Results of research of mineral composition, content of vitamin C and P, titrable acids, pectinaceous and phenol substances in fresh, fast-frozen (t=-30 °C), and also stored within 3 and 9 months (t=-18 °C) fruits of wild-growing blackberry, cornel, medlar and sea-buckthorn are presented in article. Determination of mineral composition was carried out by flame atomic absorption photometry, vitamin C and pectinaceous substances -by titirimetric methods, phenolic substances and vitamin P - by colorimetric methods. Vitamin C content was minimal in fresh fruits of cornel (6.9±0.3 mg%), amounted to 21.7-32.0 mg% in the fruits of blackberries and medlar and reached 180.1±7.2 mg% in the fruit of sea-buckthorn. Vitamin P concentration ranged from 34.9 (sea-buckthorn) to 180.0 mg% (cornel). Berries of a cornel contained also the greatest number of titrable acids (33.2±1.3 g/dm3), phenolic compounds (243.0±4.8 mg%) and pectinaceous substances (2.91±0.08%). The most significant content of potassium (521±15.6 mg%), calcium (133.2±5.2 mg%), magnesium (62.4±2.5 mg%) and iron (2.81±0.05 mg%) was revealed in medlar fruits. Consumption of 100 g of the studied fruits provides daily requirements of a human body, depending on a species of wild plants: in calcium -for 2-13.3%, potassium - for 7.0-20.8%, magnesium - for 8.1-15.6%, iron - for 5.9-19.2% and in vitamin C - from 5.8-24.6 to 145.7% in the case of sea buckthorn. The applied processing method of conservation - fast freezing (t=-30 °?) of fruits and their long storage (t=-18 °?) is the effective way ensuring high safety of nutrients in them. In the studied berries after 9-months cold storage the safety of vitamin C varied ranging from 55.7 (blackberry) to 76.1% (cornel), and vitamin P - from 81.9 (sea-buckthorn) to 92.8% (cornel). Stability of titrable acids, except for medlar fruits, varied from 84.2% (blackberry) to 94.0% (sea-buckthorn). The safety of phenolic and pectinaceous compounds by the end of 9 months of storage, has averaged 90.6 and 95.6% respectively in comparison with their initial quantity in fresh fruits. The mineral composition was the stablest. After completion of experiment the safety of mineral substances in fruits of wild plants fluctuated from 94.6 to 98.5%. Distinctions in change of biochemical complexes of berries of blackberry, cornel, medlar and sea-buckthorn at fast freezing (t=-30 °?) and storage (t=-18 °?), apparently, are caused by specific features, content of free and bound water, thickness of cellular walls, durability of a thin skin of fruits, as well as by concentration of the components that inhibit the destructive processes occurring at the cellular and molecular level.
This study aimed to investigate the volatile and non-volatile compositions as well as sensory properties of the most common monovarietal white wine (var. Solaris) in Denmark. Using dynamic headspace sampling (DHS) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), 79 volatile compounds were identified. Among the major non-volatile components glycerol, sulphite, sugars and organic acids were analysed. A primary sensory difference was observed among wine samples, half of which were characterised by floral and fruity flavours (peach/apricot, Muscat, melon, banana and strawberry) while the remainder were described by less pleasant flavours, such as chemical, wood and rooibos/smoke. Partial least squares regression (PLS) showed that acetates and ethyl esters of straight-chain fatty acids were associated with floral and fruity odours while ethyl esters of branched-chain fatty acids were less associated with them. The study also suggested that differences in vintage were less characteristic than differences caused due to sulphite management by producers.
Intake of fruits and berries may lower blood pressure (BP), most probably due to the high content of polyphenols. In the present study, we tested whether consumption of two polyphenol-rich juices could lower BP. In a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of 12 weeks, 134 healthy individuals, aged 50-70 years, with high normal range BP (130/85-139/89 mmHg, seventy-two subjects) or stage 1-2 hypertension (140/90-179/109 mmHg, sixty-two subjects), were included. They consumed 500 ml/d of one of either (1) a commercially available polyphenol-rich juice based on red grapes, cherries, chokeberries and bilberries; (2) a juice similar to (1) but enriched with polyphenol-rich extracts from blackcurrant press-residue or (3) a placebo juice (polyphenol contents 245·5, 305·2 and 76 mg/100 g, respectively). Resting BP was measured three times, with a 1 min interval, at baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks of intervention. Systolic BP significantly reduced over time (6 and 12 weeks, respectively) in the pooled juice group compared with the placebo group in the first of the three measurements, both for the whole study group (6·9 and 3·4 mmHg; P= 0·01) and even more pronounced in the hypertensive subjects when analysed separately (7·3 and 6·8 mmHg; P= 0·04). The variation in the BP measurements was significantly reduced in the pooled juice group compared with the placebo group (1·4 and 1·7 mmHg; P= 0·03). In conclusion, the present findings suggest that polyphenol-rich berry juice may contribute to a BP- and BP variability lowering effect, being more pronounced in hypertensive than in normotensive subjects.
In the context of a European project, 12 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were determined in 14 food items collected in four European countries representing northern, southern, eastern and western Europe. This study presents the results of PFAAs measured in fruit, cereals, sweets and salt. Out of the 12 PFAAs, 10 PFAAs were detected in 67% of the samples. Overall, PFOA was the most abundant compound and the highest concentrations were found for PFOS but all were less than 1ngg(-1). When comparing the four countries, highest levels and detection frequencies were observed in Belgium (Western Europe), followed by the Czech Republic (Eastern Europe), Italy (Southern Europe) and finally Norway (Northern Europe). Comparison of profiles and levels is difficult due to variations in constitution of the food categories in the investigated countries and countries of origin of the food items. Dietary intake assessments for PFOS and PFOA show that the daily intake of PFAAs is far below the existing tolerable levels. However, they contribute to the total dietary intake and should therefore be included in future dietary exposure assessments.
The method used to take samples for residues testing in Sweden involves taking three subsamples of 1-2 kg. These are split in two for laboratory analyses. Where required one of these laboratory samples can be used to determine the variability between individual units. Details of the variation in residues in individual units of a number of commodities are presented. The highest variability factors, around 600, expressed as the quotient of the maximum and the minimum residue, were found for methamidophos in peppers and monocrotophos in grapes.
It has been reported that some wild green vegetables are good sources of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, an essential omega-3 fatty acid). Using available data from the Norwegian food composition table, the present study shows that three common Nordic berries (blueberry, cloudberry and cowberry) on average contain 0.7 g of fat (=21% of total energy) and 0.25 g ALA (=36% of total fat) per 100 g, which is quite similar to what has been reported for the ALA-rich wild green vegetables. In addition, this study shows that a hypothetical replacement of 5% of Norwegian 8th grade girls' diet, with a similar energy amount of wild berries, would significantly improve the diet - also improve intake of nutrients not commonly associated with berries.
To estimate the contents of flavonoids in the Danish diet, we have used a high performance liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of fruits, vegetables and beverages. The flavonoid contents were quantified, and the observations were verified by mass spectrometry. The investigation is not completed, but we are able to give an preliminary estimate of the daily flavonoid intake at 26 mg/day. The major food contributors are tea, onions, apples, oranges, and orange juice. Other food subjects have high flavonoid contents, but the daily intake is low, so their contributions to the average daily intake are negligible.
Mesifurane, 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2 H)-furanone, is a natural compound used a worldwide as a flavoring for foods, beverages, and cosmetics. Global sales of mesifurane are around $100 million. Its significance as a flavor-impact compound in some Nordic berries was discovered in the early 1970s in Finland. Synthesized mesifurane was used as a key compound in aroma mixes exploited in a Finnish patent. Mesifurane is a significant flavorant in arctic brambles, mangoes, strawberries, and many other fruits and berries and is an enzymatic methylation product of 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2 H)-furanone. Because of the obscurity of the information on the history of the commonly used trivial name, mesifurane, it is time to lift the veil and reveal the background of the present situation. The key player was a northern berry, arctic bramble ( Rubus arcticus), the Finnish name of which is mesimarja. Forty years ago, aroma research was limited by technical factors, but nowadays there is a surplus of information.
Qualitative and quantitative composition of anthocyanins in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) fruits was assayed. The aim of our study was to evaluate total anthocyanin content and their composition in bilberries collected from various regions and at different time. For the quantification of total anthocyanins in frozen fruits, the spectrophotometrical assay was performed. The highest amount of anthocyanins in bilberry fruits, collected in Lithuania, was found in samples from Silute (0.399%), the lowest one - from Valkininkai region (0.264%), but higher amounts of anthocyanins were found in the samples collected in Russia (Archangelsk region) and Sweden (Stockholm region). High-performance liquid chromatography was applied for qualitative evaluation of individual anthocyanins in the different material. Quantification of anthocyanidin content was performed after acidic hydrolysis of anthocyanin glycosides. Chromatographic analysis has shown that there are no differences in qualitative composition of anthocyanidins. In all samples, cyanidin was found in the highest quantities (mean amount 0.053 microg/mL). Delphinidin and petunidin was found in quantities 2.5 fold lower than cyanidin, and malvidin and peonidin were found in the smallest quantities. Only in the blueberries collected in Sweden, malvidin was found in the highest amount. It was 1.5 fold higher than amounts of petunidin and delphinidin.