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211 records – page 1 of 22.

Activation of flavonoid biosynthesis by solar radiation in bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus L) leaves.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9570
Source
Planta. 2004 Mar;218(5):721-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2004
Author
Laura Jaakola
Kaisu Määttä-Riihinen
Sirpa Kärenlampi
Anja Hohtola
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology/Botany, University of Oulu, POB 3000, 90014, Oulu, Finland. laura.jaakola@oulu.fi
Source
Planta. 2004 Mar;218(5):721-8
Date
Mar-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acclimatization - physiology - radiation effects
Acyltransferases - genetics - metabolism
Alcohol Oxidoreductases - genetics - metabolism
Flavonoids - biosynthesis - radiation effects
Fruit - metabolism - radiation effects
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic - radiation effects
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant - radiation effects
Mixed Function Oxygenases - genetics - metabolism
Oxygenases - genetics - metabolism
Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase - genetics - metabolism
Plant Leaves - metabolism - radiation effects
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sunlight
Vaccinium myrtillus - genetics - metabolism - radiation effects
Abstract
The effect of solar radiation on flavonoid biosynthesis was studied in bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus L.) leaves. Expression of flavonoid pathway genes of bilberry was studied in the upper leaves of bilberry, exposed to direct sunlight, in the shaded leaves growing lower in the same plants and in fruits. Bilberry-specific digoxigenin-dUTP-labeled cDNA fragments of five genes from the general phenylpropanoid pathway coding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and from the flavonoid pathway coding chalcone synthase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, and anthocyanidin synthase were used as probes in gene expression analysis. Anthocyanins, catechins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids from the leaves and fruits were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with a diode array detector. An increase in the expression of the studied flavonoid pathway genes was observed in leaves growing under direct sun exposure. Also, the concentrations of anthocyanins, catechins, flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids were higher in the leaves exposed to direct sunlight. However, the concentration of polymeric procyanidins was lower in sun-exposed leaves, whereas that of prodelphinidins was slightly increased. The results give further support for the protective role of flavonoids and hydroxy cinnamic acids against high solar radiation in plants. Also, the roles of different flavonoid compounds as a defense against stress caused by sun exposure is discussed.
PubMed ID
14666422 View in PubMed
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Analysis of the contribution of forest pathways to the radiation exposure of different population groups in the Bryansk region of Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195787
Source
Radiat Environ Biophys. 2000 Dec;39(4):291-300
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2000
Author
S V Fesenko
G. Voigt
S I Spiridonov
N I Sanzharova
I A Gontarenko
M. Belli
U. Sansone
Author Affiliation
Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Radioecology, Obninsk.
Source
Radiat Environ Biophys. 2000 Dec;39(4):291-300
Date
Dec-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agaricales - radiation effects
Agriculture
Animals
Cattle
Cesium Radioisotopes - adverse effects
Ecosystem
Food Contamination, Radioactive - prevention & control
Fruit - radiation effects
Geography
Humans
Milk
Models, Statistical
Power Plants
Radiation Dosage
Radioactive Hazard Release
Radiometry
Rural Population
Russia
Time Factors
Trees - radiation effects
Ukraine
Abstract
The experience gained in the aftermath of serious radiation accidents shows that forests are an important source of external and internal exposure of the affected population. This paper presents the results of an assessment of the major radiological consequences for forests of Russia, most heavily contaminated after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (ChNPP) accident. Illustrated in the Novozybkovsky district of the Russian Federation, the significance of different forest exposure pathways is estimated and the doses resulting from forest pathways are compared with the doses from agricultural products. It has been found that the contribution of mushrooms and berries to the internal doses of the population, relative to the doses from agricultural products, varied from 10-15% in 1987 to 40-45% in 1996. The results indicate large differences in internal exposure of members of the "critical groups" and "normal population", increasing with time after deposition. Data are presented that give information on the contribution of forests to the collective doses of inhabitants of the area under consideration. It has been shown that for 10 years after the accident (1987-1996), the contribution of forest products to the collective dose of the rural population living in contaminated forests of the Novozybkovsky district, amounts to about 20% (213 person Sv) of the total collective dose of internal and external exposures. However, a potential impact of these products including the dose from exported products is much higher and might reach 659 person Sv. It has been found that in the long-term after the ChNPP accident, serious attention should be given to forest countermeasures, and restoration strategies should be selected on the basis of a combined analysis of the effectiveness of forest and agricultural countermeasures.
PubMed ID
11200973 View in PubMed
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Aniline in vegetable and fruit samples from the Canadian total diet study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature149118
Source
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2009 Jun;26(6):808-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2009
Author
Xu-Liang Cao
Jiping Zhu
Stephen Macdonald
Kaela Lalonde
Bob Dabeka
Mamady Cisse
Author Affiliation
Food Research Division, Bureau of Chemical Safety, Food Directorate, HPFB, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0K9. xu-liang_cao@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2009 Jun;26(6):808-13
Date
Jun-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aniline Compounds - analysis
Canada
Carcinogens - analysis
Diet
Diet Surveys
Food contamination - analysis
Fruit - chemistry
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry - methods
Humans
Malus - chemistry
Reference Standards
Vegetables - chemistry
Abstract
An isotope dilution method based on solvent extraction followed by GC-MS analysis was developed and used to determine aniline in vegetable and fruit samples collected from the Canadian total diet study. Aniline was not detected in any of the 23 vegetable samples from the 2005 total diet study at a method detection limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1). Among the 16 fruit samples, it was detected only in apple samples, with an average concentration of 0.278 mg kg(-1). Aniline was not detected in apple samples collected in the 2002, 2003, 2006 or 2007 total diet studies, but it was detected in the apple samples collected from the 2001 and 2004 studies, at concentrations of 0.085 and 0.468 mg kg(-1), respectively. The average aniline concentration for the 2001, 2004 and 2005 apple samples was 0.277 mg kg(-1). Good repeatability of the method was observed with replicate analysis of apple samples, with relative standard deviations (RSD) ranging 3.8-21% and an average of 11%.
PubMed ID
19680954 View in PubMed
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Anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon): a mini review.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature147996
Source
Br J Nutr. 2009 Dec;102(12):1703-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2009
Author
Lawrence Leung
Richard Birtwhistle
Jyoti Kotecha
Susan Hannah
Sharon Cuthbertson
Author Affiliation
Department of Family Medicine, Centre for Studies in Primary Care, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada. leungl@queensu.ca
Source
Br J Nutr. 2009 Dec;102(12):1703-8
Date
Dec-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases
Animals
Clinical Trials as Topic
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - drug therapy
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - drug therapy
Female
Fruit - chemistry
Humans
Hypoglycemic Agents - administration & dosage
Male
Momordica charantia - adverse effects - chemistry
Phytotherapy
Plant Extracts - administration & dosage
Plant Leaves - chemistry
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Rats
Seeds - chemistry
Triterpenes - analysis
Abstract
It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. Momordica charantia (bitter melon) is a popular fruit used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present article reviews the clinical data regarding the anti-diabetic potentials of M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects.
PubMed ID
19825210 View in PubMed
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Antioxidant activity and antimicrobial effect of berry phenolics--a Finnish perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature163640
Source
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Jun;51(6):684-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2007
Author
Marina Heinonen
Author Affiliation
Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, Food Chemistry, University of Helsinki, Finland. marina.heinonen@helsinki.fi
Source
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Jun;51(6):684-91
Date
Jun-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Infective Agents - pharmacology
Antioxidants - pharmacology
Diet
Finland
Flavonoids - administration & dosage
Fruit - chemistry
Health promotion
Humans
Phenols - analysis
Phytotherapy
Abstract
In Finland, berries are part of the traditional diet significantly contributing to the intake of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds. Compositional data on phenolic compounds in berries has been rapidly accumulating and included in the national food composition database. Among the different bioactive substances in berries, phenolic compounds including flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic acids have received considerable interest due to their effects in food and health. A great amount of in vitro evidence exists showing that berry phenolics are powerful antioxidants. However, the antioxidant effect of berry phenolics is strongly dependent on the choice of berry raw material, as the antioxidant activity differs between the different phenolic constituents, including anthocyanins, ellagitannins, and proanthocyanidins. In foods, the antioxidant effect is also influenced by the structure of food. Tannin-containing berries exhibit antimicrobial properties against pathogenic bacteria, thus offering many new applications for food industry. Much of the interest in berry phenolics has focused on cranberries and both cultivated and wild blueberries, although also other berries including black currants, cloudberries, lingonberries, and red raspberries possess promising bioactivities that may have relevance to human health. Antioxidant activity of berry phenolics, in addition to other mechanisms, may contribute to human health, but the possible relationship remains yet to be scientifically substantiated.
PubMed ID
17492800 View in PubMed
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Antioxidant activity relates to plant part, life form and growing condition in some diabetes remedies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature163311
Source
J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jul 25;112(3):461-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-25-2007
Author
Letitia M McCune
Timothy Johns
Author Affiliation
Department of Plant Science, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada. letitiamccune@msn.com
Source
J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jul 25;112(3):461-9
Date
Jul-25-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antioxidants - isolation & purification - therapeutic use
Biphenyl Compounds
Canada
Diabetes Mellitus - drug therapy
Ecosystem
Flowers - chemistry
Free Radical Scavengers - isolation & purification - therapeutic use
Fruit - chemistry
Humans
Hypoglycemic Agents - isolation & purification - therapeutic use
Picrates - isolation & purification - therapeutic use
Plant Bark - chemistry
Plant Extracts - isolation & purification - therapeutic use
Plant Leaves - chemistry
Plant Roots - chemistry
Plants, Medicinal - chemistry - classification - growth & development
Abstract
Selection, collection and preparation of 35 plant species used by traditional healers in the boreal regions of Canada for treatment of the symptoms of diabetes were supported empirically by antioxidant activity of the plants. Because antioxidants fluctuate with growth parameters and environmental factors, these remedies were evaluated in relation to the affect of plant part, life form and growing condition on the level of activity. The parts used here more frequently as medicines were roots and bark. Activity (IC(50)) of the bark extracts used medicinally averaged to 21.38+/-3.84 ppm while root extracts used medicinally had an IC(50) of 185.11+/-32.18 ppm in a free radical DPPH assay. In contrast the analysis of extracts of overall parts (medicinal or not) in these species found leaves and bark to have the least activity (112.22+/-30.63 ppm and 123.02+/-21.13 ppm, respectively). The highest activity was found in tree extracts (24.88+/-3.32 ppm) as compared to herbs and shrubs, and increased activity was found in plant extracts from growing conditions of decreased water/fertility. The antioxidant activity of these traditional plant remedies have the potential to be partially deduced through environment signals interpreted by the traditional herbalist.
PubMed ID
17532584 View in PubMed
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The antioxidant response induced by Lonicera caerulaea berry extracts in animals bearing experimental solid tumors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature92970
Source
Molecules. 2008;13(5):1195-206
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Gruia Maria Iuliana
Oprea Eliza
Gruia Ion
Negoita Valentina
Farcasanu Ileana Cornelia
Author Affiliation
Institute of Oncology Bucharest, 252 Fundeni, 022338, Bucharest, Romania.
Source
Molecules. 2008;13(5):1195-206
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antioxidants - metabolism
Cell Proliferation - drug effects
Ceruloplasmin - metabolism
Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor
Fruit - metabolism
Lipid Peroxidation - drug effects
Lonicera - metabolism
Male
Neoplasms, Experimental - drug therapy - pathology
Oxidation-Reduction - drug effects
Oxidative Stress - drug effects
Phytotherapy
Plant Extracts - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Rats
Rats, Wistar
Sulfhydryl Compounds - metabolism
Abstract
Lonicera caerulea is a species of bush native to the Kamchatka Peninsula (Russian Far East) whose berries have been extensively studied due to their potential high antioxidant activity. The aim of our work was to investigate the in vivo effects of the antioxidant action of Lonicera caerulea berry extracts on the dynamics of experimentally-induced tumors. Our data showed that aqueous Lonicera caerulaea extracts reduced the tumor volume when administered continuously during the tumor growth and development stages, but augmented the tumor growth when the administration of extracts started three weeks before tumor grafting. Prolonged administration of Lonicera caerulaea berry extracts induced the antioxidant defense mechanism in the tumor tissues, while surprisingly amplifying the peripheral oxidative stress.
Notes
Erratum In: Molecules. 2009;14(2):893
PubMed ID
18560338 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2006 Aug 21;168(34):2787-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-21-2006
Author
Skibsted Leif H
Dragsted Lars O
Dyerberg Jørn
Hansen Harald S
Kiens Bente
Ovesen Lars F
Tjønneland Anne M
Author Affiliation
Motions- og Ernaeringsrådets, Søborg. sm@meraadet.dk
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2006 Aug 21;168(34):2787-9
Date
Aug-21-2006
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antioxidants - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Ascorbic Acid - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Denmark
Dietary Supplements - adverse effects
Evidence-Based Medicine
Food Habits
Fruit
Health status
Humans
Nutrition Policy
Oxidative Stress
Risk factors
Vegetables
Vitamin E - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Abstract
The Danish Fitness and Nutrition Council has evaluated the basis for recommendations on the intake of antioxidants and has found limited basis for increasing the recommended intake levels for the antioxidants vitamin C and E. Evidence was insufficient to support recommendations for polyphenol or carotenoid supplementation. Supplementation with high doses of vitamin E and beta-carotene may present a health risk. A high intake of fruit and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of lifestyle diseases, but there is no evidence that this association is due to an antioxidant effect.
Notes
Comment In: Ugeskr Laeger. 2006 Oct 9;168(41):3537; author reply 353717066533
PubMed ID
16942696 View in PubMed
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[A quantitative assessment of the impact of diet on the mortality of heart disease in Denmark. Estimation of etiologic fraction]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature10365
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2000 Sep 11;162(37):4921-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-11-2000
Author
M. Osler
J. Godtfredsen
M N Grønbaek
P. Marckmann
O K Overvad
Author Affiliation
Københavns Universitet, Panum Instituttet, afdeling for social medicin og psykosocial sundhed (Institut for Folkesundhedsvidenskab).
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2000 Sep 11;162(37):4921-5
Date
Sep-11-2000
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking
Coronary Disease - etiology - mortality
Denmark - epidemiology
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
English Abstract
Food Habits
Fruit
Guidelines
Humans
Myocardial Ischemia - etiology - mortality
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Vegetables
Abstract
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to quantify the impact of different dietary factors on the mortality from ischaemic heart disease in Denmark. METHODS: Relative risks and knowledge on the distribution of different dietary factors were used to estimate etiological fractions. RESULTS: It is estimated that an intake of fruit and vegetables and saturated fat as recommended would prevent 12 and 22%, respectively, of deaths from ischaemic heart disease in Denmark. An intake of fish among those at high risk for ischaemic heart disease, would lead to a 26% lower mortality, while alcohol intake among abstainers would have no significant quantitative effect. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that changes in dietary habits according to current recommendations would have an impact on public health in Denmark.
PubMed ID
11002740 View in PubMed
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211 records – page 1 of 22.