This study examined whether the association of household income with fresh fruit and vegetable consumption varies by the level of education. Data were derived from mail surveys carried out during 2000-2002 among 40- to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki (n=8960, response rate 67%). Education was categorized into three levels, and the household income was divided into quartiles weighted by household size. The outcome was consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables at least twice a day (58% among women and 33% among men). Beta-binomial regression analysis was used. Among women, higher income resulted in equally higher consumption of fruit and vegetables at all educational levels, that is, similar among those with low, intermediate and high education. Among men, the pattern was otherwise similar; however, men with intermediate education differed from those with low education. We conclude that the absolute cost of healthy food is likely to have a role across all income groups.
A diet high in fruit and vegetables (FV) is inversely related to chronic diseases, and some studies suggest that increasing the intake of FV reduces the intake of unhealthy snacks.
The objectives were to analyze changes in the frequency of consumption of unhealthy snacks (soda, candy, and potato chips) from 2001 to 2008 in Norwegian children, to assess whether being part of a school fruit program reduces the frequency of unhealthy snack consumption, and to explore differences in sex and socioeconomic status.
Within the project Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks, 1488 sixth- and seventh-grade pupils from 27 Norwegian elementary schools completed a questionnaire in 2001, and 1339 sixth- and seventh-grade pupils from the same schools completed the same questionnaire in 2008. In 2001, none of the schools had any organized school fruit program. In 2008, 15 schools participated in a program and 12 did not participate in any program.
From 2001 to 2008, the frequency of unhealthy snack consumption decreased from 6.9 to 4.6 times/wk (P
Prince Edward Island adolescents' food use was examined, as were possible associations between food use and grade, sex, and academic performance.
Participants (n=325) were purposively selected from four junior high schools. Dietary data were collected using an adaptation of the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Demographic information and self-reported academic performance were also assessed. Vegetable and fruit (VF) and milk scores were created, and multivariate analysis was performed to identify which combination of grade, sex, VF score, and milk score predicted academic performance best.
Mean daily intakes of VF (4.3 +/- 2.9 servings) and milk (1.7 +/- 1.4 servings) were below recommended levels. Students with higher academic performance (average grades above 90%) were more likely to consume milk, vegetables, and fruit daily than were those who reported lower grades. There was no significant difference in the proportion of adequate milk intakes between students reporting higher and lower academic performance.
The association between VF intake and academic performance supports the need for further research with a larger, more representative sample.
BACKGROUND: There are large socioeconomic disparities in food behaviours. The objective of the present study is to longitudinally explore socioeconomic disparities in adolescents' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and to assess mediators of the disparity. METHODS: A longitudinal study containing 896 adolescents from 20 randomly selected elementary schools within two Norwegian counties (response rate 84%). Questionnaires were administered in May 2002 (mean age 12.5 years) and again in May 2005. FV intake was measured by four food frequency questions (times/week). Socioeconomic status was based on parents' reports of their own educational level and family income (both dichotomized). Data were analysed with repeated mixed models. RESULTS: A disparity in adolescents' FV intake was observed with family income (1.1 times/week, P = 0.05). An interaction between parental education and time (survey) was found for parental education (P = 0.04) and the educational disparity was greater in 2005 (2.4 times/week, P
The health benefits of adequate fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption are significant and widely documented. However, many individuals self-report low F&V consumption frequency per day. This paper examines the disparities in the frequency of F&V consumption by socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics.
This study uses a representative sample of 93,719 individuals from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2007). A quantile regression model is estimated in order to capture the differential effects of F&V determinants across the conditional distribution of F&V consumption.
The conditional and unconditional analyses reveal the existence of a socioeconomic gradient in F&V consumption frequency, in which the low income-education groups consume F&V less frequently than the high income-education groups. We also find significant disparities in F&V consumption frequency by demographic and lifestyle characteristics. The frequency of F&V consumption is relatively lower among: males, those in middle age, singles, smokers, individuals with weak social interaction and households with no children. The quantile regression results show that the association between F&V consumption frequency, and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors varies significantly along the conditional F&V consumption distribution. In particular, individual educational attainment is positively and significantly associated with F&V consumption frequency across different parts of the F&V distribution, while the income level matters only over the lower half of the distribution. F&V consumption follows a U-shaped pattern across the age categories. Those aged 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59 years consume F&V less frequently than those aged 18-29 years. The smallest F&V consumption is among the middle aged adults (40-49).
Understanding the socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics of individuals with low F&V consumption frequency could increase the effectiveness of policies aimed at promoting F&V consumption. The differential effects of individual characteristics along the F&V consumption distribution suggest the need for a multifaceted approach to address the variation in F&V consumption frequency.
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Norwegian children and adolescents eat less than half of the recommended 5 portions of fruit and vegetables (FV) per day. Gender and socioeconomic disparities in FV consumption shows that boys and children of lower socioeconomic status (SES) eat less FV than girls and high SES children. We also know that accessibility and preferences has been identified as two important determinants of FV intake. The objectives of this study were to compare FV intake among Norwegian 6th and 7th graders in 2001 and 2008, to explore potential mediated effects of accessibility and preferences on changes in FV over time, to explore whether these changes in FV intake was moderated by gender and/or SES and whether a moderated effect in FV intake was mediated by accessibility and preferences of FV.
The baseline survey of the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks project was conducted in 2001 at 38 randomly chosen schools in two Norwegian counties. A second survey was conducted at the same schools in 2008. A total of 27 schools participated in both surveys (2001 n = 1488, 2008 n = 1339). FV intake was measured by four food frequency questions (times/week) in a questionnaire which the pupils completed at school. SES was based on parents' reports of their own educational level in a separate questionnaire. The main analyses were multilevel linear regression analyses.
A significant year*parental educational level interaction was observed (p = 0.01). FV intake decreased among pupils of parents with lower educational level (13.9 vs. 12.6 times/week in 2001 and 2008, respectively), but increased among pupils of parents with higher education (14.8 vs. 15.0 times/week, respectively). This increasing SES disparity in FV intake was partly mediated by an increasing SES disparity in accessibility and preferences over time, wherein children with higher educated parents had a steeper increase in accessibility and preferences over time than children with lower educated parents. The year*sex interaction was not significant (p = 0.54).
This study shows an increase in SES disparities in 6th and 7th graders FV intake from 2001 to 2008, partly mediated by an increasing SES disparity in accessibility and preferences of FV.
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Health promoting behaviours seem to be more prevalent among people with higher socio-economic status (SES). The main purpose of this article was to study (a) the relationship between education (as a dimension of SES) and intention and health behaviour (fruit/vegetable consumption), (b) the relationship between education and control conceptualizations (health locus of control (HLC), response-efficacy and self-efficacy) and (c) to what extent the relationship between education and intention/health behaviour (fruit/vegetable consumption) was mediated through different control beliefs. The results showed that women with higher education had higher intentions to consume fruit/vegetables and consumed fruit/vegetables more frequently. Higher education was associated with higher self-efficacy and response-efficacy beliefs and less belief in HLC-chance. These control beliefs partly mediated the education-intention/behaviour relationship.
Poor dietary habits may increase risk for obesity and chronic diseases among Canadian adolescents.
The aims of the present study were to: (a) establish the patterns of fruit and vegetable intake by Canadian adolescents, and (b) identify the impact of sociodemographic factors-including age, household income, household education, ethnicity, living arrangement, and location-on the pattern of fruit and vegetable intake in this population.
This is a cross-sectional study using the data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.1, Public Use File. The survey used questions similar to a food frequency questionnaire.
Total fruit and vegetable intake of 18,524 Canadian adolescents (12 to 19 years old) was cross-tabulated between two age groups (12 to 14 years old [n=7,410] and 15 to 19 years old [n=11,114]) by sex, level of household education, total household income, ethnicity, living arrangement, and geographical location.
The data revealed that a 38.3% of Canadian adolescents in this study consumed fruits and vegetables five to 10 times per day; fewer older adolescents (15- to 19-year-olds) reported eating fruits and vegetables at that frequency as compared with the younger subgroup (12- to 14-year-olds) (P
Women's diets are healthier than men's. Finnish women eat more fruits and vegetables but less meat than men. Gender differences may be larger in the Baltic countries, which represent Eastern European transition societies than in Finland, a society characterized by the Scandinavian welfare ideology and a high degree of gender equality.
The data are based on questionnaires to random samples of adults in Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The data provide a way of addressing gender differences at the turn of the century in the economically and culturally different countries. The purpose is to explore whether the consumption of foods classified as masculine or feminine-meat, fruits and vegetables-follow a similar gender pattern in Finland and the Baltic countries.
Men ate meat more often while women ate fruits and vegetables. A high educational level was associated with frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables. Educational differences in the consumption of meat were few and inconsistent. The consumption of fruits and vegetables was more common in urban areas except in Finland. Gender differences were similar in all countries throughout age and educational groups and in rural and urban areas.
The consistent association of gender and food and the similarity of gender patterning in population subgroups point to the stability of masculine versus feminine food habits. The similarity suggests that food habits contribute equally to the gender gap in health in the Baltic countries as they do in Finland.