Food habits and their socio-economic differences in Russia have rarely been compared to those in western countries. Our aim was to determine socio-economic differences and their changes in the consumption of vegetables, fruit and berries in two neighbouring areas: the district of Pitkäranta in the Republic of Karelia, Russia, and North Karelia, Finland.
Cross-sectional risk factor surveys in Pitkäranta, in 1992, 1997, 2002 and 2007 (1144 men, 1528 women) and in North Karelia, in 1992, 1997 and 2002 (2049 men, 2316 women), were carried out. Data collected with a self-administered questionnaire were analysed with logistic regression.
The consumption of fruit and vegetables was more common in North Karelia than in Pitkäranta, but increased markedly in Pitkäranta from 1992 to 2007. In Pitkäranta, women, and in North Karelia both men and women with higher education ate fresh vegetables more often than those with a lower education. In both areas, daily consumption of fruit tended to be more common among subjects with a higher education. In Pitkäranta, there were virtually no differences by employment status. In North Karelia, vegetable consumption was less common among the unemployed than the employed subjects. Only minor socio-economic differences in berry consumption were observed. The educational differences in vegetable consumption seemed to widen in Pitkäranta and narrow in North Karelia.
A converging trend was observed, with the Russian consumption levels and socio-economic differences starting to approach those observed in Finland. This may be partly explained by the improvements in availability and affordability of fruit and vegetables in Pitkäranta.
A simplified model not requiring a clinic visit is important for cardiovascular prevention. We compared such a model, with one requiring clinical measurements for prediction of ischemic stroke.
Five population-based Finnish cohorts comprising 14?296 men and 16?065 women aged 25-64 years were randomly recruited from 1982, and followed up using the national registers until the end of the 2007. The final Cox model included age, prior history of diabetes and hypertension, happy marriage, capability to walk 500 m (self-estimate), regular exercise, vegetable/fruit intake, smoking, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure; the layperson-oriented model was developed by taking blood pressure away from the final model.
Four hundred sixty-nine men and 371 women developed ischemic stroke events. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (95% confidence interval) for 10 years incidence of ischemic stroke was 0·817 (0·791-0·843) and 0·813 (0·787-0·839) for the model with and without systolic blood pressure in men and 0·815 (0·782-0·848) and 0·812 (0·779-0·844), respectively, in women (P?>?0·10). The predicted 10-year events rate matched well with the observed one across deciles of the predicted risk in men (?(2) ?=?11·57, 9df, P?=?0·239) and in women (?(2) ?=?11·18, P?=?0·263). The overall net reclassification improvement after adding blood pressure was 8·8% (P?=?0·016) in men and 3·2% (P?=?0·234) in women. The predicted 10-year risk of the ischemic stroke based on global vascular event models that includes coronary heart diseases did not match well with the observed stroke risk.
The layperson model performed as well as the clinical-based one.
To decrease the intake of sucrose, increase the intake of fibre and the consumption of fruit and vegetables among secondary-school pupils.
Intervention study among eighth grade pupils during one school year. Data were collected by questionnaires and from a subgroup of pupils by 48 h dietary recall at baseline in spring 2007 and after the intervention in 2008.
Twelve secondary schools were randomly allocated to intervention (IS) and control schools (CS) within three cities. Intervention included nutrition education and improvement of the food environment focusing particularly on the quality of snacks at school.
A total of 659 pupils completed the questionnaires and the dietary recall was obtained from 287 pupils both at baseline and follow-up.
The frequency of consumption of rye bread increased (P = 0.03) and that of sweets decreased (P = 0.006) among girls in the IS. The intake of sucrose fell among IS pupils, from 12.8 % to 10.5 % of the total energy intake (P = 0.01). Intake of fruit (g/MJ) remained the same in IS, whereas it decreased in CS (P = 0.04).
Sugar intake can be lowered by improving the quality of snacks, but it is more difficult to increase fibre intake and fruit and vegetable consumption unless the content of school lunches can be modified. It is the responsibility of the adults working in schools to create a healthy environment and to make healthy choices easy for pupils.
Daily sitting time may be a risk factor for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, this has not yet been extensively studied. Our aim was to study the association of total sitting time with the risk of CVD.
Participants (n = 4516, free of CVD at baseline) from the National FINRISK 2002 Study were followed for fatal and nonfatal CVD using national registers. Participants underwent a health examination and completed questionnaires, including total daily sitting time.
During a mean follow-up of 8.6 years, 183 incident CVD cases occurred. Sitting on a typical weekday, at baseline, was statistically significantly associated with fatal and nonfatal incident CVD. The hazard ratios (with 95% confidence intervals, CI) for the total amount of sitting were 1.05 (95% CI, 1.00-1.10) in the age and gender adjusted model and 1.06 (95% CI, 1.01-1.11) in the fully adjusted model, including age, gender, employment status, education, BMI, smoking status, leisure time physical activity, use of vegetables and fruit, alcohol use, blood pressure or its medication, and cholesterol or its medication.
Our findings suggest that total amount of daily sitting is a risk factor for incident CVD. More research is needed to understand the etiology of sedentary behavior and CVD.
To examine (i) whether the consumption of fresh vegetables, fruit and berries is associated with plasma vitamin C concentration and (ii) educational differences in plasma vitamin C concentration in two neighbouring areas in Russia and Finland.
Cross-sectional risk factor surveys in 1992, 1997 and 2002. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the associations of consumption of selected foods and education with plasma vitamin C concentration.
District of Pitkäranta in the Republic of Karelia, Russia and North Karelia, Finland.
Adults aged 25-64 years: 579 men and 612 women in Pitkäranta; 974 men and 642 women in North Karelia.
The plasma vitamin C concentration was strikingly low in Pitkäranta, Russia across the study years. During the 10 years of monitoring, the mean plasma vitamin C concentration among men ranged from 2·5 to 8·0 µmol/l in Pitkäranta, Russia and from 27·1 to 53·9 µmol/l in North Karelia, Finland. In both areas, daily consumption of fruit was most strongly associated with plasma vitamin C, while the association of fresh vegetable consumption with plasma vitamin C was less consistent. Consumption of berries was less important in explaining plasma vitamin C. In Pitkäranta, the plasma vitamin C concentration was lower among respondents in the lowest education group.
Differences in the consumption of fresh vegetables and fruit resulted in notable differences in vitamin C status between Pitkäranta and North Karelia in spring. In comparative settings, knowledge of local food culture and validation pilots are important before conducting large population surveys.