The population of Greenland is diminishing and environmental and social shifts implicate food availability and the health of reproductive age women. There is little knowledge of the grocery store food environment in Greenland. To address this gap and provide baseline information the present study measured food availability in five grocery stores in northern Greenland. As well, 15 interviews were conducted with reproductive age women, three grocery store managers were interviewed and one interview was conducted with a food distribution manager. Results show few fresh fruits and vegetables are available in grocery stores and in some stores no fresh foods are available. In Kullorsuaq, the primary location for this study, the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores score in spring 2016 was (3/30) and the Freedman Grocery Store Survey Score was (11/49). Interview results highlight a need to increase communication within the food system and to tailor food distribution policies to the Arctic context with longer term planning protocols for food distribution. These findings can be used to inform future food store environment research in Greenland and for informing policies that improve healthful food availability in grocery stores in northern Greenland.
BACKGROUND: We present a survey of the intake of fruit and vegetables among Norwegian children and adolescents and examine the association between fruit and vegetable intake and intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 2000 and 2001, a nationwide dietary survey using four-days records was conducted among four-year-olds and students in the fourth and eighth grades (UNGKOST-2000). RESULTS: The average intake of fruit and vegetables was nearly 250 gram per day, increasing with age. The percentages of children eating more than 500 gram fruit and vegetables per day were 5% among the four-year-olds, 7% among fourth-graders, and 11% among eighth-graders. A positive association was observed between intake of fruit and vegetables and intake of fibre and all micronutrients, while a negative association was found between fruit and vegetable intake and percentage of energy coming from added sugar and saturated fatty acids. INTERPRETATION: The study shows that children and adolescents have less than half the recommended intake of fruit and vegetables. Furthermore, higher intake of fruit and vegetables is associated with higher dietary quality.
The paper describes dietary changes and related nutrition policies and interventions in Finland since the 1960s. Dietary changes are interpreted from the lifestyle perspective, in which food consumption patterns are assumed to be formed by the interplay of individual choices and structural chances, such as socioeconomic and cultural conditions. Finland can demonstrate a success story when it comes to decreased use of dairy fats and increased use of vegetables and fruit. However, the prevalence of overweight has increased. Nutrition policies and interventions together with sociocultural factors have supported the shift towards healthy nutrition. The same factors have promoted overweight, as well.
Food-based dietary guidelines in Denmark have usually been expressed in simple terms only and need to be elaborated. Quantitative recommendations on fruit and vegetable intake were issued in 1998, recommending 600 g/d (potatoes not included). This paper is based on a national dietary survey in 1995 (n = 3098, age range 1-80 years) supplemented with data from a simple frequency survey in 1995 (n = 1007, age range 15-80 years) and from the first national survey in 1985 (n = 2242, age range 15-80 years). Only data on adults are included in this paper. Fat intake, saturated fat in particular, is too high (median intake 37 %energy and 16 %energy, respectively). Main fat sources are separated fats (butter, margarine, oil, etc.: 40%), meat (18%), and dairy products (21%). Total fat intake decreased from 1985 to 1995 but fatty acid composition did not improve. Dietary fibre intake is from 18 to 22 g/d (women and men, respectively) with 62% from cereals, 24% from vegetables and 12% from fruit. Mean intake of vegetables and potatoes was from 200 to 250 g/d (women and men, respectively). Mean intake of fruit and vegetables (potatoes not included) was 277 g/d, or less than half of the new recommendation (600 g/d). Only 15% of participants in the frequency survey reported consuming both fruit and vegetables every day, and only 28% reported to do so almost every day. In conclusion, dietary intake in Denmark is characterized by a high intake of saturated fat and total fat, and by a relatively low intake of fruit and vegetables.
Developing global approaches to the problem of low fruit and vegetable consumption requires cross-nationally comparable estimates of fruit and vegetable consumption. National differences in the definitions of fruits and vegetables and serving size amounts limit the comparability of estimates.
To describe national differences in fruit and vegetable definitions, serving size amounts, and how these factors can influence the comparability of fruit and vegetable consumption estimates; and to provide a series of reporting recommendations that could facilitate cross-national studies of fruit and vegetable consumption.
A comprehensive review of national dietary guidelines, fruit and vegetable definitions, and fruit and vegetable consumption recommendations was undertaken for Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom.
To improve cross-national comparability, the findings suggest that researchers could report fruit and vegetable consumption separately, provide separate average fruit and vegetable intake amounts, report potato and legume or pulse consumption separately from vegetable consumption, and report consumption of 100% fruit juice separately from fruit consumption.
These four low-cost, high-value additions to conventional research reporting standards will aid in the development of cross-national research on global fruit and vegetable consumption and the design of global policies that can target low fruit and vegetable consumption in populations.
The main purpose of the study was to investigate the feasibility of using workplaces to increase the fruit consumption of participants by increasing fruit availability and accessibility by a minimal fruit programme. Furthermore, it was investigated whether a potential increase in fruit intake would affect vegetable, total energy and nutrient intake.
A 5-month, controlled, workplace study where workplaces were divided into an intervention group (IG) and a control group (CG). At least one piece of free fruit was available per person per day in the IG. Total fruit and dietary intake was assessed, using two 24 h dietary recalls at baseline and at endpoint.
Eight Danish workplaces were enrolled in the study. Five workplaces were in the IG and three were in the CG.
One hundred and twenty-four (IG, n 68; CG, n 56) healthy, mainly normal-weight participants were recruited.
Mean daily fruit intake increased significantly from baseline to endpoint only in the IG by 112(se 35) g. In the IG, mean daily intake of added sugar decreased significantly by 10·7(se 4·4) g, whereas mean daily intake of dietary fibre increased significantly by 3·0(se 1·1) g. Vegetable, total energy and macronutrient intake remained unchanged through the intervention period for both groups.
The present study showed that it is feasible to increase the average fruit intake at workplaces by simply increasing fruit availability and accessibility. Increased fruit intake possibly substituted intake of foods containing added sugar. In this study population the increased fruit intake did not affect total energy intake.
OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare fruit and vegetable intakes of mothers of 11-year-old children across Europe. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 9 European countries in October/November 2003. Self-administered questionnaires assessing fruit and vegetable consumption were used for data collection. The current paper presents dietary intake data obtained by a precoded 24-hour recall and a food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: The consumption levels of fruit and vegetables (without fruit juice) were in line with World Health Organization recommendations of > or =400 g/day for only 27% of all participating mothers. Based on both instruments, the Pro Children results showed comparatively high average fruit intake levels in Portugal, Denmark and Sweden (211, 203 and 194 g/day) and the lowest intake in Iceland (97 g/day). High vegetable intake levels were found in Portugal and Belgium (169 and 150 g/day), the lowest in Spain (88 g/day). A south-north gradient could not be observed in the Pro Children study. CONCLUSION: Fruit and vegetable intakes are low in mothers of 11-year-olds across Europe. Especially vegetable consumption can be regarded as marginal in most of the studied European countries. A high percentage of mothers indicated to eat fruit and vegetables less than once a day. The results have shown that national and international interventions are necessary to promote fruit and especially vegetable consumption in the European population of mothers.
OBJECTIVE: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a daily intake of at least 400 g of vegetables and fruit. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the public health benefit of meeting this WHO recommendation by applying a statistical method that combines estimated intake distributions and simulated intake changes. DESIGN AND SETTING: The benefit of an increased consumption of vegetables and fruit was quantified by the preventable proportion of diseases. This proportion was estimated by a general formula derived in the paper that incorporates individual relative risks. Three different strategies of increasing usual intake were simulated and compared. The first strategy assumes that all individuals increase their intake by the same amount, the second assumes a constant increase among low consumers, and the third simulates individual increments necessary to meet the WHO recommendation. Calculations were made for three different scenarios with varying relative risks. RESULTS: The third simulation strategy turned out to be the most appropriate one to quantify the potential health gain of the current dietary recommendation. Applying this strategy to prevent cancer, the proportion of preventable cases was country-specific. Estimates for France and Sweden were 21.9% and 19.3%, respectively, which are somewhat lower than the non-specific figure published by the World Cancer Research Fund. CONCLUSIONS: To improve estimates of the preventable proportion of diseases, the estimation formula presented here can be applied. Its application requires intake data to estimate the initial intake distribution in the population and to simulate adequate dietary changes.
Food consumption was investigated in children attending three elementary schools in urban Hamilton, Ontario.
Dietary data were collected from 92 children in grades 2 to 4 through 24-hour dietary recalls (39% participation rate). Servings of four food groups were compared with recommended daily servings in Canada's Food Guide.
The majority of students did not consume the recommended five daily servings of vegetables and fruit. On average, they consumed a high number of servings of "other foods," which were not included in the four food groups. More than 50% of the students did not consume the recommended daily servings of milk products, and only a small proportion (21%) drank milk during school lunch.
We recommend that primary school educators promote the consumption of vegetables and fruits and milk products at school, either through healthy snack programs or educational programs.
Over 25 years have elapsed since national food and nutrient intake data became available in Canada. Our goal was to describe present dietary intakes based on sociodemographic and 24-hour recall dietary interviews with adults and adolescents from households across the country. Within a multistage, stratified random sample of 80 enumeration areas, 1,543 randomly selected adults (aged 18-65) were enrolled in the study; 178 adolescents within the sampled households also participated. A comparison of food intake with Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating indicated that only males aged 13-34 met the minimum recommended intake levels for all four food groups. Mean milk products intake was below the minimum recommended level for all age groups of females and for men aged 35-65 years. Adolescent girls had low intakes of meat and alternatives. Daily grain product intakes were below five servings for women aged 50-65, as were vegetable and fruit intakes for women aged 18-40. Food choices from the "other foods" group contributed over 25% of energy and fat intake for all age and gender groups. These up-to-date data will be useful to dietitians, nutrition researchers, industry, and government in their efforts to promote Canadians' continued progress toward meeting food intake recommendations.