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Dietary antioxidants and the risk of lung cancer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature225751
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1991 Sep 1;134(5):471-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1-1991
Author
P. Knekt
R. Järvinen
R. Seppänen
A. Rissanen
A. Aromaa
O P Heinonen
D. Albanes
M. Heinonen
E. Pukkala
L. Teppo
Author Affiliation
Research Institute for Social Security, Social Insurance Institution, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1991 Sep 1;134(5):471-9
Date
Sep-1-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Antioxidants - pharmacology
Ascorbic Acid - pharmacology
Carotenoids - pharmacology
Cohort Studies
Dairy Products
Diet
Eating
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Fruit
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - etiology - prevention & control
Male
Meat products
Middle Aged
Proportional Hazards Models
Retinoids - pharmacology
Risk
Selenium - pharmacology
Smoking
Vegetables
Vitamin E - pharmacology
Abstract
The relation between the intake of retinoids, carotenoids, vitamin E, vitamin C, and selenium and the subsequent risk of lung cancer was studied among 4,538 initially cancer-free Finnish men aged 20-69 years. During a follow-up of 20 years beginning in 1966-1972, 117 lung cancer cases were diagnosed. Inverse gradients were observed between the intake of carotenoids, vitamin E, and vitamin C and the incidence of lung cancer among nonsmokers, for whom the age-adjusted relative risks of lung cancer in the lowest tertile of intake compared with that in the highest tertile were 2.5 (p value for trend = 0.04), 3.1 (p = 0.12), and 3.1 (p less than 0.01) for the three intakes, respectively. Adjustment for various potential confounding factors did not materially alter the results, and the associations did not seem to be due to preclinical cancer. In the total cohort, there was an inverse association between intake of margarine and fruits and risk of lung cancer. The relative risk of lung cancer for the lowest compared with the highest tertile of margarine intake was 4.0 (p less than 0.001), and that for fruits was 1.8 (p = 0.01). These associations persisted after adjustment for the micronutrient intakes and were stronger among nonsmokers. The results suggest that carotenoids, vitamin E, and vitamin C may be protective against lung cancer among nonsmokers. Food sources rich in these micronutrients may also have other constituents with independent protective effects against lung cancer.
Notes
Comment In: Am J Epidemiol. 1992 Nov 1;136(9):1167-9; author reply 1169-701462977
PubMed ID
1897503 View in PubMed
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Do descriptive norms related to parents and friends predict fruit and vegetable intake similarly among 11-year-old girls and boys?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271271
Source
Br J Nutr. 2016 Jan 14;115(1):168-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-14-2016
Author
Elviira Lehto
Carola Ray
Ari Haukkala
Agneta Yngve
Inga Thorsdottir
Eva Roos
Source
Br J Nutr. 2016 Jan 14;115(1):168-75
Date
Jan-14-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attitude
Child
Diet - standards
Eating
Energy intake
Female
Finland
Food Habits
Food Preferences
Friends
Fruit
Humans
Male
Parents
Sex Factors
Social Environment
Surveys and Questionnaires
Vegetables
Abstract
We examined whether there are sex differences in children's fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and in descriptive norms (i.e. perceived FV intake) related to parents and friends. We also studied whether friends' impact is as important as that of parents on children's FV intake. Data from the PRO GREENS project in Finland were obtained from 424 children at the age 11 years at baseline. At baseline, 2009 children filled in a questionnaire about descriptive norms conceptualised as perceived FV intake of their parents and friends. They also filled in a validated FFQ that assessed their FV intake both at baseline and in the follow-up in 2010. The associations were examined with multi-level regression analyses with multi-group comparisons. Girls reported higher perceived FV intake of friends and higher own fruit intake at baseline, compared with boys, and higher vegetable intake both at baseline and in the follow-up. Perceived FV intake of parents and friends was positively associated with both girls' and boys' FV intake in both study years. The impact of perceived fruit intake of the mother was stronger among boys. The change in children's FV intake was affected only by perceived FV intake of father and friends. No large sex differences in descriptive norms were found, but the impact of friends on children's FV intake can generally be considered as important as that of parents. Future interventions could benefit from taking into account friends' impact as role models on children's FV intake.
PubMed ID
26450715 View in PubMed
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The PRO GREENS intervention in Finnish schoolchildren - the degree of implementation affects both mediators and the intake of fruits and vegetables.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258776
Source
Br J Nutr. 2014 Oct 14;112(7):1185-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-14-2014
Author
Reetta Lehto
Suvi Määttä
Elviira Lehto
Carola Ray
Saskia Te Velde
Nanna Lien
Inga Thorsdottir
Agneta Yngve
Eva Roos
Source
Br J Nutr. 2014 Oct 14;112(7):1185-94
Date
Oct-14-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Diet
Europe
Faculty
Female
Finland
Food Preferences
Fruit
Health Education - methods
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Health Plan Implementation
Health promotion
Humans
Male
School Health Services - statistics & numerical data
Snacks
Students
Vegetables
Abstract
Little is known about the mediating effects of the determinants of fruit and vegetable (FV) intake in school-based interventions that promote FV intake, and few studies have examined the impact of the degree of implementation on the effects of an intervention. The present study examined whether the degree of implementation of an intervention had an effect on children's fruit or vegetable intake and determined possible mediators of this effect. The study is part of the European PRO GREENS intervention study which aimed to develop effective strategies to promote consumption of fruit and vegetables in schoolchildren across Europe. Data from 727 Finnish children aged 11 years were used. The baseline study was conducted in spring 2009 and the follow-up study 12 months later. The intervention was conducted during the school year 2009-2010. The effects were examined using multilevel mediation analyses. A high degree of implementation of the intervention had an effect on children's fruit intake. Knowledge of recommendations for FV intake and liking mediated the association between a high degree of implementation of the intervention and an increase in the frequency of fruit intake. Knowledge of recommendations for FV intake and bringing fruits to school as a snack mediated the association between a low degree of implementation of the intervention and an increase in the frequency of fruit intake. Overall, the model accounted for 34 % of the variance in the change in fruit intake frequency. Knowledge of recommendations acted as a mediator between the degree of implementation of the intervention and the change in vegetable intake frequency. In conclusion, the degree of implementation had an effect on fruit intake, and thus in future intervention studies the actual degree of implementation of interventions should be assessed when considering the effects of interventions.
PubMed ID
25106046 View in PubMed
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