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Changes in 10-12 year old's fruit and vegetable intake in Norway from 2001 to 2008 in relation to gender and socioeconomic status - a comparison of two cross-sectional groups.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130787
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011;8:108
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Marit Hilsen
Maartje M van Stralen
Knut-Inge Klepp
Elling Bere
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Health and Sport, University of Agder, Norway. marit.hilsen@medisin.uio.no
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011;8:108
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet - standards - trends
Diet Surveys
Educational Status
Energy intake
Female
Food Habits
Food Supply
Fruit
Humans
Male
Norway
Parents
Sex Factors
Social Class
Vegetables
Abstract
Norwegian children and adolescents eat less than half of the recommended 5 portions of fruit and vegetables (FV) per day. Gender and socioeconomic disparities in FV consumption shows that boys and children of lower socioeconomic status (SES) eat less FV than girls and high SES children. We also know that accessibility and preferences has been identified as two important determinants of FV intake. The objectives of this study were to compare FV intake among Norwegian 6th and 7th graders in 2001 and 2008, to explore potential mediated effects of accessibility and preferences on changes in FV over time, to explore whether these changes in FV intake was moderated by gender and/or SES and whether a moderated effect in FV intake was mediated by accessibility and preferences of FV.
The baseline survey of the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks project was conducted in 2001 at 38 randomly chosen schools in two Norwegian counties. A second survey was conducted at the same schools in 2008. A total of 27 schools participated in both surveys (2001 n = 1488, 2008 n = 1339). FV intake was measured by four food frequency questions (times/week) in a questionnaire which the pupils completed at school. SES was based on parents' reports of their own educational level in a separate questionnaire. The main analyses were multilevel linear regression analyses.
A significant year*parental educational level interaction was observed (p = 0.01). FV intake decreased among pupils of parents with lower educational level (13.9 vs. 12.6 times/week in 2001 and 2008, respectively), but increased among pupils of parents with higher education (14.8 vs. 15.0 times/week, respectively). This increasing SES disparity in FV intake was partly mediated by an increasing SES disparity in accessibility and preferences over time, wherein children with higher educated parents had a steeper increase in accessibility and preferences over time than children with lower educated parents. The year*sex interaction was not significant (p = 0.54).
This study shows an increase in SES disparities in 6th and 7th graders FV intake from 2001 to 2008, partly mediated by an increasing SES disparity in accessibility and preferences of FV.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21968008 View in PubMed
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Do descriptive norms related to parents and friends predict fruit and vegetable intake similarly among 11-year-old girls and boys?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271271
Source
Br J Nutr. 2016 Jan 14;115(1):168-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-14-2016
Author
Elviira Lehto
Carola Ray
Ari Haukkala
Agneta Yngve
Inga Thorsdottir
Eva Roos
Source
Br J Nutr. 2016 Jan 14;115(1):168-75
Date
Jan-14-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attitude
Child
Diet - standards
Eating
Energy intake
Female
Finland
Food Habits
Food Preferences
Friends
Fruit
Humans
Male
Parents
Sex Factors
Social Environment
Surveys and Questionnaires
Vegetables
Abstract
We examined whether there are sex differences in children's fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and in descriptive norms (i.e. perceived FV intake) related to parents and friends. We also studied whether friends' impact is as important as that of parents on children's FV intake. Data from the PRO GREENS project in Finland were obtained from 424 children at the age 11 years at baseline. At baseline, 2009 children filled in a questionnaire about descriptive norms conceptualised as perceived FV intake of their parents and friends. They also filled in a validated FFQ that assessed their FV intake both at baseline and in the follow-up in 2010. The associations were examined with multi-level regression analyses with multi-group comparisons. Girls reported higher perceived FV intake of friends and higher own fruit intake at baseline, compared with boys, and higher vegetable intake both at baseline and in the follow-up. Perceived FV intake of parents and friends was positively associated with both girls' and boys' FV intake in both study years. The impact of perceived fruit intake of the mother was stronger among boys. The change in children's FV intake was affected only by perceived FV intake of father and friends. No large sex differences in descriptive norms were found, but the impact of friends on children's FV intake can generally be considered as important as that of parents. Future interventions could benefit from taking into account friends' impact as role models on children's FV intake.
PubMed ID
26450715 View in PubMed
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The Norwegian School Fruit Programme: evaluating paid vs. no-cost subscriptions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29698
Source
Prev Med. 2005 Aug;41(2):463-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2005
Author
Elling Bere
Marit B Veierød
Knut-Inge Klepp
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Box 1046 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway. e.t.bere@medisin.uio.no
Source
Prev Med. 2005 Aug;41(2):463-70
Date
Aug-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Consumer Satisfaction
Costs and Cost Analysis
Female
Food Habits
Food Services - economics
Fruit
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Norway
Parents
Program Evaluation
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
School Health Services
Statistics, nonparametric
Vegetables
Abstract
BACKGROUND: This study reports the effect of providing Norwegian school children with free fruit or vegetables every school day and the effect of an existing fee-based School Fruit Programme. METHODS: Seventh grade pupils and their parents completed questionnaires at baseline (autumn 2001) and at follow-up (spring 2002). Nine schools participated in the School Fruit Programme for free (Free fruit), nine schools took part at standard conditions (Paid fruit), and 20 schools did not take part in the subscription programme (No fruit). A total of 795 7th graders (11 or 12 years old at baseline) participated both at baseline and at follow-up. RESULTS: At follow-up, pupils attending the Free fruit schools had significantly higher intake of fruit and vegetables at school than the pupils at the Paid fruit and No fruit schools (P
PubMed ID
15917042 View in PubMed
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One year of free school fruit in Norway--7 years of follow-up.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276351
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12:139
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Elling Bere
Saskia J te Velde
Milada Cvancarova Småstuen
Jos Twisk
Knut-Inge Klepp
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12:139
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child Behavior
Costs and Cost Analysis
Diet
Educational Status
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Food Habits
Food Preferences
Food Services
Fruit
Health Behavior
Health Promotion - methods
Humans
Male
Norway
Parents
Program Evaluation
Schools
Snacks
Surveys and Questionnaires
Vegetables
Abstract
It is important that health-promoting efforts result in sustained behavioural changes, preferably throughout life. However, only a very few intervention studies evaluate long term follow up.
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the overall and up to seven years effect of providing daily one piece of fruit or vegetable (FV) for free for one school year.
A total of 38 randomly drawn elementary schools from two counties in Norway participated in the Fruit and Vegetables Make the Marks project. Baseline (2001) and follow-up surveys were conducted in May 2002, 2005 and 2009 (n?=?320 with complete data) to assess FV and unhealthy snack intake. Mixed models were used to analyze the data.
Statistically significant adjusted overall effects of the intervention were revealed for FV intake (1.52 times/day) but this weakened over time. A significant adjusted overall effect (-1.54 consumptions/week) and a significant seven-year-follow-up effect (-2.02 consumptions/week) was found for consumption of unhealthy snacks for pupils of parents without higher education.
One year of free school fruit resulted in higher FV intake and lower unhealthy snack intake, however this weakened over time for FV intake and became stronger for snack intake. More follow-up studies with larger samples and lower attrition rates are needed in order to further evaluate the long-term effect.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26556692 View in PubMed
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Reliability of parental and self-reported determinants of fruit and vegetable intake among 6th graders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30474
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2004 Apr;7(2):353-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2004
Author
Elling Bere
Knut-Inge Klepp
Author Affiliation
Institute for Nutrition Research, University of Oslo, Box 1046 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway. elling.bere@basalmed.uio.no
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2004 Apr;7(2):353-6
Date
Apr-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Nutrition
Child
Diet Surveys
Female
Food Habits
Fruit
Humans
Male
Norway
Parents
Questionnaires - standards
Reproducibility of Results
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Self Disclosure
Sensitivity and specificity
Vegetables
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of newly developed questionnaires measuring theoretical constructs believed to predict fruit and vegetable consumption among 6th-grade pupils. DESIGN: Participating pupils and parents completed questionnaires twice, 14 days apart. SETTING: One hundred and twenty-nine pupils from 6th-grade classes (average age: 11.9 years) at two schools in Norway and their parents were invited to participate. RESULTS: The test-retest reliability was found to be good or very good for scales reported both by the pupils and their parents. All scales showed acceptable to strong correlations between time 1 and time 2, and only one scale had significant different mean values at the two times. The internal consistency reliability of the scales was acceptable to good. CONCLUSIONS: Sixth graders and their parents are able to provide reliable reports on theoretical determinants of the pupil's fruit and vegetable consumption.
PubMed ID
15003144 View in PubMed
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