related species are discussed in this study, and a key to the species from Finland is provided.
Seed size is a fundamental life-history trait for plants. A seed number/size trade-off is assumed because the resources invested in reproduction are limited; however, such a trade-off is not always observed. This could be a consequence of the method used for testing it, where the null hypothesis is dictated by common statistical practice, rather than being based on any underlying theory. Alternatively, there might be some population- and species-dependent variables that affect resource availability and, in turn, influence the presence and intensity of this trade-off. Using data on 42 herbs from two communities (lowland and alpine) from Southern Norway, we tested the validity of the classical linear model vs. two previously proposed models, based on resource competition, when assessing the existence of this trade-off at different levels. We also evaluated whether some species- (fruit aggregation, ovules/flower) and population-dependent (pollen limitation) variables could affect this trade-off. Classical linear modelling outperformed the other proposed functional models. Significant seed number/size relationships were negative in single-fruited species, whereas they were positive in species with infructescences of one-seeded fruits. Concordantly, fruit organization was the most influencing variable for the intra-specific trade-off in the lowland community. In the alpine community, species suffering higher pollen limitation showed more strongly negative slopes between seed size and seed number at the fruit/infructescence level. Across species, seed size and number were negatively related, although the relationship was significant in only one of the communities. No evidence of trade-off was found at the plant level. Linear models provide a flexible framework that allows coping with the variability in the seed number/size relationship. The emergence of the intra-specific relationship between seed number and size depends on species- and population-dependent variables, related to resource allocation and the pollination environment.