No available dietary assessment method is without error in measuring dietary intake. This has led to an increased interest in biological markers of dietary intake. This article is a review of the literature investigating whether the concentration of carotenoids in blood can serve as biological markers for the intake of fruit and vegetables. The literature indicates an association between intake of fruit and vegetables and the concentration of total carotenoids, alfa-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein and beta-cryptoxanthin in plasma. The same association was not observed for plasma lycopene. Results from several studies also indicate that plasma alfa-carotene and plasma total carotenoids are more suitable as biological markers of the intake of fruit and vegetables than the other carotenoids. As there are large individual variations in the plasma carotenoid response after intake, carotenoids in blood will be a better marker of intake at group level than individual level. Furthermore, the average value from several measurements of carotenoids in blood will be a better marker of long-term intake than a single measurement. Several factors in addition to fruit and vegetables influence the concentration of carotenoids in blood. It is important to assess these factors when carotenoids in blood are used as biological markers of the intake of fruit and vegetables.
It is often found that adolescents eat too little fruit and vegetables. We examined the importance of school for 11-year-olds' daily intake measured by food frequency- and 24-h recall questionnaires in Danish data from the European 2003 Pro Children Survey. Multilevel logistic regression analyses included matched student-parent-school questionnaire data (N=1410) from a random sample of 59 schools and were conducted for fruit and vegetables separately: 1) without explanatory variables, to decompose the between-school and within-school variance; 2) with individual level covariates (socioeconomic position, parental intake, etc.) to examine if the between-school variance was attributable to different student compositions of schools; and 3) with individual- and school-level covariates (school availability of fruit/vegetables and unhealthy food) to examine the effect of context. Additional analyses stratified by gender and home availability of fruit/vegetables examined if school food availability influenced subgroups differently. Between-school variations were quantified by intra class correlations and median odds ratios. We found that 40% of the students ate > or = 200 g fruit/day and 25% ate > or = 130 g vegetables/day. Most of the total variance in students' intake occurred at the individual level (93-98%). There were larger between-school variations in vegetable intake than in fruit intake. Fruit and vegetable consumption clustered within schools to a larger degree for boys than girls. The between-school variance did not differ by home availability. Boys and students from high availability homes consumed more fruit and/or vegetables if enrolled in schools with access to fruit/vegetables and unhealthy food or contrarily with no food available versus schools with only fruit/vegetables available. The small school-level effects on 11-year-olds' fruit and vegetable intake imply that family level interventions may be more important and that the success of school interventions will rely on the degree of parental involvement.
A diet rich in fruits and vegetables in schoolchildren is important for the physical and cognitive development of the child as well as for the prevention of nutrition-related diseases. In Germany, 816 schoolchildren (boys and girls, aged 10-13 years) from 14 public schools in the central region of Hesse were asked about their fruit and vegetable intake in May 2009. The results show that the mean fruit intake is 185 g fruit per day and 83 g vegetables per day in all schoolchildren. There is no significant difference in the amounts of fruit consumed by boys and girls. Regarding the amounts of consumed vegetables, there is a significant difference between gender (p?=?0.004). Schoolchildren eat fruits more frequently than vegetables. Furthermore, they prefer sweet fruits and convenient vegetables. German schoolchildren still do not reach national recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake, although current results show slightly equal or rather lower intake levels for fruits, but not for vegetables, in comparison to other national studies (e.g., National Consumption Study II, Donald Study, and EsKiMo Study). Health-promotion strategies should focus on both fruit and vegetable consumption to ensure a large variety of food choices and nutrient intake.
BACKGROUND: We present a survey of the intake of fruit and vegetables among Norwegian children and adolescents and examine the association between fruit and vegetable intake and intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 2000 and 2001, a nationwide dietary survey using four-days records was conducted among four-year-olds and students in the fourth and eighth grades (UNGKOST-2000). RESULTS: The average intake of fruit and vegetables was nearly 250 gram per day, increasing with age. The percentages of children eating more than 500 gram fruit and vegetables per day were 5% among the four-year-olds, 7% among fourth-graders, and 11% among eighth-graders. A positive association was observed between intake of fruit and vegetables and intake of fibre and all micronutrients, while a negative association was found between fruit and vegetable intake and percentage of energy coming from added sugar and saturated fatty acids. INTERPRETATION: The study shows that children and adolescents have less than half the recommended intake of fruit and vegetables. Furthermore, higher intake of fruit and vegetables is associated with higher dietary quality.
This study examined whether the association of household income with fresh fruit and vegetable consumption varies by the level of education. Data were derived from mail surveys carried out during 2000-2002 among 40- to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki (n=8960, response rate 67%). Education was categorized into three levels, and the household income was divided into quartiles weighted by household size. The outcome was consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables at least twice a day (58% among women and 33% among men). Beta-binomial regression analysis was used. Among women, higher income resulted in equally higher consumption of fruit and vegetables at all educational levels, that is, similar among those with low, intermediate and high education. Among men, the pattern was otherwise similar; however, men with intermediate education differed from those with low education. We conclude that the absolute cost of healthy food is likely to have a role across all income groups.
Dietary patterns reflecting food habits may be associated with chronic diseases, yet little is known about the stability of these patterns. The objective of this study was to observe over time the stability of dietary patterns measured with exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Four random subsamples of 1000 women between 49 and 70 y old were chosen from >60,000 women included in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Subjects in these subsamples were administered a FFQ 4, 5, 6, or 7 y after the baseline questionnaire; 3607 of the women responded (90% response rate). The stability of dietary patterns was evaluated with Spearman correlation coefficients between pattern scores at baseline and follow-ups and by a test of internal stability, which evaluated the significance of changes within patterns between baseline and follow-up. We found 3 major dietary patterns: a healthy pattern, a Western pattern, and an alcohol pattern. Correlations between explored dietary pattern scores at baseline and at follow-up decreased from 0.59 (P
The estimation of the contribution of foodstuff in security of the population of the Russian Federation by vitamin C in view of volumes of their consumption is lead. It is shown, that the basic sources of vitamin, borrowing in the general structure of consumption of foodstuff about 30%, do not provide sufficient volume its receipt. The real maintenance of vitamin C certain by standard analytical methods in some fruit-and-vegetable cultures, shows significant variability and difference from the given official tables of a chemical compound. The lack of the micronutrient is expedient to compensate by inclusion of biologically active additives to food or enriched foodstuff in a diet.
The aim of the study was to investigate how soft drink and fruit juice consumption in teenagers is associated with life-style, other food choices, eating behaviour and maternal characteristics. A cross-sectional study of 16-year-old girls (n 275) and boys (n 199) and their mothers was undertaken. Questionnaires were used to assess habitual dietary intake, eating behaviour, physical activity, smoking and educational level. Weight and height were measured. It was found that eating breakfast less than five times per week was independently associated with a high soft drink consumption in both girls and boys. A low intake of cooked meals and milk and a high intake of salty snacks were associated with soft drinks in boys only, and a low intake of fruits in girls only. A high maternal juice intake, low milk and high fruit consumption were independent correlates of fruit juice intake in both girls and boys. In girls, being a smoker, having a smoking mother, a high soft drink intake, scoring low on emotional eating and high on cognitive restraint were also associated with fruit juice intake. A low intake of soft drinks and cooked meals was associated with fruit juice intake in boys only. Neither soft drinks nor fruit juice was associated with BMI. In conclusion, a high intake of both fruit juice and soft drinks were associated with a lower intake of foods such as milk and cooked meals. It might be possible to influence fruit juice intake among teenagers by aiming at their mothers, whereas the adolescents themselves should be targeted when the aim is to reduce soft drink consumption.
OBJECTIVES: To identify correlates of 6th and 7th graders' (age 10-12 years) fruit and vegetable intake, to investigate parent-child correlations of fruit and vegetable intake, and to compare parents' and children's reports of children's accessibility, skills and preferences with respect to fruit and vegetables. DESIGN: The results presented are based on the baseline survey of the 'Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks Project', where 38 schools participated. SETTING: Fruit and vegetable intake was measured by food frequency questions. Theoretical factors, based on Social Cognitive Theory, potentially correlated to intake were measured, including behavioural skills, accessibility, modelling, intention, preferences, self-efficacy and awareness of 5-a-day recommendations. SUBJECTS: In total, 1950 (participation rate 85%) 6th and 7th graders and 1647 of their parents participated. RESULTS: Overall, 34% of the variance in the pupils' reported fruit and vegetable intake was explained by the measured factors. The strongest correlates to fruit and vegetable intake were preferences and accessibility. The correlation between the children's and their parents' fruit and vegetable intake was 0.23. The parents perceived their children's accessibility to be better than what was reported by the children (P
The main purpose of the study was to investigate the feasibility of using workplaces to increase the fruit consumption of participants by increasing fruit availability and accessibility by a minimal fruit programme. Furthermore, it was investigated whether a potential increase in fruit intake would affect vegetable, total energy and nutrient intake.
A 5-month, controlled, workplace study where workplaces were divided into an intervention group (IG) and a control group (CG). At least one piece of free fruit was available per person per day in the IG. Total fruit and dietary intake was assessed, using two 24 h dietary recalls at baseline and at endpoint.
Eight Danish workplaces were enrolled in the study. Five workplaces were in the IG and three were in the CG.
One hundred and twenty-four (IG, n 68; CG, n 56) healthy, mainly normal-weight participants were recruited.
Mean daily fruit intake increased significantly from baseline to endpoint only in the IG by 112(se 35) g. In the IG, mean daily intake of added sugar decreased significantly by 10·7(se 4·4) g, whereas mean daily intake of dietary fibre increased significantly by 3·0(se 1·1) g. Vegetable, total energy and macronutrient intake remained unchanged through the intervention period for both groups.
The present study showed that it is feasible to increase the average fruit intake at workplaces by simply increasing fruit availability and accessibility. Increased fruit intake possibly substituted intake of foods containing added sugar. In this study population the increased fruit intake did not affect total energy intake.