To compare differences in children's diet quality on weekdays (Monday-Thursday), Fridays and weekend days.
A representative cross-sectional study in which participants completed a 7 d pre-coded food record. Mean intakes of energy, macronutrients and selected food items (g/10 MJ) as well as energy density were compared between weekdays, Fridays and weekend days for each gender in three age groups (4-6, 7-10 and 11-14 years) using Tobit analysis to account for zero intakes.
The Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity 2003-2008.
The present study investigates the changes and tracking of dietary behaviours in Norwegian 11-year-olds and examines the association between parental education and dietary tracking over a time period of 20 months.
Longitudinal data from the Norwegian HEalth In Adolescents (HEIA) cohort study followed up at three time points (2007-2009).
Intakes of fruits, vegetables and snacks were assessed by frequency and intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and squash were assessed by frequency and amount. Tracking of dietary behaviours was assessed by adolescents' relative position in rank over time and Cohen's kappa was used to measure tracking coefficients. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between parental education and the tracking of dietary behaviours.
In total, 885 adolescents from the HEIA cohort study participated by answering Internet-based questionnaires at three time points.
The results indicated that boys and girls maintained their relative position in rank of dietary intake over time, when grouped by baseline consumption. Fair to moderate tracking coefficients of dietary variables were observed. An inverse association was found between parental education and stability of soft drink and squash consumption during the 20 months.
The observed tracking pattern indicates the importance of promoting healthy dietary behaviours at an even earlier age. Furthermore, interventions should focus particularly on adolescents from families with low parental education and their consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages.
OBJECTIVE: It is debated whether the intake of added sugar displaces micronutrient-rich foods and dilutes the nutrient density of the diet, and whether there is a link between sugar and the increased rate of obesity. The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of added sugar on the intakes of energy, micronutrients, fruit and vegetables, and to examine the association between intake of added sugar and age, sex, body mass index, physical activity, inactivity and parents' education. DESIGN: Participants recorded their food intake in pre-coded food diaries for 4 days and filled in a questionnaire about physical activity, watching television (TV)/using a personal computer (PC) and parents' education. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and ninety-one 4-year-olds, 810 students in the 4th grade (9 years old) and 1005 in the 8th grade (13 years old) were included in the study. RESULTS: The intakes of all nutrients, except alpha-tocopherol among 4-year-olds and vitamin C among 4-year-olds and 4th graders, decreased with increasing content of added sugar in the diet. Moreover, high consumers of added sugar had a 30-40% lower intake of fruit and vegetables than did low consumers. A negative association was observed between consumption of added sugar and body mass index among girls in the 8th grade (P=0.013), whereas a positive association was observed among 4-year-old boys (P=0.055). Associations between physical activity, hours spent watching TV/using a PC, parents' education and the energy intake from added sugar varied in the different age groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a negative association between the intake of added sugar and intakes of micronutrients, fruit and vegetables. The negative association between sugar intake and intake of fruit and vegetables is important from a public health perspective, since one of the main health messages today is to increase current intake of fruit and vegetables.
To investigate the intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), fruit and vegetables (FV) among adolescents and their parents and to explore differences in the perceived availability by gender and parental education.
Baseline data from the HEIA (HEalth In Adolescents) study.
Data on intake of SSB were collected assessing frequency and amounts, whereas consumption of FV was assessed on the basis of frequency. Further, perceived availability at home and at school (taken from home) was reported.
Participants were 1528 Norwegian adolescents aged 11 years, as well as 1200 mothers and 1057 fathers.
The adolescents' intake of SSB was low on weekdays but doubled during weekend days. This pattern was observed among parents as well. There were significant differences in intake between boys, girls, mothers and fathers, except for vegetables. Fathers reported the lowest frequency of FV intake. Compared with adolescents, mothers reported lower availability of SSB and higher availability of FV. Compared with their sons, fathers reported higher availability of vegetables and lower availability of sugar-sweetened fruit drinks at school. Significant differences in adolescents' intake of SSB and in the perceived availability of both SSB and FV by parental education were found.
The intake of SSB was higher during weekend days than during weekdays, whereas the frequency of FV intake was low. Differences in adolescents' perceived availability of both SSB and FV on the basis of parental education were found, whereas the differences in intake were significant only for SSB. Increasing parental awareness of availability and their potential as role models across parental gender and educational level could improve adolescents' dietary habits.
To study how different meals contribute to intakes of fruits, vegetables, fish and whole grains in a group of Norwegian adults and in subgroups of this population. Moreover, to investigate the consequences of skipping the meal contributing most to the intake of each food group (main contributing meal).
Cross-sectional dietary survey in Norwegian adults. Dietary data were collected using two non-consecutive telephone-administered 24 h recalls. The recorded meal types were breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal and snacks.
Nationwide, Norway (2010-2011).
Adults aged 18-70 years (n 1787).
Dinner was the main contributing meal for fish and vegetables, while snacks were the main contributing meal for fruit intake. For whole grains, breakfast was the main contributing meal. The main contributing meal did not change for any of the food groups when studying subgroups of the participants according to intake of each food group, educational level or age. A substantially lower intake of the food groups in question was found on days when the main contributing meal was skipped.
Intakes of fruits, vegetables, fish and whole grains largely depend on one meal type. Inclusion of these foods in other meals in addition to the main contributing meal, preferably replacing energy-dense nutrient-poor foods, should be promoted.
BACKGROUND: Simple screening tools to identify intake of fruit, vegetables and fat are necessary to design effective public health intervention strategies in order to increase intake of fruit and vegetable and to reduce fat intake. METHODS: 108 men recorded their food intake for 14 days and filled in a 27-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) 1.5-2 months later. Estimates of fruit, vegetables and fat intake from the FFQ were compared with those from the weighed records. RESULTS: Mean intake of vegetables and fruit estimated from the diet records increased with increasing categories for frequency of intake assessed by the FFQ. Spearman correlation coefficient between frequency of intake of vegetables and fruit from the FFQ and amount of these food items estimated from the weighed records was 0.46 and 0.66, respectively. The ability of the FFQ to predict those having inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables based on weighed record data, was more than 90%. Almost 95% who reported use of fat spreads by the FFQ also reported this by the records. The correlation coefficient between the amount of fat used on bread from the two methods was 0.79. The correlation between fat intake estimated from both methods was 0.36 and for saturated fat intake the correlation was 0.38. CONCLUSION: The FFQ could be used to screen for low consumers of fruit, vegetable and fat spread in intervention programmes. However, the ability of the FFQ to identify persons with high (or low) intake of fat and saturated fat was not good.