Results of an assessment of the actual food of the population in various medicoeconomic zones of the republic (industrial, agricultural, Arctic) by method of the frequency analysis of food consumption are presented in the article. The analysis of control of compliance of quality and safety of foodstuff in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), according to requirements of the legislation of the Russian Federation, acts of the Customs union has been made. Decreased consumption of such foodstuff as milk, fish and meat products including products from local food staples and national dishes has been established. The data obtained are medic-biological justification for search of ways of optimization of population nutrition, creation of specialized products with a functional purpose and for the prevention of the states and diseases connected with nutrition violation. They also define innovative development of the republic in questions of biotechnologies of the production of specialized foods for various groups of the population. Results of chemical composition research of the most used wild-growing food plants of Yakutia are given. The questions connected with the nutrition and biological value of the dairy products of a functional purpose with use of wild-growing food herbs and berries of Yakutia are discussed.
First, to explore item pools developed to measure the physical home environment of pre-school children and assess the psychometric properties of these item pools; second, to explore associations between this environment and vegetable consumption among Norwegian 3-5-year-olds.
Data were collected in three steps: (i) a parental web-based questionnaire assessing the child's vegetable intake and factors potentially influencing the child's vegetable consumption; (ii) direct observation of the children's fruit, berry and vegetable intakes at two meals in one day in the kindergarten; and (iii) a parental web-based 24 h recall.
The target group for this study was pre-school children born in 2010 and 2011, attending public or private kindergartens in the counties of Vestfold and Buskerud, Norway.
A total of 633 children participated.
Principal component analysis on the thirteen-item pool assessing availability/accessibility resulted in two factors labelled 'availability at home' and 'accessibility at home', while the eight-item pool assessing barriers resulted in two factors labelled 'serving barriers' and 'purchase barriers'. The psychometric properties of these factors were satisfactory. Linear regression of the associations between vegetable intake and the factors showed generally positive associations with 'availability at home' and 'accessibility at home' and negative associations with 'serving barriers'.
This age group has so far been understudied and there is a need for comparable studies. Our findings highlight the importance of targeting the physical home environment of pre-school children in future interventions as there are important modifiable factors that both promote and hinder vegetable consumption in this environment.
Reluctance to try novel foods (food neophobia) prevents toddlers from accepting healthy foods such as fish and vegetables, which are important for child development and health. Eating habits established between ages 2 and 3 years normally track into adulthood and are therefore highly influential; even so, there are few studies addressing food neophobia in this age group. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between the level of food neophobia and the frequency of toddlers' intake of fish, meat, berries, fruit, vegetables, and sweet and salty snacks. Parents of 505 toddlers completed a questionnaire assessing the degree of food neophobia in their toddlers (mean age 28 months, SD ± 3.5), and frequency of intake of various foods. Food neophobia was rated by the Children's Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS, score range 6-42). Associations between CFNS score and food frequency were examined using hierarchical multiple regression models, adjusting for significant covariates. Toddlers with higher CFNS scores had less frequent intake of vegetables (ß = -0.28, p
Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland; Abdominal Center Nephrology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; Research Program Unit, Diabetes and Obesity, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Diet plays an important role in the management of type 1 diabetes. However, the association between dietary intake and health has not been extensively studied in this population. We studied the cross-sectional association between dietary factors, and selected vascular health markers and complications in type 1 diabetes.
Data from 874 individuals with type 1 diabetes participating in the FinnDiane Study were included. Dietary intake was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire and a diet score, expressing the extent to which individuals adhered to the dietary recommendations, was calculated. Diet questionnaire was also used to reveal dietary patterns using factor analysis.
Seven factors with high degree of inter-correlation were formed; healthy, traditional, vegetable, sweets, modern, low-fat cheese, and fish and eggs. In multivariate models, higher diet score and healthy factor score were associated with better glycaemic control. Higher diet score was associated with higher, while sweets, and fish and eggs patterns were associated with lower systolic blood pressure. Healthy, sweets, and fish and eggs factors were additionally associated with lower diastolic blood pressure.
Closer adherence to the dietary recommendations, and a diet high in fresh vegetables, fruits and berries, cooked vegetables, fish dishes, and yoghurt may be beneficial for the glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes. Moreover, a diet pattern with fish and eggs may have beneficial effects for blood pressure.
To understand factors influencing fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption in children, the authors studied the association between F&V consumption in mothers and children in a sample of 1,106 boys and girls in Grades 4-6 in 24 elementary schools in low-income, multiethnic neighborhoods in Montreal, Canada. Approximately 10% of girls and 19% of boys reported not having eaten any vegetables in the week prior to questionnaire administration; 53% of girls and 63% of boys did not consume whole fruits daily. Each unit increase in F&V consumption in mothers was associated with a 10% to 20% increase in F&V consumption in children. Interventions to improve F&V consumption should aim to improve awareness among parents of the importance of fruits and vegetables and of the impact of their own behavior on their children's F&V consumption.
Exposure to advertisements cannot fully explain the associations between young children's dietary intake and the time they spend in front of the television. It is therefore of importance to study television content other than advertisements in this aspect. The present study aimed to examine the nature and extent of verbal and visual appearances of foods and beverages in children's television programmes on Icelandic public service television.
A total of 27 h of children's programmes (domestic and internationally produced) were watched. All verbal and visual appearances of foods and beverages were coded, as well as the context in which the foods/beverages were discussed or appeared.
Children's programmes on Icelandic public service television.
Two food groups were of special interest for their importance from a public health perspective: high-calorie and low-nutrient (HCLN) foods and fruits and vegetables (F&V). The ? 2 test and logistic regression were performed to analyse if the occurrence of the two groups was associated with the context where foods/beverages appeared.
Of the 125 different programmes, a food or beverage appeared in 86 %. Of the total food appearances (n 599), HCLN foods accounted for 26 % and F&V for 23 %. HCLN foods were presented as desirable by appearing more frequently with child characters (P
Dietary quality in relation to bone health has been analysed in relatively few studies. The current study aimed to assess the association of the Baltic Sea diet (BSD) and the Mediterranean diet (MD) with bone mineral density (BMD) among elderly women.
Lumbar, femoral and total body BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and year 3. Dietary intake was measured by 3 d food record at baseline. BSD and MD scores were calculated from food and alcohol consumption and nutrient intake. Information on lifestyle, diseases and medications was collected by questionnaires. Longitudinal associations of BSD and MD scores with BMD were analysed using linear mixed models.
Interventional prospective Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Fracture Prevention study including women aged 65-71 years and residing in Kuopio province, Finland.
Women (n 554) with mean age of 67·9 (sd 1·9) years and mean BMI of 28·8 (sd 4·7) kg/m2.
Higher BSD scores were associated with higher intakes of fruit and berries, vegetables, fish and low-fat dairy products, and lower intake of sausage. Higher MD scores were associated with higher consumption of fruit and berries and vegetables. BSD and MD scores were associated with higher PUFA:SFA and higher fibre intake. Femoral, lumbar or total body BMD was not significantly different among the quartiles of BSD or MD score.
The lack of associations suggest that Baltic Sea and Mediterranean dietary patterns may not adequately reflect dietary factors relevant to bone health.
Few studies exist on the validity of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) administered to elderly people. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a short FFQ on present dietary intake, developed specially for the AGES-Reykjavik Study, which includes 5,764 elderly individuals. Assessing the validity of FFQs is essential before they are used in studies on diet-related disease risk and health outcomes.
128 healthy elderly participants (74 y ± 5.7; 58.6% female) answered the AGES-FFQ, and subsequently filled out a 3-day weighed food record. Validity of the AGES-FFQ was assessed by comparing its answers to the dietary data obtained from the weighed food records, using Spearman's rank correlation, Chi-Square/Kendall's tau, and a Jonckheere-Terpstra test for trend.
For men a correlation = 0.4 was found for potatoes, fresh fruits, oatmeal/muesli, cakes/cookies, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, tea and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.40-0.71). A lower, but acceptable, correlation was also found for raw vegetables (r = 0.33). The highest correlation for women was found for consumption of rye bread, oatmeal/muesli, raw vegetables, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee and tea (r = 0.40-0.61). An acceptable correlation was also found for fish topping/salad, fresh fruit, blood/liver sausage, whole-wheat bread, and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.28-0.37). Questions on meat/fish meals, cooked vegetables and soft drinks did not show a significant correlation to the reference method. Pearson Chi-Square and Kendall's tau showed similar results, as did the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test.
A majority of the questions in the AGES-FFQ had an acceptable correlation and may be used to rank individuals according to their level of intake of several important foods/food groups. The AGES-FFQ on present diet may therefore be used to study the relationship between consumption of several specific foods/food groups and various health-related endpoints gathered in the AGES-Reykjavik Study.
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The aim of the Boost study was to produce a persistent increase in fruit and vegetable consumption among 13-year-olds. This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of a school-and community-based, multi-component intervention guided by theory, evidence, and best practice.
We used the Intervention Mapping protocol to guide the development of the intervention. Programme activities combined environmental and educational strategies and focused on increasing access to fruit and vegetables in three settings: School: Daily provision of free fruit and vegetables; a pleasant eating environment; classroom curricular activities; individually computer tailored messages; one-day-workshop for teachers. Families: school meeting; guided child-parent activities; newsletters. Local community: guided visits in grocery stores and local area as part of classroom curriculum; information sheets to sports-and youth clubs.The Boost study employed a cluster-randomised controlled study design and applied simple two-stage cluster sampling: A random sample of 10 municipalities followed by a random sample of 4 schools within each municipality (N = 40 schools). Schools were randomised into a total of 20 intervention-and 20 control schools. We included all year 7 pupils except those from school classes with special needs. Timeline: Baseline survey: August 2010. Delivery of intervention: September 2010-May 2011. First follow-up survey: May/June 2011. Second follow-up survey: May/June 2012.
Daily mean intake of fruit and vegetables and habitual fruit and vegetable intake measured by validated 24-hour recall-and food frequency questionnaires.
determinants of fruit and vegetable intake, positive side-effects and unintended adverse effects. Implementation was monitored by thorough process evaluation.
The baseline data file included 2,156 adolescents (95%). There was baseline equivalence between intervention-and control groups for sociodemographics, primary outcomes, and availability at home, school and sports-and youth clubs. Significantly larger proportions of pupils in the control group had parents born in Denmark. The study will provide insights into effective strategies to increase fruit and vegetable intake among teenagers. The study will gain knowledge on implementation processes, intervention effects in population subgroups with low intake, and opportunities for including local communities in interventions.
Vegetable and fruit consumption helps reduce the occurrence of overweight, obesity, and other chronic diseases. However, only 50% of young adults eat at least five servings of these foods daily. Based on the construct of the Theory of planned behaviour of Ajzen (1991) to which other constructs were added (descriptive norm, perceived regularity of the behaviour and past behaviour), this study aims at identifying the determinants in the intention of young adults in postsecondary education institutions to eat at least five servings of vegetables and fruit daily during the next three months.
A sample of 385 students in two CEGEP (junior college institutions) in the Quebec City area participated in this correlation study on a volunteer basis. While attending class, they completed a self-administered questionnaire.
Hierarchical regression analyses showed that perceived behavioural controls and the perceived weight of facilitating factors and barriers to the behaviour, explained 75% of the intention variance. Another 4% was explained when the perceived regularity of the behaviour, the descriptive norm, and past-behaviour, were added to the analysis. Logistic regression analyses show that individuals presenting weak/strong intention can be differentiated among themselves as to the perception of benefits derived from a daily consumption of vegetables and fruit (such as maintaining good health, eating foods that taste good), and as to facilitating factors/barriers that assist or inhibit such consumption (possessing more information on the nutritional value and taste of vegetables and fruit, or disposing of sufficient time to prepare them).
To our knowledge, this is the first study done in Quebec using a recognized theoretical model to identify the determinants of the intention to eat at least five servings of vegetables and fruit daily in a sample of young adults in postsecondary education institutions. The results may be helpful in designing the contents of interventions aimed at maintaining and increasing daily consumption of vegetables and fruit by young adults.