Few studies exist on the validity of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) administered to elderly people. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a short FFQ on present dietary intake, developed specially for the AGES-Reykjavik Study, which includes 5,764 elderly individuals. Assessing the validity of FFQs is essential before they are used in studies on diet-related disease risk and health outcomes.
128 healthy elderly participants (74 y ± 5.7; 58.6% female) answered the AGES-FFQ, and subsequently filled out a 3-day weighed food record. Validity of the AGES-FFQ was assessed by comparing its answers to the dietary data obtained from the weighed food records, using Spearman's rank correlation, Chi-Square/Kendall's tau, and a Jonckheere-Terpstra test for trend.
For men a correlation = 0.4 was found for potatoes, fresh fruits, oatmeal/muesli, cakes/cookies, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, tea and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.40-0.71). A lower, but acceptable, correlation was also found for raw vegetables (r = 0.33). The highest correlation for women was found for consumption of rye bread, oatmeal/muesli, raw vegetables, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee and tea (r = 0.40-0.61). An acceptable correlation was also found for fish topping/salad, fresh fruit, blood/liver sausage, whole-wheat bread, and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.28-0.37). Questions on meat/fish meals, cooked vegetables and soft drinks did not show a significant correlation to the reference method. Pearson Chi-Square and Kendall's tau showed similar results, as did the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test.
A majority of the questions in the AGES-FFQ had an acceptable correlation and may be used to rank individuals according to their level of intake of several important foods/food groups. The AGES-FFQ on present diet may therefore be used to study the relationship between consumption of several specific foods/food groups and various health-related endpoints gathered in the AGES-Reykjavik Study.
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First, to explore item pools developed to measure the physical home environment of pre-school children and assess the psychometric properties of these item pools; second, to explore associations between this environment and vegetable consumption among Norwegian 3-5-year-olds.
Data were collected in three steps: (i) a parental web-based questionnaire assessing the child's vegetable intake and factors potentially influencing the child's vegetable consumption; (ii) direct observation of the children's fruit, berry and vegetable intakes at two meals in one day in the kindergarten; and (iii) a parental web-based 24 h recall.
The target group for this study was pre-school children born in 2010 and 2011, attending public or private kindergartens in the counties of Vestfold and Buskerud, Norway.
A total of 633 children participated.
Principal component analysis on the thirteen-item pool assessing availability/accessibility resulted in two factors labelled 'availability at home' and 'accessibility at home', while the eight-item pool assessing barriers resulted in two factors labelled 'serving barriers' and 'purchase barriers'. The psychometric properties of these factors were satisfactory. Linear regression of the associations between vegetable intake and the factors showed generally positive associations with 'availability at home' and 'accessibility at home' and negative associations with 'serving barriers'.
This age group has so far been understudied and there is a need for comparable studies. Our findings highlight the importance of targeting the physical home environment of pre-school children in future interventions as there are important modifiable factors that both promote and hinder vegetable consumption in this environment.
The home environment is the first environment to shape childhood dietary habits and food preferences, hence greater understanding of home environmental factors associated with vegetable consumption among young children is needed. The objective has been to examine questionnaire items developed to measure the sociocultural home environment of children focusing on vegetables and to assess the psychometric properties of the resulting factors. Further, to explore associations between the environmental factors and vegetable consumption among Norwegian 3-5 year olds. Parents (n 633) were invited to participate and filled in a questionnaire assessing the child's vegetable intake and factors potentially influencing this, along with a 24-h recall of their child's fruit and vegetable intake. Children's fruit and vegetable intakes at two meals in one day in the kindergarten were observed by researchers. Principal components analysis was used to examine items assessing the sociocultural home environment. Encouragement items resulted in factors labelled "reactive encouragement", "child involvement" and "reward". Modelling items resulted in the factors labelled "active role model" and "practical role model". Items assessing negative parental attitudes resulted in the factor labelled "negative parental attitudes" and items assessing family pressure/demand resulted in the factor labelled "family demand". The psychometric properties of the factors were for most satisfactory. Linear regression of the associations between vegetable intake and the factors showed, as expected, generally positive associations with "child involvement", "practical role model" and "family demand", and negative associations with "negative parental attitudes" and "reward". Unexpectedly, "reactive encouragement" was negatively associated with vegetable consumption. In conclusion, associations between sociocultural home environmental factors and children's vegetable consumption showed both expected and unexpected associations some of which differed by maternal education - pointing to a need for further comparable studies.
This longitudinal study examined the frequency of consumption of vegetables for dinner by Norwegian adolescents and their parents. Associations of perceived availability, correlations and stability were explored. The longitudinal cohort consist of 1950 adolescents attending 6th/7th (2002) and 9th/10th (2005) grade, and their parents (n=1647). Only 40% of the adolescents and 60% of the adults reported to have eaten vegetables for dinner yesterday, the reported frequency of vegetables for dinner were 3.7 and 4.1 times/week in 2002 and 2005, respectively, and 4.8 times/week for parents. Girls ate more than boys, and high SES adolescents ate more than low SES adolescents. There were significant differences between adolescent and parent report of both frequency of consumption and perceived availability of vegetables for dinner. Adolescent's frequency of consumption of vegetables was related to the parent's consumption, and the adolescent response from 2002 to 2005 showed strong correlations. There were good tracking in the frequency of consumption of vegetables for dinner, and 25% of the adolescents showed a stable high frequency. To conclude, few adolescents and their parents consumed vegetables for dinner. Interventions are needed to meet the recommendations, and parents should be targeted in intervention programs.
Knowledge of dietary habits makes the basis for public nutrition policy. The aim of this study was to assess dietary intake of Icelandic six-year-olds.
Subjects were randomly selected six-year-old children (n=162). Dietary intake was assessed by three-day-weighed food records. Food and nutrient intake was compared with the Icelandic food based dietary guidelines (FBDG) and recommended intake of vitamins and minerals.
Fruit and vegetable intake was on average 275Â±164 g/d, and less than 20% of the subjects consumed =400 g/day. Fish and cod liver oil intake was in line with the FBDG among approximately 25% of subjects. Most subjects (87%) consumed at least two portions of dairy products daily. Food with relatively low nutrient density (cakes, cookies, sugar sweetened drinks, sweets and ice-cream) provided up to 25% of total energy intake. The contribution of saturated fatty acids to total energy intake was 14.1%. Less than 20% of the children consumed dietary fibers in line with recommendations, and for saturated fat and salt only 5% consumed less than the recommended upper limits. Average intake of most vitamins and minerals, apart from vitamin-D, was higher than the recommended intake.
Although the vitamin and mineral density of the diet seems adequate, with the exception of vitamin-D, the contribution of low energy density food to total energy intake is high. Intake of vegetables, fruits, fish and cod liver oil is not in line with public recommendations. Strategies aiming at improving diet of young children are needed.
We examined whether there are sex differences in children's fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and in descriptive norms (i.e. perceived FV intake) related to parents and friends. We also studied whether friends' impact is as important as that of parents on children's FV intake. Data from the PRO GREENS project in Finland were obtained from 424 children at the age 11 years at baseline. At baseline, 2009 children filled in a questionnaire about descriptive norms conceptualised as perceived FV intake of their parents and friends. They also filled in a validated FFQ that assessed their FV intake both at baseline and in the follow-up in 2010. The associations were examined with multi-level regression analyses with multi-group comparisons. Girls reported higher perceived FV intake of friends and higher own fruit intake at baseline, compared with boys, and higher vegetable intake both at baseline and in the follow-up. Perceived FV intake of parents and friends was positively associated with both girls' and boys' FV intake in both study years. The impact of perceived fruit intake of the mother was stronger among boys. The change in children's FV intake was affected only by perceived FV intake of father and friends. No large sex differences in descriptive norms were found, but the impact of friends on children's FV intake can generally be considered as important as that of parents. Future interventions could benefit from taking into account friends' impact as role models on children's FV intake.
The present study investigates the changes and tracking of dietary behaviours in Norwegian 11-year-olds and examines the association between parental education and dietary tracking over a time period of 20 months.
Longitudinal data from the Norwegian HEalth In Adolescents (HEIA) cohort study followed up at three time points (2007-2009).
Intakes of fruits, vegetables and snacks were assessed by frequency and intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and squash were assessed by frequency and amount. Tracking of dietary behaviours was assessed by adolescents' relative position in rank over time and Cohen's kappa was used to measure tracking coefficients. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between parental education and the tracking of dietary behaviours.
In total, 885 adolescents from the HEIA cohort study participated by answering Internet-based questionnaires at three time points.
The results indicated that boys and girls maintained their relative position in rank of dietary intake over time, when grouped by baseline consumption. Fair to moderate tracking coefficients of dietary variables were observed. An inverse association was found between parental education and stability of soft drink and squash consumption during the 20 months.
The observed tracking pattern indicates the importance of promoting healthy dietary behaviours at an even earlier age. Furthermore, interventions should focus particularly on adolescents from families with low parental education and their consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages.
OBJECTIVE: Guided by theory, this study explored cross-sectional differences in factors influencing adolescent eating behaviour including gender and socio-economic status (SES), and subsequently tested the longitudinal predictive power of the models. DESIGN/SETTING/SUBJECTS: Data were collected by questionnaires in a longitudinal study of adolescents (age 13 years at baseline) and their parents from Hordaland County, Norway. Association of personal and environmental variables (family, friends, school/society) with the consumption of fruit and vegetables (FV) and selected sources of fat and of sugar were assessed at age 15 The final cross-sectional models were subsequently employed in groups stratified by gender/SES and to predict consumption at age 21 RESULTS: The model explained more of the variation in the sugar score (21%) and the FV score (13.5%) than in the fat score (5%). SES was associated with both the sugar and FV scores. The strongest associations with the sugar score and FV were for antisocial behaviour and evaluation of own diet, respectively. The former association was significant in all gender/SES groups, whereas the latter association was only significant in the low SES groups. For all three types of food, the strongest significant predictors in the longitudinal models were frequency of consumption at age 15. CONCLUSION: The model's ability to explain variation in eating behaviours differed by food type, and possibly by gender/SES, but previous eating behaviour was an important predictor for all three foods. Prospective studies should carefully operationalize theoretical constructs when further investigating the influences of and interrelationships between these factors and gender/SES on the development of eating behaviours.
To investigate the intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), fruit and vegetables (FV) among adolescents and their parents and to explore differences in the perceived availability by gender and parental education.
Baseline data from the HEIA (HEalth In Adolescents) study.
Data on intake of SSB were collected assessing frequency and amounts, whereas consumption of FV was assessed on the basis of frequency. Further, perceived availability at home and at school (taken from home) was reported.
Participants were 1528 Norwegian adolescents aged 11 years, as well as 1200 mothers and 1057 fathers.
The adolescents' intake of SSB was low on weekdays but doubled during weekend days. This pattern was observed among parents as well. There were significant differences in intake between boys, girls, mothers and fathers, except for vegetables. Fathers reported the lowest frequency of FV intake. Compared with adolescents, mothers reported lower availability of SSB and higher availability of FV. Compared with their sons, fathers reported higher availability of vegetables and lower availability of sugar-sweetened fruit drinks at school. Significant differences in adolescents' intake of SSB and in the perceived availability of both SSB and FV by parental education were found.
The intake of SSB was higher during weekend days than during weekdays, whereas the frequency of FV intake was low. Differences in adolescents' perceived availability of both SSB and FV on the basis of parental education were found, whereas the differences in intake were significant only for SSB. Increasing parental awareness of availability and their potential as role models across parental gender and educational level could improve adolescents' dietary habits.
To assess the relationship between number of meals eaten and weight status, and to assess potential confounders of this relationship.
A total of 2870 (participation rate: 85%) 9th and 10th graders (mean age: 15.5 years) at 33 schools completed questionnaires in May 2005. Number of meals was measured with questions asking whether they ate breakfast, lunch, dinner, and supper the day before, giving a scale ranging from zero to four meals/day. Data on gender, height, weight, education plans, intake of fruits and vegetables, consumption of unhealthy snacks, TV/computer time, physical activity level, and dieting were also collected.
The proportions of overweight adolescents related to the number of meals eaten were: 10% (0-1 meals, n = 107), 18% (2 meals, n = 399), 14% (3 meals, n = 925), and 10% (4 meals, n = 1402), p = 0.001. Low education plans, high TV/computer time, low physical activity level, and dieting were all positively associated with both being overweight and not having four meals. Being a boy was positively associated with being overweight but negatively associated with not having four meals. High intake of unhealthy snacks was negatively associated with being overweight, but positively associated with not having four meals. In a logistic regression analysis, adjusting for all variables mentioned, odds ratio for being overweight were 0.8 (95% CI 0.3-1.9), 1.8 (95% CI 1.2-2.7) and 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.3), respectively, for eating one or zero, two, and three meals compared to four meals.
Eating four meals/day was significantly negatively related to being overweight, also when controlling for potential confounding factors.