Intake of fruits and berries may lower blood pressure (BP), most probably due to the high content of polyphenols. In the present study, we tested whether consumption of two polyphenol-rich juices could lower BP. In a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of 12 weeks, 134 healthy individuals, aged 50-70 years, with high normal range BP (130/85-139/89 mmHg, seventy-two subjects) or stage 1-2 hypertension (140/90-179/109 mmHg, sixty-two subjects), were included. They consumed 500 ml/d of one of either (1) a commercially available polyphenol-rich juice based on red grapes, cherries, chokeberries and bilberries; (2) a juice similar to (1) but enriched with polyphenol-rich extracts from blackcurrant press-residue or (3) a placebo juice (polyphenol contents 245·5, 305·2 and 76 mg/100 g, respectively). Resting BP was measured three times, with a 1 min interval, at baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks of intervention. Systolic BP significantly reduced over time (6 and 12 weeks, respectively) in the pooled juice group compared with the placebo group in the first of the three measurements, both for the whole study group (6·9 and 3·4 mmHg; P= 0·01) and even more pronounced in the hypertensive subjects when analysed separately (7·3 and 6·8 mmHg; P= 0·04). The variation in the BP measurements was significantly reduced in the pooled juice group compared with the placebo group (1·4 and 1·7 mmHg; P= 0·03). In conclusion, the present findings suggest that polyphenol-rich berry juice may contribute to a BP- and BP variability lowering effect, being more pronounced in hypertensive than in normotensive subjects.
No available dietary assessment method is without error in measuring dietary intake. This has led to an increased interest in biological markers of dietary intake. This article is a review of the literature investigating whether the concentration of carotenoids in blood can serve as biological markers for the intake of fruit and vegetables. The literature indicates an association between intake of fruit and vegetables and the concentration of total carotenoids, alfa-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein and beta-cryptoxanthin in plasma. The same association was not observed for plasma lycopene. Results from several studies also indicate that plasma alfa-carotene and plasma total carotenoids are more suitable as biological markers of the intake of fruit and vegetables than the other carotenoids. As there are large individual variations in the plasma carotenoid response after intake, carotenoids in blood will be a better marker of intake at group level than individual level. Furthermore, the average value from several measurements of carotenoids in blood will be a better marker of long-term intake than a single measurement. Several factors in addition to fruit and vegetables influence the concentration of carotenoids in blood. It is important to assess these factors when carotenoids in blood are used as biological markers of the intake of fruit and vegetables.
It is often found that adolescents eat too little fruit and vegetables. We examined the importance of school for 11-year-olds' daily intake measured by food frequency- and 24-h recall questionnaires in Danish data from the European 2003 Pro Children Survey. Multilevel logistic regression analyses included matched student-parent-school questionnaire data (N=1410) from a random sample of 59 schools and were conducted for fruit and vegetables separately: 1) without explanatory variables, to decompose the between-school and within-school variance; 2) with individual level covariates (socioeconomic position, parental intake, etc.) to examine if the between-school variance was attributable to different student compositions of schools; and 3) with individual- and school-level covariates (school availability of fruit/vegetables and unhealthy food) to examine the effect of context. Additional analyses stratified by gender and home availability of fruit/vegetables examined if school food availability influenced subgroups differently. Between-school variations were quantified by intra class correlations and median odds ratios. We found that 40% of the students ate > or = 200 g fruit/day and 25% ate > or = 130 g vegetables/day. Most of the total variance in students' intake occurred at the individual level (93-98%). There were larger between-school variations in vegetable intake than in fruit intake. Fruit and vegetable consumption clustered within schools to a larger degree for boys than girls. The between-school variance did not differ by home availability. Boys and students from high availability homes consumed more fruit and/or vegetables if enrolled in schools with access to fruit/vegetables and unhealthy food or contrarily with no food available versus schools with only fruit/vegetables available. The small school-level effects on 11-year-olds' fruit and vegetable intake imply that family level interventions may be more important and that the success of school interventions will rely on the degree of parental involvement.
The host preference of the economically important fruit piercing moth, Calyptra lata (Butler 1881), was studied when exposed to different fruits and the odors of those fruits in enclosed feeding assays and in a two-choice olfactometer. The fruits consisted of three ripe and locally available types: raspberries, cherries and plums. Moths were released in cages with the ripened fruit and observed for any feeding events, which were then documented. Moths fed on both raspberries and cherries, but not on plums. To test the role of olfactory cues in fruit preference, male moths were released singly in the two choice olfactometer, with one type of fruit odor released in one arm and background control air in the other. The behavior of the moths was recorded on video. Parameters scored were 1) time to take off, 2) flight duration and 3) total time to source contact. The moths showed a significant preference for raspberry odor, exhibited a neutral response to cherry odor and significantly avoided the odor of plums. These results indicate that Calyptra lata demonstrates selective polyphagic feeding behavior and uses olfactory cues from both preferred and non-preferred fruits to detect and locate potential food sources. The possible implications for pest control are discussed.
Nutritional information seldom reaches individuals with the most unhealthful dietary habits.
To explore whether an intervention focusing on a combination of nutritional information and increased availability of vegetables, fruits, and semi whole grain bread was effective to raise the intake, and knowledge, of these foods among recruits in the military with low as well as high baseline intake.
Intervention study, including 479 recruits, in intervention and control military camps. The participants were divided into three groups (low, medium, and high) according to their baseline intake of vegetables, fruits, and semi whole grain bread.
Those with low/medium baseline intake in the intervention camp had a significant increase in the intake of vegetables, fruits, and semi whole grain bread at follow-up. All three intake groups in the intervention camp also had significantly higher intake of these foods compared to those in the control camp at follow-up. The knowledge scores increased significantly among both high and low consumers in the intervention camp, but not in the control camp.
The intervention led to increased intake of vegetables, fruits, and semi whole grain bread among those recruits in the intervention camp, who were most in need to change their diet.
Results of an assessment of the actual food of the population in various medicoeconomic zones of the republic (industrial, agricultural, Arctic) by method of the frequency analysis of food consumption are presented in the article. The analysis of control of compliance of quality and safety of foodstuff in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), according to requirements of the legislation of the Russian Federation, acts of the Customs union has been made. Decreased consumption of such foodstuff as milk, fish and meat products including products from local food staples and national dishes has been established. The data obtained are medic-biological justification for search of ways of optimization of population nutrition, creation of specialized products with a functional purpose and for the prevention of the states and diseases connected with nutrition violation. They also define innovative development of the republic in questions of biotechnologies of the production of specialized foods for various groups of the population. Results of chemical composition research of the most used wild-growing food plants of Yakutia are given. The questions connected with the nutrition and biological value of the dairy products of a functional purpose with use of wild-growing food herbs and berries of Yakutia are discussed.
A diet rich in fruits and vegetables in schoolchildren is important for the physical and cognitive development of the child as well as for the prevention of nutrition-related diseases. In Germany, 816 schoolchildren (boys and girls, aged 10-13 years) from 14 public schools in the central region of Hesse were asked about their fruit and vegetable intake in May 2009. The results show that the mean fruit intake is 185 g fruit per day and 83 g vegetables per day in all schoolchildren. There is no significant difference in the amounts of fruit consumed by boys and girls. Regarding the amounts of consumed vegetables, there is a significant difference between gender (p?=?0.004). Schoolchildren eat fruits more frequently than vegetables. Furthermore, they prefer sweet fruits and convenient vegetables. German schoolchildren still do not reach national recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake, although current results show slightly equal or rather lower intake levels for fruits, but not for vegetables, in comparison to other national studies (e.g., National Consumption Study II, Donald Study, and EsKiMo Study). Health-promotion strategies should focus on both fruit and vegetable consumption to ensure a large variety of food choices and nutrient intake.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the nutritional composition of worksite canteen lunches and to examine the impact of two meal serving systems on employee intake, i.e. buffet style with a fixed price for a varied number of dishes and à la carte style with a separate price for each item on the menu. DESIGN: Laboratory technicians observed employees' food selection and collected identical dishes. Food items were weighed separately to calculate the content of fruit and vegetables. The content of protein, fat and ash of each dish was chemically analysed and the carbohydrate and energy content calculated. SETTING: Fifteen randomly chosen worksite canteens in Denmark: eight canteens serving buffet style and seven canteens with an à la carte line. SUBJECTS: one hundred and eighty randomly chosen employees having lunch at the worksite canteens. RESULTS: The average percentage energy from fat was 37 +/- 12 among men and 33 +/- 12 among women. No association was found between the meal serving system and energy intake or macronutrient composition. Eating at canteens serving buffet style, on the other hand, was associated with an increased intake of fruit and vegetables, on average 76 g, and a lower energy density of the food for both genders. CONCLUSION: The results highlight the possibilities of promoting healthy food choices in the catering sector and the need to identify models of healthy catering practice. Serving buffet style appears to be a promising strategy in order to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in food served away from home.
Private health information websites run by laypeople are more often visited than websites of official agencies. Understanding the role of weblogs in dietetic communication-i.e., sharing personal perceptions on healthy eating-is still lacking. This study aims to describe the nature of noncommercial Swedish blogs with fruits and vegetables (F&V)-related content and to identify different blogger types. A qualitative content analysis with abduction was performed on 50 weblogs. Most bloggers presented themselves as women. Only one-third reported their age (range 17 to over 50 years). The bloggers had either an active or passive influential purpose, and they approached F&V through either lived or mediated experiences. From these two dimensions, four F&V blogger ideal types were identified: the Persuader, the Authority, the Exhibitionist, and the Mediator. Particularly women wrote about their lived experiences close to the personal level, whereas men were more equally distributed across the different ideal types. Self-expression (typical for the Exhibitionist) and purpose to influence others' diets (typical for the Persuader and the Authority) were frequently expressed in these weblogs. The current findings on blogging purposes, approaches, and F&V blogger types may help to improve online dietetic communication, which sets new challenges for media strategies of health and nutritional professionals.
Constipation is a common problem in geriatric wards and in the elderly population. Although high-fibre diets can help relieve constipation non-pharmacologically in many patients, traditional laxatives still remain the standard treatment. A fibre supplement in the form of raw bran is not always well tolerated. We wanted to study the effects of a daily consumption of a fruit- and fibre-rich porridge on stool frequency, perceived well-being and the costs for laxatives, when compared with traditional treatment with laxatives, in geriatric patients.
Twenty patients in secondary geriatric wards (hospital rehabilitation wards) were randomized into an intervention group (porridge group) and a control group (standard diet without porridge) for a 1-week run-in and 2-week study, with registration of clinical data, e.g. medical treatment, laxative consumption, stool frequency and perceived well-being.
The patients in the porridge group had a daily defaecation without laxatives on average 76% of the time (10.7/14 days) compared with 23% of the time (3.3/14 days) in the non-porridge group (p = 0.003). The discomfort was less in the porridge group (2.5 vs. 6.5 on a 10-degree visual analogue scale, p = 0.008) when compared with the control group. The cost for laxatives was 93% lower in the intervention group (2.5 vs. 37.5) for the 2-week study.
A fibre-rich porridge was effective, well liked and tolerated and reduced the need for laxatives in geriatric patients. We conclude that a daily fibre-rich meal ought to be included in the treatment strategies of constipation in hospital wards.