Patulin was extracted from apple juice with ethyl acetate and the extract was purified by elution from a silica gel column with ethyl acetate-toluene. The eluate was concentrated, and patulin was determined by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography using a 25 cm Partisil-10 ODS column. The lower detection limit was 1 microgram/L and the mean recovery of patulin added to apple juice was 82.6 +/- 2.8 %. The patulin content ranged from less than 1 to 220 microgram/L for the 140 samples analyzed.
The present work is concerned with the aroma of hybrids between raspberry (Rubus idaeus, L.) and arctic bramble (Rubus arcticus, L.). Analyses of the volatiles were performed in three stages. The carbonyl compounds were determined as 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones, the volatile acids and the neutral components separately in a combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometer components separately in a combined gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer using glass capillary columns. Over 70 compounds were identified in the aroma concentrates of the hybrids. The major components included acetic and hexanoic acids, trans 3-penten-1-ol, 2-heptanol, 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, benzyl alcohol and linalool. 2,5-Dimethyl-4-methoxy-2,3-dihydro-3-furanone together with alpha and beta-ionones, characteristic compounds of arctic bramble and raspberry, respectively, were found in the hybrids in much lower concentrations than in the parent berries. Percentage concentrations of the main components in the volatile oils, together with their approximate concentrations in the press juices, were determined. The contents of the corresponding compounds in arctic bramble and in raspberry are also given.
This study describes the extent of DDT contamination in a typical fruit growing district in Norway two and four years after the DDT ban. Residues of DDT in man, dairy cows and soil were about five to one hundred times higher than in the control groups, while residues found in samples from the marine biota were the same or moderately higher (Figure 3). The residues of DDT in cows, gulls and parts of the marine samples showed a significant decrease from 1972 to 1974, while the level in soil was almost constant. The amount of DDE had increased considerably in 1974 for all the species except for the gull, although not to the same degree. The distribution of DDE, DDD and DDT in soil were almost constant during the two years of sampling.
Four composite diets from three cities, each representing the daily per capita consumption of foods in Canada, contained on analysis 191, 220, 113, and 150 mug selenium. Cereals provided the most selenium (62-112 mug) followed by meat, poultry, and fish (25-90 mug) and dairy products (5-25 mug). The average daily intake of selenium in Canada was also calculated from published analytical data and the per capita disappearance of unprepared foods. The total intake was 197 mug/day, and the major sources were wheat flour (98 mug), pork (21 mug), poultry products (24 mug), and fish (17 mug). Because the average diet is rich in selenium, the possibility of a deficiency in the adult is considered to be remote. Milk is relatively low in selenium, and thus the greatest deprivation in humans would occur during infancy.