The population of Greenland is diminishing and environmental and social shifts implicate food availability and the health of reproductive age women. There is little knowledge of the grocery store food environment in Greenland. To address this gap and provide baseline information the present study measured food availability in five grocery stores in northern Greenland. As well, 15 interviews were conducted with reproductive age women, three grocery store managers were interviewed and one interview was conducted with a food distribution manager. Results show few fresh fruits and vegetables are available in grocery stores and in some stores no fresh foods are available. In Kullorsuaq, the primary location for this study, the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores score in spring 2016 was (3/30) and the Freedman Grocery Store Survey Score was (11/49). Interview results highlight a need to increase communication within the food system and to tailor food distribution policies to the Arctic context with longer term planning protocols for food distribution. These findings can be used to inform future food store environment research in Greenland and for informing policies that improve healthful food availability in grocery stores in northern Greenland.
Intake of fruits and berries may lower blood pressure (BP), most probably due to the high content of polyphenols. In the present study, we tested whether consumption of two polyphenol-rich juices could lower BP. In a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of 12 weeks, 134 healthy individuals, aged 50-70 years, with high normal range BP (130/85-139/89 mmHg, seventy-two subjects) or stage 1-2 hypertension (140/90-179/109 mmHg, sixty-two subjects), were included. They consumed 500 ml/d of one of either (1) a commercially available polyphenol-rich juice based on red grapes, cherries, chokeberries and bilberries; (2) a juice similar to (1) but enriched with polyphenol-rich extracts from blackcurrant press-residue or (3) a placebo juice (polyphenol contents 245·5, 305·2 and 76 mg/100 g, respectively). Resting BP was measured three times, with a 1 min interval, at baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks of intervention. Systolic BP significantly reduced over time (6 and 12 weeks, respectively) in the pooled juice group compared with the placebo group in the first of the three measurements, both for the whole study group (6·9 and 3·4 mmHg; P= 0·01) and even more pronounced in the hypertensive subjects when analysed separately (7·3 and 6·8 mmHg; P= 0·04). The variation in the BP measurements was significantly reduced in the pooled juice group compared with the placebo group (1·4 and 1·7 mmHg; P= 0·03). In conclusion, the present findings suggest that polyphenol-rich berry juice may contribute to a BP- and BP variability lowering effect, being more pronounced in hypertensive than in normotensive subjects.
Results of an assessment of the actual food of the population in various medicoeconomic zones of the republic (industrial, agricultural, Arctic) by method of the frequency analysis of food consumption are presented in the article. The analysis of control of compliance of quality and safety of foodstuff in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), according to requirements of the legislation of the Russian Federation, acts of the Customs union has been made. Decreased consumption of such foodstuff as milk, fish and meat products including products from local food staples and national dishes has been established. The data obtained are medic-biological justification for search of ways of optimization of population nutrition, creation of specialized products with a functional purpose and for the prevention of the states and diseases connected with nutrition violation. They also define innovative development of the republic in questions of biotechnologies of the production of specialized foods for various groups of the population. Results of chemical composition research of the most used wild-growing food plants of Yakutia are given. The questions connected with the nutrition and biological value of the dairy products of a functional purpose with use of wild-growing food herbs and berries of Yakutia are discussed.
No available dietary assessment method is without error in measuring dietary intake. This has led to an increased interest in biological markers of dietary intake. This article is a review of the literature investigating whether the concentration of carotenoids in blood can serve as biological markers for the intake of fruit and vegetables. The literature indicates an association between intake of fruit and vegetables and the concentration of total carotenoids, alfa-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein and beta-cryptoxanthin in plasma. The same association was not observed for plasma lycopene. Results from several studies also indicate that plasma alfa-carotene and plasma total carotenoids are more suitable as biological markers of the intake of fruit and vegetables than the other carotenoids. As there are large individual variations in the plasma carotenoid response after intake, carotenoids in blood will be a better marker of intake at group level than individual level. Furthermore, the average value from several measurements of carotenoids in blood will be a better marker of long-term intake than a single measurement. Several factors in addition to fruit and vegetables influence the concentration of carotenoids in blood. It is important to assess these factors when carotenoids in blood are used as biological markers of the intake of fruit and vegetables.
It is often found that adolescents eat too little fruit and vegetables. We examined the importance of school for 11-year-olds' daily intake measured by food frequency- and 24-h recall questionnaires in Danish data from the European 2003 Pro Children Survey. Multilevel logistic regression analyses included matched student-parent-school questionnaire data (N=1410) from a random sample of 59 schools and were conducted for fruit and vegetables separately: 1) without explanatory variables, to decompose the between-school and within-school variance; 2) with individual level covariates (socioeconomic position, parental intake, etc.) to examine if the between-school variance was attributable to different student compositions of schools; and 3) with individual- and school-level covariates (school availability of fruit/vegetables and unhealthy food) to examine the effect of context. Additional analyses stratified by gender and home availability of fruit/vegetables examined if school food availability influenced subgroups differently. Between-school variations were quantified by intra class correlations and median odds ratios. We found that 40% of the students ate > or = 200 g fruit/day and 25% ate > or = 130 g vegetables/day. Most of the total variance in students' intake occurred at the individual level (93-98%). There were larger between-school variations in vegetable intake than in fruit intake. Fruit and vegetable consumption clustered within schools to a larger degree for boys than girls. The between-school variance did not differ by home availability. Boys and students from high availability homes consumed more fruit and/or vegetables if enrolled in schools with access to fruit/vegetables and unhealthy food or contrarily with no food available versus schools with only fruit/vegetables available. The small school-level effects on 11-year-olds' fruit and vegetable intake imply that family level interventions may be more important and that the success of school interventions will rely on the degree of parental involvement.
A diet rich in fruits and vegetables in schoolchildren is important for the physical and cognitive development of the child as well as for the prevention of nutrition-related diseases. In Germany, 816 schoolchildren (boys and girls, aged 10-13 years) from 14 public schools in the central region of Hesse were asked about their fruit and vegetable intake in May 2009. The results show that the mean fruit intake is 185 g fruit per day and 83 g vegetables per day in all schoolchildren. There is no significant difference in the amounts of fruit consumed by boys and girls. Regarding the amounts of consumed vegetables, there is a significant difference between gender (p?=?0.004). Schoolchildren eat fruits more frequently than vegetables. Furthermore, they prefer sweet fruits and convenient vegetables. German schoolchildren still do not reach national recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake, although current results show slightly equal or rather lower intake levels for fruits, but not for vegetables, in comparison to other national studies (e.g., National Consumption Study II, Donald Study, and EsKiMo Study). Health-promotion strategies should focus on both fruit and vegetable consumption to ensure a large variety of food choices and nutrient intake.
This study examined the perceived differences in benefits and challenges relating to fruit versus vegetable consumption among a purposive, convenience sample of Canadian women.
This inductive, qualitative study involved 8 semistructured group interviews conducted by an experienced moderator.
Interviews were conducted at public health units in southern Ontario.
Forty-seven women, aged 20 to 44 years, were recruited through existing community programs and newspaper advertisements.
The constant comparison method of data analysis was used to identify overarching themes.
Five themes were identified: (1) fruits "fill the gap between meals" (the main benefit); (2) concern about "pesticides and parasites and bacteria"; and (3) "How can something look so good and have no taste?" (main challenges of eating fruit); (4) vegetables make meals "appealing" (main benefit); and (5) the "social" dimension of eating vegetables (main challenge).
Participants readily described different benefits and challenges relating to consumption of fruits versus vegetables. Tailored nutrition messages addressing perceived differences in the benefits and challenges for eating fruits versus vegetables may be needed to encourage increased consumption of these foods. Further research can determine whether these perceptions are widely held.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the nutritional composition of worksite canteen lunches and to examine the impact of two meal serving systems on employee intake, i.e. buffet style with a fixed price for a varied number of dishes and à la carte style with a separate price for each item on the menu. DESIGN: Laboratory technicians observed employees' food selection and collected identical dishes. Food items were weighed separately to calculate the content of fruit and vegetables. The content of protein, fat and ash of each dish was chemically analysed and the carbohydrate and energy content calculated. SETTING: Fifteen randomly chosen worksite canteens in Denmark: eight canteens serving buffet style and seven canteens with an à la carte line. SUBJECTS: one hundred and eighty randomly chosen employees having lunch at the worksite canteens. RESULTS: The average percentage energy from fat was 37 +/- 12 among men and 33 +/- 12 among women. No association was found between the meal serving system and energy intake or macronutrient composition. Eating at canteens serving buffet style, on the other hand, was associated with an increased intake of fruit and vegetables, on average 76 g, and a lower energy density of the food for both genders. CONCLUSION: The results highlight the possibilities of promoting healthy food choices in the catering sector and the need to identify models of healthy catering practice. Serving buffet style appears to be a promising strategy in order to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in food served away from home.
Private health information websites run by laypeople are more often visited than websites of official agencies. Understanding the role of weblogs in dietetic communication-i.e., sharing personal perceptions on healthy eating-is still lacking. This study aims to describe the nature of noncommercial Swedish blogs with fruits and vegetables (F&V)-related content and to identify different blogger types. A qualitative content analysis with abduction was performed on 50 weblogs. Most bloggers presented themselves as women. Only one-third reported their age (range 17 to over 50 years). The bloggers had either an active or passive influential purpose, and they approached F&V through either lived or mediated experiences. From these two dimensions, four F&V blogger ideal types were identified: the Persuader, the Authority, the Exhibitionist, and the Mediator. Particularly women wrote about their lived experiences close to the personal level, whereas men were more equally distributed across the different ideal types. Self-expression (typical for the Exhibitionist) and purpose to influence others' diets (typical for the Persuader and the Authority) were frequently expressed in these weblogs. The current findings on blogging purposes, approaches, and F&V blogger types may help to improve online dietetic communication, which sets new challenges for media strategies of health and nutritional professionals.