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Introduction of a school fruit program is associated with reduced frequency of consumption of unhealthy snacks.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120150
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov;96(5):1100-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2012
Author
Nina Cecilie Øverby
Knut-Inge Klepp
Elling Bere
Author Affiliation
University of Agder, Department of Public Health, Sport and Nutrition, Kristiansand, Norway. nina.c.overby@uia.no
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov;96(5):1100-3
Date
Nov-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Educational Status
Female
Food Preferences
Food Services
Fruit
Health Promotion - methods
Humans
Male
Norway
Questionnaires
School Health Services
Schools
Snacks
Vegetables
Abstract
A diet high in fruit and vegetables (FV) is inversely related to chronic diseases, and some studies suggest that increasing the intake of FV reduces the intake of unhealthy snacks.
The objectives were to analyze changes in the frequency of consumption of unhealthy snacks (soda, candy, and potato chips) from 2001 to 2008 in Norwegian children, to assess whether being part of a school fruit program reduces the frequency of unhealthy snack consumption, and to explore differences in sex and socioeconomic status.
Within the project Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks, 1488 sixth- and seventh-grade pupils from 27 Norwegian elementary schools completed a questionnaire in 2001, and 1339 sixth- and seventh-grade pupils from the same schools completed the same questionnaire in 2008. In 2001, none of the schools had any organized school fruit program. In 2008, 15 schools participated in a program and 12 did not participate in any program.
From 2001 to 2008, the frequency of unhealthy snack consumption decreased from 6.9 to 4.6 times/wk (P
PubMed ID
23034961 View in PubMed
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Changes in fruit and vegetable consumption habits from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy among Norwegian women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289259
Source
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2017 04 04; 17(1):107
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
04-04-2017
Author
Marianne Skreden
Elling Bere
Linda R Sagedal
Ingvild Vistad
Nina C Øverby
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, Sports and Nutrition, University of Agder, PO Box 422, 4604, Kristiansand, Norway. marianne.skreden@uia.no.
Source
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2017 04 04; 17(1):107
Date
04-04-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet - methods
Feeding Behavior - physiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Fruit
Fruit and Vegetable Juices
Habits
Humans
Incidence
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena - physiology
Norway - epidemiology
Nutrition Surveys
Patient Education as Topic
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - epidemiology - prevention & control
Pregnancy outcome
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Single-Blind Method
Surveys and Questionnaires
Vegetables
Women's health
Young Adult
Abstract
A healthy diet is important for pregnancy outcome and the current and future health of woman and child. The aims of the study were to explore the changes from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy in consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV), and to describe associations with maternal educational level, body mass index (BMI) and age.
Healthy nulliparous women were included in the Norwegian Fit for Delivery (NFFD) trial from September 2009 to February 2013, recruited from eight antenatal clinics in southern Norway. At inclusion, in median gestational week 15 (range 9-20), 575 participants answered a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) where they reported consumption of FV, both current intake and recollection of pre-pregnancy intake. Data were analysed using a linear mixed model.
The percentage of women consuming FV daily or more frequently in the following categories increased from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy: vegetables on sandwiches (13 vs. 17%, p?
Notes
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PubMed ID
28376732 View in PubMed
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Correlates of fruit and vegetable intake among Norwegian schoolchildren: parental and self-reports.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30032
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2004 Dec;7(8):991-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2004
Author
Elling Bere
Knut-Inge Klepp
Author Affiliation
Institute for Nutrition Research, University of Oslo, Box 1046 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway. elling.bere@basalmed.uio.no
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2004 Dec;7(8):991-8
Date
Dec-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child Nutrition
Diet Surveys
Female
Food Preferences - psychology
Fruit
Humans
Male
Norway
Parents - psychology
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Self Disclosure
Vegetables
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To identify correlates of 6th and 7th graders' (age 10-12 years) fruit and vegetable intake, to investigate parent-child correlations of fruit and vegetable intake, and to compare parents' and children's reports of children's accessibility, skills and preferences with respect to fruit and vegetables. DESIGN: The results presented are based on the baseline survey of the 'Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks Project', where 38 schools participated. SETTING: Fruit and vegetable intake was measured by food frequency questions. Theoretical factors, based on Social Cognitive Theory, potentially correlated to intake were measured, including behavioural skills, accessibility, modelling, intention, preferences, self-efficacy and awareness of 5-a-day recommendations. SUBJECTS: In total, 1950 (participation rate 85%) 6th and 7th graders and 1647 of their parents participated. RESULTS: Overall, 34% of the variance in the pupils' reported fruit and vegetable intake was explained by the measured factors. The strongest correlates to fruit and vegetable intake were preferences and accessibility. The correlation between the children's and their parents' fruit and vegetable intake was 0.23. The parents perceived their children's accessibility to be better than what was reported by the children (P
PubMed ID
15548337 View in PubMed
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Food neophobia and its association with intake of fish and other selected foods in a Norwegian sample of toddlers: A cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290428
Source
Appetite. 2017 Jul 01; 114:110-117
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jul-01-2017
Author
Sissel H Helland
Elling Bere
Helga Birgit Bjørnarå
Nina Cecilie Øverby
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, Sport and Nutrition, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Norway. Electronic address: sissel.h.helland@uia.no.
Source
Appetite. 2017 Jul 01; 114:110-117
Date
Jul-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Child Behavior - psychology
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet - methods - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Fishes
Food Preferences - psychology
Fruit
Humans
Male
Norway
Surveys and Questionnaires
Vegetables
Abstract
Reluctance to try novel foods (food neophobia) prevents toddlers from accepting healthy foods such as fish and vegetables, which are important for child development and health. Eating habits established between ages 2 and 3 years normally track into adulthood and are therefore highly influential; even so, there are few studies addressing food neophobia in this age group. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between the level of food neophobia and the frequency of toddlers' intake of fish, meat, berries, fruit, vegetables, and sweet and salty snacks. Parents of 505 toddlers completed a questionnaire assessing the degree of food neophobia in their toddlers (mean age 28 months, SD ± 3.5), and frequency of intake of various foods. Food neophobia was rated by the Children's Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS, score range 6-42). Associations between CFNS score and food frequency were examined using hierarchical multiple regression models, adjusting for significant covariates. Toddlers with higher CFNS scores had less frequent intake of vegetables (ß = -0.28, p 
PubMed ID
28323060 View in PubMed
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Study protocol for a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention to promote healthy diets in toddlers: a cluster randomized trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277800
Source
BMC Public Health. 2016 Mar 17;16:273
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-17-2016
Author
Sissel H Helland
Elling Bere
Nina Cecilie Øverby
Source
BMC Public Health. 2016 Mar 17;16:273
Date
Mar-17-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body Weight
Child
Child, Preschool
Diet
Female
Food Habits
Fruit
Health Promotion - organization & administration
Humans
Male
Norway
Overweight - prevention & control
Parents - education
Research Design
Schools
Surveys and Questionnaires
Vegetables
Abstract
There is concern about the lack of diversity in children's diets, particularly low intakes of fruit and vegetables and high intakes of unhealthy processed food. This may be a factor in the rising prevalence of obesity. A reason for the lack of diversity in children's diets may be food neophobia. This study aimed to promote a healthy and varied diet among toddlers in kindergarten. The primary objectives were to reduce food neophobia in toddlers, and promote healthy feeding practices among kindergarten staff and parents. Secondary objectives were to increase food variety in toddlers' diets and reduce future overweight and obesity in these children.
This is an ongoing, cluster randomized trial. The intervention finished in 2014, but follow-up data collection is not yet complete. Eighteen randomly selected kindergartens located in two counties in Norway with enrolled children born in 2012 participated in the intervention. The kindergartens were matched into pairs based on background information, and randomly assigned to the intervention or control groups. A 9-week multi-component intervention was implemented, with four main elements: 1) kindergarten staff implemented a pedagogical tool (Sapere method) in daily sessions to promote willingness to try new food; 2) kindergarten staff prepared and served the toddlers a cooked lunch from a menu corresponding to the pedagogical sessions; 3) kindergarten staff were encouraged to follow 10 meal principles on modeling, responsive feeding, repeated exposure, and enjoyable meals; and 4) parents were encouraged to read information and apply relevant feeding practices at home. The control group continued their usual practices. Preference taste tests were conducted to evaluate behavioral food neophobia, and children's height and weight were measured. Parents and staff completed questionnaires before and after the intervention. Data have not yet been analyzed.
This study provides new knowledge about whether or not a Sapere-sensory education and healthy meal intervention targeting children, kindergarten staff, and parents will: reduce levels of food neophobia in toddlers; improve parental and kindergarten feeding practices; improve children's dietary variety; and reduce childhood overweight and obesity.
ISRCTN74823448 DOI 10.1186/ISRCTN74823448.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26987876 View in PubMed
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Changes in 10-12 year old's fruit and vegetable intake in Norway from 2001 to 2008 in relation to gender and socioeconomic status - a comparison of two cross-sectional groups.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130787
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011;8:108
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Marit Hilsen
Maartje M van Stralen
Knut-Inge Klepp
Elling Bere
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Health and Sport, University of Agder, Norway. marit.hilsen@medisin.uio.no
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011;8:108
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet - standards - trends
Diet Surveys
Educational Status
Energy intake
Female
Food Habits
Food Supply
Fruit
Humans
Male
Norway
Parents
Sex Factors
Social Class
Vegetables
Abstract
Norwegian children and adolescents eat less than half of the recommended 5 portions of fruit and vegetables (FV) per day. Gender and socioeconomic disparities in FV consumption shows that boys and children of lower socioeconomic status (SES) eat less FV than girls and high SES children. We also know that accessibility and preferences has been identified as two important determinants of FV intake. The objectives of this study were to compare FV intake among Norwegian 6th and 7th graders in 2001 and 2008, to explore potential mediated effects of accessibility and preferences on changes in FV over time, to explore whether these changes in FV intake was moderated by gender and/or SES and whether a moderated effect in FV intake was mediated by accessibility and preferences of FV.
The baseline survey of the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks project was conducted in 2001 at 38 randomly chosen schools in two Norwegian counties. A second survey was conducted at the same schools in 2008. A total of 27 schools participated in both surveys (2001 n = 1488, 2008 n = 1339). FV intake was measured by four food frequency questions (times/week) in a questionnaire which the pupils completed at school. SES was based on parents' reports of their own educational level in a separate questionnaire. The main analyses were multilevel linear regression analyses.
A significant year*parental educational level interaction was observed (p = 0.01). FV intake decreased among pupils of parents with lower educational level (13.9 vs. 12.6 times/week in 2001 and 2008, respectively), but increased among pupils of parents with higher education (14.8 vs. 15.0 times/week, respectively). This increasing SES disparity in FV intake was partly mediated by an increasing SES disparity in accessibility and preferences over time, wherein children with higher educated parents had a steeper increase in accessibility and preferences over time than children with lower educated parents. The year*sex interaction was not significant (p = 0.54).
This study shows an increase in SES disparities in 6th and 7th graders FV intake from 2001 to 2008, partly mediated by an increasing SES disparity in accessibility and preferences of FV.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21968008 View in PubMed
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Evaluating free school fruit: results from a natural experiment in Norway with representative data.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259394
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2014 Jun;17(6):1224-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
Arnstein Øvrum
Elling Bere
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2014 Jun;17(6):1224-31
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Costs and Cost Analysis
Data Collection
Diet - economics
Diet Surveys
Food Habits
Food Services
Fruit
Health Behavior
Health promotion
Humans
Norway
Parents
Portion Size
Regression Analysis
Schools
Vegetables
Abstract
To assess impacts of the nationwide Norwegian School Fruit Scheme (NSFS) using nationally representative data.
The NSFS is organized such that primary-school children (grades 1-7) are randomly assigned to one of three school fruit arrangements: (i) the child receives one free fruit or vegetable per day; (ii) the child is given the option to subscribe to one fruit or vegetable per day at a subsidized price; and (iii) the child attends a school that has no school fruit arrangement.
Data from an Internet survey are used to compare child and parental fruit and vegetable intakes across the three NSFS groups focusing mainly on groups (i) and (iii). The analysis was conducted using multivariate regression techniques.
Parents of primary-school children (n 1423) who report on behalf of themselves and their children.
Children who receive free school fruit eat on average 0·36 more fruit portions daily - or 25·0 % more fruits - than children who attend schools with no fruit arrangement (P
PubMed ID
24050787 View in PubMed
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Changes in meal pattern among Norwegian children from 2001 to 2008.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature137847
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2011 Sep;14(9):1549-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2011
Author
Nina Øverby
Tonje H Stea
Frøydis N Vik
Knut-Inge Klepp
Elling Bere
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, Sport and Nutrition, Faculty of Health and Sport, University of Agder, PO Box 422, 4604 Kristiansand, Norway. nina.c.overby@uia.no
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2011 Sep;14(9):1549-54
Date
Sep-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Data Collection
Diet
Eating
Energy intake
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Food Habits
Fruit
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Norway
Parents - education
Questionnaires
Single-Parent Family
Vegetables
Abstract
The present study aimed to analyse changes in meal pattern among Norwegian children from 2001 to 2008 in general; to analyse associations between meal pattern and gender, parental educational level and number of parents in the household; and to analyse the association between intake of unhealthy snacks, meal pattern and the mentioned variables.
Within the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) project, two cross-sectional studies were conducted, one in 2001 and one in 2008, where participants from the same schools filled in a questionnaire on meals eaten the previous day.
Participants were 6th and 7th grade pupils, n 1488 in 2001 and n 1339 in 2008.
Twenty-seven elementary schools in two Norwegian counties.
There were no significant changes in children's meal pattern from 2001 to 2008. For both years more than 90 % of the participants reported that they had breakfast yesterday, while 95 % had lunch, 94 % had dinner and 82 % had supper. More girls than boys reported that they had lunch yesterday (96 % v. 94 %, P = 0·03). More children with higher v. lower educated parents reported that they had breakfast yesterday (93 % v. 88 %, P
PubMed ID
21241534 View in PubMed
Less detail

Changes in beverage consumption in Norwegian children from 2001 to 2008.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132271
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2012 Mar;15(3):379-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Tonje H Stea
Nina C Øverby
Knut-Inge Klepp
Elling Bere
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, Sport and Nutrition, Faculty of Health and Sport, University of Agder, PO Box 422, 4604 Kristiansand, Norway. tonje.h.stea@uia.no
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2012 Mar;15(3):379-85
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Beverages - utilization
Carbonated Beverages
Child
Child Behavior
Diet - trends
Diet Surveys
Dietary Sucrose - administration & dosage
Female
Food Preferences
Fruit
Health Behavior
Humans
Male
Norway
Questionnaires
Sex Factors
Sweetening Agents
Abstract
To analyse (i) differences in beverage pattern among Norwegian children in 2001 and 2008; (ii) beverage intake related to gender, parental education and family composition; and (iii) potential disparities in time trends among the different groups.
Within the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) project, 6th and 7th grade pupils filled in a questionnaire about frequency of beverage intake (times/week) in 2001 and 2008.
Twenty-seven elementary schools in two Norwegian counties.
In 2001 a total of 1488 and in 2008 1339 pupils participated.
Between 2001 and 2008, a decreased consumption frequency of juice (from 3·6 to 3·4 times/week, P = 0·012), lemonade (from 4·8 to 2·5 times/week, P
PubMed ID
21835086 View in PubMed
Less detail

Reliability of parental and self-reported determinants of fruit and vegetable intake among 6th graders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30474
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2004 Apr;7(2):353-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2004
Author
Elling Bere
Knut-Inge Klepp
Author Affiliation
Institute for Nutrition Research, University of Oslo, Box 1046 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway. elling.bere@basalmed.uio.no
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2004 Apr;7(2):353-6
Date
Apr-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Nutrition
Child
Diet Surveys
Female
Food Habits
Fruit
Humans
Male
Norway
Parents
Questionnaires - standards
Reproducibility of Results
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Self Disclosure
Sensitivity and specificity
Vegetables
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of newly developed questionnaires measuring theoretical constructs believed to predict fruit and vegetable consumption among 6th-grade pupils. DESIGN: Participating pupils and parents completed questionnaires twice, 14 days apart. SETTING: One hundred and twenty-nine pupils from 6th-grade classes (average age: 11.9 years) at two schools in Norway and their parents were invited to participate. RESULTS: The test-retest reliability was found to be good or very good for scales reported both by the pupils and their parents. All scales showed acceptable to strong correlations between time 1 and time 2, and only one scale had significant different mean values at the two times. The internal consistency reliability of the scales was acceptable to good. CONCLUSIONS: Sixth graders and their parents are able to provide reliable reports on theoretical determinants of the pupil's fruit and vegetable consumption.
PubMed ID
15003144 View in PubMed
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18 records – page 1 of 2.