This manual is to be used by military personnel separated from their units while on duty in the Arctic regions. Its purpose is to aid individuals to recognize edible food plants of the area so that in emergency they may subsist from the land. The manual illustrates and describes briefly the most important edible berries, greens, and roots of the most northern areas.
Available upon request at the Alaska Medical Library, located on the second floor of UAA/APU Consortium Library. Ask for accession no. 100859.
The content of capsaicinoids differs widely in fruits of an individual plant. This is shown for Capsicum annuum var. Cayenne and var. DeArbol and Capsicum frutescens var. Hot Siberian, respectively. Three age groups, (i) very young, (ii) medium age, and (iii) older fruits, were studied. A consistent dependence on the node position on the plant for fruit weight and capsaicinoid content of the individual fruits was not observed. These traits do not develop concomitantly and are influenced differently by environmental factors. Therefore, the expression as capsaicinoid content per fruit leads to a different conclusion than a comparison of concentration values (mg/kg). This is exemplified for C. frutescens var. Hot Siberian grown in two consecutive years with fruits of lower fruit weight but the same capsaicinoid accumulation in the second year. Higher values for pungency (expressed as mg/kg) would have been the result from the analysis of bulked material. The fatty acid pattern of capsaicinoids is uniform for all fruits from one plant, irrespective of the large variation of total capsaicinoid content.
Examples of foodborne outbreaks traced to fresh fruits and vegetables can be found worldwide. The quantity of produce eaten per capita has been increasing steadily over the past two decades, creating a heightened potential for produce-related foodborne disease. A number of outbreaks identified during this time period were reviewed, with particular emphasis placed on incidents that have occurred in Canada. The collective information highlights the diversity of infectious agents and produce items involved, with a view to the prevention of fresh produce-related foodborne disease in the future.
Many species of fungi produce ephemeral autumnal fruiting bodies to spread and multiply. Despite their attraction for mushroom pickers and their economic importance, little is known about the phenology of fruiting bodies. Using approximately 34,500 dated herbarium records we analyzed changes in the autumnal fruiting date of mushrooms in Norway over the period 1940-2006. We show that the time of fruiting has changed considerably over this time period, with an average delay in fruiting since 1980 of 12.9 days. The changes differ strongly between species and groups of species. Early-fruiting species have experienced a stronger delay than late fruiters, resulting in a more compressed fruiting season. There is also a geographic trend of earlier fruiting in the northern and more continental parts of Norway than in more southern and oceanic parts. Incorporating monthly precipitation and temperature variables into the analyses provides indications that increasing temperatures during autumn and winter months bring about significant delay of fruiting both in the same year and in the subsequent year. The recent changes in autumnal mushroom phenology coincide with the extension of the growing season caused by global climate change and are likely to continue under the current climate change scenario.
This study reports the effect of a school-randomized fruit and vegetable intervention consisting of a subscription to the Norwegian School Fruit Programme at no parental cost, and the Fruit and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) educational programme, both delivered in the school year of 2001-02. Nine randomly chosen schools received the intervention and 10 schools served as control schools. Participating pupils completed questionnaires at baseline (September 2001), at Follow-up 1 (May-June 2002) and at Follow-up 2 (May 2003). A total of 517 pupils (84%; mean age, 11.3 years at baseline) participated in all three surveys. At both Follow-up 1 and Follow-up 2, strong intervention effects were observed for all-day fruit and vegetable intake (effect sizes were 0.6 and 0.5 portions, respectively). The sustained effect at Follow-up 2, 1 year after the end of the intervention, can partly be explained by greater participation rates in the School Fruit Programme (standard paid subscription). We conclude that the effects observed are most likely due to the no-cost subscription and not due to the FVMM educational programme, and that providing pupils with a piece of fruit or a vegetable at school at no cost for the parents is an effective strategy to increase school children's intake of fruit and vegetables. The effect is also sustained 1 year after the end of the no-cost subscription, providing increased health benefits.
It is often found that adolescents eat too little fruit and vegetables. We examined the importance of school for 11-year-olds' daily intake measured by food frequency- and 24-h recall questionnaires in Danish data from the European 2003 Pro Children Survey. Multilevel logistic regression analyses included matched student-parent-school questionnaire data (N=1410) from a random sample of 59 schools and were conducted for fruit and vegetables separately: 1) without explanatory variables, to decompose the between-school and within-school variance; 2) with individual level covariates (socioeconomic position, parental intake, etc.) to examine if the between-school variance was attributable to different student compositions of schools; and 3) with individual- and school-level covariates (school availability of fruit/vegetables and unhealthy food) to examine the effect of context. Additional analyses stratified by gender and home availability of fruit/vegetables examined if school food availability influenced subgroups differently. Between-school variations were quantified by intra class correlations and median odds ratios. We found that 40% of the students ate > or = 200 g fruit/day and 25% ate > or = 130 g vegetables/day. Most of the total variance in students' intake occurred at the individual level (93-98%). There were larger between-school variations in vegetable intake than in fruit intake. Fruit and vegetable consumption clustered within schools to a larger degree for boys than girls. The between-school variance did not differ by home availability. Boys and students from high availability homes consumed more fruit and/or vegetables if enrolled in schools with access to fruit/vegetables and unhealthy food or contrarily with no food available versus schools with only fruit/vegetables available. The small school-level effects on 11-year-olds' fruit and vegetable intake imply that family level interventions may be more important and that the success of school interventions will rely on the degree of parental involvement.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the nutritional composition of worksite canteen lunches and to examine the impact of two meal serving systems on employee intake, i.e. buffet style with a fixed price for a varied number of dishes and à la carte style with a separate price for each item on the menu. DESIGN: Laboratory technicians observed employees' food selection and collected identical dishes. Food items were weighed separately to calculate the content of fruit and vegetables. The content of protein, fat and ash of each dish was chemically analysed and the carbohydrate and energy content calculated. SETTING: Fifteen randomly chosen worksite canteens in Denmark: eight canteens serving buffet style and seven canteens with an à la carte line. SUBJECTS: one hundred and eighty randomly chosen employees having lunch at the worksite canteens. RESULTS: The average percentage energy from fat was 37 +/- 12 among men and 33 +/- 12 among women. No association was found between the meal serving system and energy intake or macronutrient composition. Eating at canteens serving buffet style, on the other hand, was associated with an increased intake of fruit and vegetables, on average 76 g, and a lower energy density of the food for both genders. CONCLUSION: The results highlight the possibilities of promoting healthy food choices in the catering sector and the need to identify models of healthy catering practice. Serving buffet style appears to be a promising strategy in order to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in food served away from home.
The method used to take samples for residues testing in Sweden involves taking three subsamples of 1-2 kg. These are split in two for laboratory analyses. Where required one of these laboratory samples can be used to determine the variability between individual units. Details of the variation in residues in individual units of a number of commodities are presented. The highest variability factors, around 600, expressed as the quotient of the maximum and the minimum residue, were found for methamidophos in peppers and monocrotophos in grapes.
It has been reported that some wild green vegetables are good sources of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, an essential omega-3 fatty acid). Using available data from the Norwegian food composition table, the present study shows that three common Nordic berries (blueberry, cloudberry and cowberry) on average contain 0.7 g of fat (=21% of total energy) and 0.25 g ALA (=36% of total fat) per 100 g, which is quite similar to what has been reported for the ALA-rich wild green vegetables. In addition, this study shows that a hypothetical replacement of 5% of Norwegian 8th grade girls' diet, with a similar energy amount of wild berries, would significantly improve the diet - also improve intake of nutrients not commonly associated with berries.