Skip header and navigation

Refine By

11 records – page 1 of 2.

Arctic berry extracts target the gut-liver axis to alleviate metabolic endotoxaemia, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mice.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297424
Source
Diabetologia. 2018 04; 61(4):919-931
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
04-2018
Author
Fernando F Anhê
Thibault V Varin
Mélanie Le Barz
Geneviève Pilon
Stéphanie Dudonné
Jocelyn Trottier
Philippe St-Pierre
Cory S Harris
Michel Lucas
Mélanie Lemire
Éric Dewailly
Olivier Barbier
Yves Desjardins
Denis Roy
André Marette
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cardiology Axis of the Québec Heart and Lung Institute, Laval University, Bureau Y4340, Québec City, QC, G1V 4G5, Canada.
Source
Diabetologia. 2018 04; 61(4):919-931
Date
04-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
C-Peptide - blood
Diet, High-Fat
Endotoxemia - metabolism
Fatty Liver - drug therapy - metabolism
Fruit - chemistry
Glucose - metabolism
Homeostasis
Insulin - blood - metabolism
Insulin Resistance
Intestines - drug effects
Liver - drug effects - metabolism
Male
Mice
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Mice, Obese
Obesity - metabolism
Plant Extracts - pharmacology
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S - genetics
Time Factors
Abstract
There is growing evidence that fruit polyphenols exert beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to analyse the effects of polyphenolic extracts from five types of Arctic berries in a model of diet-induced obesity.
Male C57BL/6 J mice were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose (HFHS) diet and orally treated with extracts of bog blueberry (BBE), cloudberry (CLE), crowberry (CRE), alpine bearberry (ABE), lingonberry (LGE) or vehicle (HFHS) for 8 weeks. An additional group of standard-chow-fed, vehicle-treated mice was included as a reference control for diet-induced obesity. OGTTs and insulin tolerance tests were conducted, and both plasma insulin and C-peptide were assessed throughout the OGTT. Quantitative PCR, western blot analysis and ELISAs were used to assess enterohepatic immunometabolic features. Faecal DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA gene-based analysis was used to profile the gut microbiota.
Treatment with CLE, ABE and LGE, but not with BBE or CRE, prevented both fasting hyperinsulinaemia (mean ± SEM [pmol/l]: chow 67.2?±?12.3, HFHS 153.9?±?19.3, BBE 114.4?±?14.3, CLE 82.5?±?13.0, CRE 152.3?±?24.4, ABE 90.6?±?18.0, LGE 95.4?±?10.5) and postprandial hyperinsulinaemia (mean ± SEM AUC [pmol/l?×?min]: chow 14.3?±?1.4, HFHS 31.4?±?3.1, BBE 27.2?±?4.0, CLE 17.7?±?2.2, CRE 32.6?±?6.3, ABE 22.7?±?18.0, LGE 23.9?±?2.5). None of the berry extracts affected C-peptide levels or body weight gain. Levels of hepatic serine phosphorylated Akt were 1.6-, 1.5- and 1.2-fold higher with CLE, ABE and LGE treatment, respectively, and hepatic carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM)-1 tyrosine phosphorylation was 0.6-, 0.7- and 0.9-fold increased in these mice vs vehicle-treated, HFHS-fed mice. These changes were associated with reduced liver triacylglycerol deposition, lower circulating endotoxins, alleviated hepatic and intestinal inflammation, and major gut microbial alterations (e.g. bloom of Akkermansia muciniphila, Turicibacter and Oscillibacter) in CLE-, ABE- and LGE-treated mice.
Our findings reveal novel mechanisms by which polyphenolic extracts from ABE, LGE and especially CLE target the gut-liver axis to protect diet-induced obese mice against metabolic endotoxaemia, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis, which importantly improves hepatic insulin clearance. These results support the potential benefits of these Arctic berries and their integration into health programmes to help attenuate obesity-related chronic inflammation and metabolic disorders.
All raw sequences have been deposited in the public European Nucleotide Archive server under accession number PRJEB19783 ( https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/data/view/PRJEB19783 ).
PubMed ID
29270816 View in PubMed
Less detail

Associations between adherence to the Danish Food-Based Dietary Guidelines and cardiometabolic risk factors in a Danish adult population: the DIPI study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299378
Source
Br J Nutr. 2018 03; 119(6):664-673
Publication Type
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
03-2018
Author
Johanne L Arentoft
Camilla Hoppe
Elisabeth W Andersen
Kim Overvad
Inge Tetens
Author Affiliation
1Division of Diet, Disease Prevention and Toxicology,National Food Institute,Technical University of Denmark,2800 Kgs. Lyngby,Denmark.
Source
Br J Nutr. 2018 03; 119(6):664-673
Date
03-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Diet
Dietary Sugars - administration & dosage
Exercise
Fatty Acids - administration & dosage
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Food Quality
Fruit
Health Behavior
Humans
Life Style
Male
Metabolic Syndrome - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Nutrition Assessment
Nutrition Policy
Patient compliance
Risk factors
Single-Blind Method
Surveys and Questionnaires
Vegetables
Waist Circumference
Whole Grains
Abstract
Diet is recognised as one modifiable lifestyle factor for ischaemic heart disease (IHD). We aimed at investigating the associations between adherence to the Danish Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) indicated by a Dietary Quality Index (DQI) and selected cardiometabolic risk factors in a cross-sectional study with 219 Danish adult participants (59 %women; age 31-65years) with a minimum of one self-rated risk marker of IHD. Information regarding diet was obtained using web-based dietary assessment software and adherence to the Danish FBDG was expressed by a DQI calculated from 5 food and nutrient indicators (whole grain, fish, fruit and vegetables, energy from saturated fat and from added sugar). Background information, blood samples and anthropometrics were collected and blood pressure was measured. Linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between DQI and cardiometabolic risk factors. DQI was inversely associated with LDL:HDL ratio and TAG (-0·089 per unit; 95 % CI -0·177, -0·002 and -5 % per unit; 95 % CI -9, 0, respectively) and positively associated with HDL-cholesterol (0·047 mmol/l per unit; 95 % CI 0·007, 0·088). For men, DQI was inversely associated with BMI (-3 %per unit; 95 % CI -5, -1), trunk fat (-1 % per unit; 95 % CI -2, -1), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-30 % per unit; 95 % CI -41, -16 %), HbA1c (-0·09 % per unit; 95 % CI -0·14, -0·04), insulin (-13 % per unit; 95 % CI -19, -7) and homoeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (-14 % per unit; 95 % CI -21, -7). In women, DQI was positively associated with systolic blood pressure (2·6 mmHg per unit; 95 % CI 0·6, 4·6). In conclusion, higher adherence to the current Danish FBDG was associated with a more beneficial cardiometabolic risk profile in a Danish adult population with a minimum of one self-rated risk factor for IHD.
PubMed ID
29352831 View in PubMed
Less detail

Changes in fruit and vegetable consumption habits from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy among Norwegian women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289259
Source
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2017 04 04; 17(1):107
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
04-04-2017
Author
Marianne Skreden
Elling Bere
Linda R Sagedal
Ingvild Vistad
Nina C Øverby
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, Sports and Nutrition, University of Agder, PO Box 422, 4604, Kristiansand, Norway. marianne.skreden@uia.no.
Source
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2017 04 04; 17(1):107
Date
04-04-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet - methods
Feeding Behavior - physiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Fruit
Fruit and Vegetable Juices
Habits
Humans
Incidence
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena - physiology
Norway - epidemiology
Nutrition Surveys
Patient Education as Topic
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - epidemiology - prevention & control
Pregnancy outcome
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Single-Blind Method
Surveys and Questionnaires
Vegetables
Women's health
Young Adult
Abstract
A healthy diet is important for pregnancy outcome and the current and future health of woman and child. The aims of the study were to explore the changes from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy in consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV), and to describe associations with maternal educational level, body mass index (BMI) and age.
Healthy nulliparous women were included in the Norwegian Fit for Delivery (NFFD) trial from September 2009 to February 2013, recruited from eight antenatal clinics in southern Norway. At inclusion, in median gestational week 15 (range 9-20), 575 participants answered a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) where they reported consumption of FV, both current intake and recollection of pre-pregnancy intake. Data were analysed using a linear mixed model.
The percentage of women consuming FV daily or more frequently in the following categories increased from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy: vegetables on sandwiches (13 vs. 17%, p?
Notes
Cites: BJOG. 2013 Dec;120(13):1642-53 PMID 23962347
Cites: Appetite. 2016 Feb 1;97:29-36 PMID 26581827
Cites: Int J Obes (Lond). 2006 Mar;30(3):492-9 PMID 16331301
Cites: Public Health Nutr. 2014 Sep;17(9):1919-29 PMID 24717981
Cites: Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000 Sep;54(9):706-14 PMID 11002383
Cites: Public Health Nutr. 2011 Jul;14(7):1222-8 PMID 21272414
Cites: Public Health Nutr. 2009 Jul;12(7):922-31 PMID 18752697
Cites: BMC Public Health. 2013 Feb 13;13:132 PMID 23406306
Cites: Ann Nutr Metab. 2014;64(3-4):332-9 PMID 25300277
Cites: Matern Child Nutr. 2015 Jan;11(1):20-32 PMID 23241065
Cites: JAMA. 2002 May 8;287(18):2414-23 PMID 11988062
Cites: Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr;62(4):463-70 PMID 17392696
Cites: Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Mar;60(3):364-71 PMID 16340954
Cites: Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr;62(4):471-9 PMID 17375108
Cites: J Nutr. 2009 Oct;139(10 ):1956-63 PMID 19710161
Cites: Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6):1369-79 PMID 16762949
Cites: Public Health Nutr. 2013 Aug;16(8):1379-89 PMID 22877515
Cites: Adv Nutr. 2013 May 01;4(3):384S-92S PMID 23674808
Cites: Australas Med J. 2013 Nov 30;6(11):565-77 PMID 24348873
Cites: Public Health Nutr. 2014 Sep;17(9):1930-8 PMID 23806144
Cites: Public Health Nutr. 2016 Jun;19(9):1666-73 PMID 26573330
Cites: Placenta. 2012 Nov;33 Suppl 2:e30-4 PMID 22809673
Cites: Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2010 Feb 03;7:13 PMID 20181084
Cites: Nature. 2013 Aug 29;500(7464):585-8 PMID 23985875
Cites: Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jul;100 Suppl 1:369S-77S PMID 24898225
Cites: Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011 Feb;51(1):31-7 PMID 21299506
Cites: J Nutr. 2003 Jun;133(6):1997S-2002S PMID 12771353
Cites: Public Health Nutr. 2001 Feb;4(1):35-43 PMID 11255494
Cites: Br J Nutr. 2012 May;107(10):1526-33 PMID 21929833
Cites: Am J Prev Med. 2009 May;36(5):402-409.e5 PMID 19362694
Cites: Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Aug;58(8):1174-80 PMID 15054431
Cites: Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2009 Sep;23(5):446-53 PMID 19689495
Cites: Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 May;58(5):771-7 PMID 15116080
Cites: Public Health Nutr. 2009 Nov;12(11):2174-82 PMID 19402946
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2008 Jul 3;359(1):61-73 PMID 18596274
Cites: Br J Nutr. 2006 Nov;96(5):913-20 PMID 17092382
Cites: Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Oct;80(4):1029-35 PMID 15447916
Cites: Public Health Nutr. 2016 May;19(7):1155-63 PMID 26228526
Cites: BMC Public Health. 2014 Jan 24;14:75 PMID 24456804
Cites: BMC Womens Health. 2011 Aug 08;11:37 PMID 21819627
Cites: J Nutr. 2001 Apr;131(4):1217-24 PMID 11285330
Cites: Public Health Nutr. 2008 Feb;11(2):176-82 PMID 17610760
Cites: Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Oct;205(4):337.e1-12 PMID 21855845
Cites: BJOG. 2017 Jan;124(1):97-109 PMID 26768233
Cites: BMC Public Health. 2015 Oct 05;15:1012 PMID 26437719
Cites: J Nutr. 2002 Mar;132(3):461-71 PMID 11880572
Cites: J Nutr Educ Behav. 2015 Sep-Oct;47(5):421-6.e1 PMID 26055973
Cites: Eur J Epidemiol. 2014 Oct;29(10 ):753-65 PMID 25193741
Cites: Matern Child Nutr. 2011 Apr;7(2):109-11 PMID 21332940
Cites: BJOG. 2010 Dec;117(13):1599-607 PMID 21078055
Cites: Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Feb;70(2):237-42 PMID 26350393
Cites: Public Health Nutr. 2010 Jun;13(6A):939-46 PMID 20513264
Cites: BJOG. 2009 Feb;116(3):408-15 PMID 19187373
Cites: Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Aug;100(2):676-83 PMID 24944056
Cites: Public Health Nutr. 2013 Jan;16(1):156-63 PMID 22583693
Cites: J Nutr. 2005 Apr;135(4):900-4 PMID 15795456
PubMed ID
28376732 View in PubMed
Less detail

Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and artificially sweetened beverages from childhood to adulthood in relation to socioeconomic status - 15 years follow-up in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296670
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2018 01 17; 15(1):8
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-17-2018
Author
Kathrine Bolt-Evensen
Frøydis N Vik
Tonje Holte Stea
Knut-Inge Klepp
Elling Bere
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, Sport and Nutrition, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, PO. Box 422, 4604, Kristiansand, Norway.
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2018 01 17; 15(1):8
Date
01-17-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Beverages - analysis
Child
Cohort Studies
Diet
Dietary Sugars - administration & dosage
Feeding Behavior
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Fruit
Humans
Male
Non-Nutritive Sweeteners - administration & dosage
Norway
Schools
Social Class
Socioeconomic Factors
Sugars - administration & dosage
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweetening Agents - administration & dosage
Vegetables
Young Adult
Abstract
In Norway, social inequalities in health and health-related behaviors have been reported despite the well-developed welfare state. The objective of the present study was to analyze; (i) the development in frequency of consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and artificially sweetened beverages (ASB) from childhood to adulthood; (ii) socioeconomic inequalities in the consumption of SSB and ASB using different indicators of socioeconomic status (SES); (iii) time trends in potential disparities in SSB and ASB consumption among different socioeconomic groups to assess the development in socioeconomic inequality from childhood to adulthood.
This study uses data from the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) longitudinal cohort, including participants (n?=?437) from 20 random schools from two Norwegian counties. Data from the first survey in 2001 (mean age 11.8) and follow-up surveys in 2005 (mean age 15.5) and 2016 (mean age 26.5) were used. Consumption of SSB and ASB were measured using a food frequency questionnaire, which the participants completed at school in 2001 and 2005, and online in 2016. Various indicators of SES were included; in 2001, parental education and income were measured, in 2005, participants' educational intentions in adolescence were measured, and in 2016, participants' own education and income were measured. The main analyses conducted were linear mixed effects analysis of the repeated measures.
Between 2001 and 2016, a decrease in frequency of consumption of SSB (2.8 v 1.3 times/week; p?=?
PubMed ID
29343247 View in PubMed
Less detail

Dietary intake is associated with risk of multiple myeloma and its precursor disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299128
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(11):e0206047
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Marianna Thordardottir
Ebba K Lindqvist
Sigrun H Lund
Rene Costello
Debra Burton
Laufey Steingrimsdottir
Neha Korde
Sham Mailankody
Gudny Eiriksdottir
Lenore J Launer
Vilmundur Gudnason
Tamara B Harris
Ola Landgren
Johanna E Torfadottir
Sigurdur Y Kristinsson
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(11):e0206047
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Animals
Blood Proteins - metabolism
Bread - analysis
Diet
Disease Progression
Female
Food analysis
Fruit
Humans
Iceland
Male
Meat
Middle Aged
Milk - metabolism
Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance - epidemiology - metabolism - pathology
Multiple Myeloma - epidemiology - metabolism - pathology
Risk factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Young Adult
Abstract
The etiology of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), the precursor state of multiple myeloma (MM), is mostly unknown and no studies have been conducted on the effect of diet on MGUS or progression from MGUS to MM. We aimed to explore the association between common foods and MGUS and progression to MM. Data from the population-based AGES Study (N = 5,764) were utilized. Food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake during adolescence, midlife, and late life. Serum protein electrophoresis and serum free light-chain assay was performed to identify MGUS (n = 300) and LC-MGUS cases (n = 275). We cross linked our data with the Icelandic Cancer Registry to find cases of MM in the study group. We found that intake of fruit at least three times per week during adolescence was associated with lower risk of MGUS when compared to lower fruit consumption (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.41-0.95). We additionally found that intake of fruit at least three times per week during the late life period was associated with decreased risk of progressing from MGUS to MM (HR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.13-0.89) when compared to lower intake. Adolescent intake of fruit may reduce risk of MGUS, whereas fruit intake after MGUS onset may reduce risk of progressing to MM. Our findings suggest that diet might alter the risk of developing MGUS and progression to MM.
PubMed ID
30383820 View in PubMed
Less detail

Dietary non enzymatic antioxidant capacity and the risk of myocardial infarction in the Swedish women's lifestyle and health cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297934
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2018 02; 33(2):213-221
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-2018
Author
Essi Hantikainen
Marie Löf
Alessandra Grotta
Ylva Trolle Lagerros
Mauro Serafini
Rino Bellocco
Elisabete Weiderpass
Author Affiliation
Department of Statistics and Quantitative Methods, University of Milano-Bicocca, Edificio U7, Via Bicocca degli Arcimboldi 8, 20126, Milan, Italy.
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2018 02; 33(2):213-221
Date
02-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Antioxidants - administration & dosage - metabolism
Cohort Studies
Diet
Female
Fruit
Humans
Incidence
Life Style
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - prevention & control
Proportional Hazards Models
Sweden - epidemiology
Vegetables
Abstract
Foods rich in antioxidants have been associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction. However, findings from randomized clinical trials on the role of antioxidant supplementation remain controversial. It has been suggested that antioxidants interact with each other to promote cardiovascular health. We therefore investigated the association between dietary Non Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity (NEAC), measuring the total antioxidant potential of the whole diet, and the risk of myocardial infarction. We followed 45,882 women aged 30-49 years and free from cardiovascular diseases through record linkages from 1991 until 2012. Dietary NEAC was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire collected at baseline. Total dietary NEAC was categorized into quintiles and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were fitted to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). During a mean follow-up time of 20.3 years we detected 657 incident cases of myocardial infarction. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found a significant 28% lower risk of myocardial infarction among women in the fourth (HR: 0.72; 95% CI 0.55-0.95) and a 40% lower risk among women in the fifth quintile (HR: 0.60, 95% CI 0.45-0.81) of dietary NEAC compared to women in the first quintile, with a significant trend (p-value 
PubMed ID
29372463 View in PubMed
Less detail

Dietary patterns and their associations with home food availability among Finnish pre-school children: a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299379
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2018 05; 21(7):1232-1242
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
05-2018
Author
Henna Vepsäläinen
Liisa Korkalo
Vera Mikkilä
Reetta Lehto
Carola Ray
Kaija Nissinen
Essi Skaffari
Mikael Fogelholm
Leena Koivusilta
Eva Roos
Maijaliisa Erkkola
Author Affiliation
1Department of Food and Environmental Sciences,University of Helsinki, PO Box 66,FI-00014 University of Helsinki,Helsinki,Finland.
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2018 05; 21(7):1232-1242
Date
05-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Diet Surveys
Feeding Behavior - physiology
Finland - epidemiology
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Fruit
Humans
Vegetables
Abstract
To study the associations between home food availability and dietary patterns among pre-school children.
Cross-sectional study in which parents of the participating children filled in an FFQ and reported how often they had certain foods in their homes. We derived dietary pattern scores using principal component analysis, and composite scores describing the availability of fruits and vegetables as well as sugar-enriched foods in the home were created for each participant. We used multilevel models to investigate the associations between availability and dietary pattern scores.
The DAGIS study, Finland.
The participants were 864 Finnish 3-6-year-old children recruited from sixty-six pre-schools. The analyses included 711 children with sufficient data.
We identified three dietary patterns explaining 16·7 % of the variance. The patterns were named 'sweets-and-treats' (high loadings of e.g. sweet biscuits, chocolate, ice cream), 'health-conscious' (high loadings of e.g. nuts, natural yoghurt, berries) and 'vegetables-and-processed meats' (high loadings of e.g. vegetables, cold cuts, fruit). In multivariate models, the availability of fruits and vegetables was inversely associated with the sweets-and-treats pattern (ß=-0·05, P
PubMed ID
29331168 View in PubMed
Less detail

Fruit and vegetable intake and body adiposity among populations in Eastern Canada: the Atlantic Partnership for Tomorrow's Health Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298475
Source
BMJ Open. 2018 04 10; 8(4):e018060
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
04-10-2018
Author
Zhijie Michael Yu
Vanessa DeClercq
Yunsong Cui
Cynthia Forbes
Scott Grandy
Melanie Keats
Louise Parker
Ellen Sweeney
Trevor J B Dummer
Author Affiliation
Population Cancer Research Program, Department of Paediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Source
BMJ Open. 2018 04 10; 8(4):e018060
Date
04-10-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adiposity
Adult
Aged
Body mass index
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet
Female
Fruit
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Newfoundland and Labrador
Nova Scotia
Vegetables
Abstract
The prevalence of obesity among populations in the Atlantic provinces is the highest in Canada. Some studies suggest that adequate fruit and vegetable consumption may help body weight management. We assessed the associations between fruit and vegetable intake with body adiposity among individuals who participated in the baseline survey of the Atlantic Partnership for Tomorrow's Health (Atlantic PATH) cohort study.
We carried out a cross-sectional analysis among 26?340 individuals (7979 men and 18?361 women) aged 35-69 years who were recruited in the baseline survey of the Atlantic PATH study. Data on fruit and vegetable intake, sociodemographic and behavioural factors, chronic disease, anthropometric measurements and body composition were included in the analysis.
In the multivariable regression analyses, 1 SD increment of total fruit and vegetable intake was inversely associated with body mass index (-0.12?kg/m2; 95%?CI -0.19 to -0.05), waist circumference (-0.40?cm; 95%?CI -0.58 to -0.23), percentage fat mass (-0.30%; 95%?CI -0.44 to -0.17) and fat mass index (-0.14?kg/m2; 95%?CI -0.19 to -0.08). Fruit intake, but not vegetable intake, was consistently inversely associated with anthropometric indices, fat mass, obesity and abdominal obesity.
Fruit and vegetable consumption was inversely associated with body adiposity among the participant population in Atlantic Canada. This association was primarily attributable to fruit intake. Longitudinal studies and randomised trials are warranted to confirm these observations and investigate the underlying mechanisms.
PubMed ID
29643151 View in PubMed
Less detail

Morphological and molecular identification of three new species of Tomentella from Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297887
Source
Mycologia. 2018 Jul-Aug; 110(4):677-691
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Author
Xu Lu
Kari Steffen
Hai-Sheng Yuan
Author Affiliation
a CAS Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Shenyang 110164 , People's Republic of China.
Source
Mycologia. 2018 Jul-Aug; 110(4):677-691
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Basidiomycota - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Bayes Theorem
DNA, Fungal - genetics
DNA, Ribosomal - genetics
DNA, Ribosomal Spacer - genetics
Finland
Fruiting Bodies, Fungal - isolation & purification - ultrastructure
Hyphae - ultrastructure
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Phylogeny
Spores, Fungal - isolation & purification - ultrastructure
Abstract
Three new species of Tomentella (Thelephorales) from Finland, T. globosa, T. lammiensis, and T. longisterigmata, are described and illustrated with morphological characteristics and nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences. T. globosa is characterized by mucedinoid, pale to dark brown basidiocarps adherent to the substrate, generative hyphae with clamps and rarely with simple septa, and echinulate, globose basidiospores (echinuli up to 1.5 µm long). T. lammiensis is characterized by mucedinoid, oxide yellow to golden brown basidiocarps adherent to the substrate, generative hyphae with clamps and rarely with simple septa, and echinulate, ellipsoid, triangular, or lobbed basidiospores (echinuli up to 2 µm long). T. longisterigmata is characterized by mucedinoid, dark brown to chestnut basidiocarps separable from the substrate, generative hyphae clamped and rarely with simple septa, the long basidial sterigmata (7-11 µm long), and echinulate, globose basidiospores (echinuli up to 2 µm long). An absence of rhizomorphs and cystidia is their common morphological feature. Molecular analyses by maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian analyses confirm the phylogenetic position of these three new species. The discriminating characters of these new species and their closely related species are discussed in this study, and a key to the species from Finland is provided.
PubMed ID
30081774 View in PubMed
Less detail

A multi-level test of the seed number/size trade-off in two Scandinavian communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297718
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(7):e0201175
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Amparo Lázaro
Asier R Larrinaga
Author Affiliation
Global Change Research Group, Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies (UIB-CSIC), C/ Miquel Marqués 21, Esporles, Balearic Islands, Spain.
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(7):e0201175
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Altitude
Ecosystem
Fruit - anatomy & histology
Linear Models
Models, Biological
Multilevel Analysis
Norway
Plants - anatomy & histology
Pollen
Reproduction
Seeds - anatomy & histology
Species Specificity
Abstract
Seed size is a fundamental life-history trait for plants. A seed number/size trade-off is assumed because the resources invested in reproduction are limited; however, such a trade-off is not always observed. This could be a consequence of the method used for testing it, where the null hypothesis is dictated by common statistical practice, rather than being based on any underlying theory. Alternatively, there might be some population- and species-dependent variables that affect resource availability and, in turn, influence the presence and intensity of this trade-off. Using data on 42 herbs from two communities (lowland and alpine) from Southern Norway, we tested the validity of the classical linear model vs. two previously proposed models, based on resource competition, when assessing the existence of this trade-off at different levels. We also evaluated whether some species- (fruit aggregation, ovules/flower) and population-dependent (pollen limitation) variables could affect this trade-off. Classical linear modelling outperformed the other proposed functional models. Significant seed number/size relationships were negative in single-fruited species, whereas they were positive in species with infructescences of one-seeded fruits. Concordantly, fruit organization was the most influencing variable for the intra-specific trade-off in the lowland community. In the alpine community, species suffering higher pollen limitation showed more strongly negative slopes between seed size and seed number at the fruit/infructescence level. Across species, seed size and number were negatively related, although the relationship was significant in only one of the communities. No evidence of trade-off was found at the plant level. Linear models provide a flexible framework that allows coping with the variability in the seed number/size relationship. The emergence of the intra-specific relationship between seed number and size depends on species- and population-dependent variables, related to resource allocation and the pollination environment.
PubMed ID
30052656 View in PubMed
Less detail

11 records – page 1 of 2.