This manual is to be used by military personnel separated from their units while on duty in the Arctic regions. Its purpose is to aid individuals to recognize edible food plants of the area so that in emergency they may subsist from the land. The manual illustrates and describes briefly the most important edible berries, greens, and roots of the most northern areas.
Available upon request at the Alaska Medical Library, located on the second floor of UAA/APU Consortium Library. Ask for accession no. 100859.
No available dietary assessment method is without error in measuring dietary intake. This has led to an increased interest in biological markers of dietary intake. This article is a review of the literature investigating whether the concentration of carotenoids in blood can serve as biological markers for the intake of fruit and vegetables. The literature indicates an association between intake of fruit and vegetables and the concentration of total carotenoids, alfa-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein and beta-cryptoxanthin in plasma. The same association was not observed for plasma lycopene. Results from several studies also indicate that plasma alfa-carotene and plasma total carotenoids are more suitable as biological markers of the intake of fruit and vegetables than the other carotenoids. As there are large individual variations in the plasma carotenoid response after intake, carotenoids in blood will be a better marker of intake at group level than individual level. Furthermore, the average value from several measurements of carotenoids in blood will be a better marker of long-term intake than a single measurement. Several factors in addition to fruit and vegetables influence the concentration of carotenoids in blood. It is important to assess these factors when carotenoids in blood are used as biological markers of the intake of fruit and vegetables.
Recent research has documented that a high intake of vegetables and fruits reduces the risk of cancer in the mouth and pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, lung, stomach, pancreas, breast and bladder. A large intake of salt increases the risk of cancer in the stomach, and a large intake of red meat increases the risk of cancer in the colon and rectum. Furthermore, the studies demonstrate that regular physical activity reduces the risk of cancer in colon, and that obesity (BMI > 30) increases the risk of cancer in the endometrium, breast and kidney. There is also evidence for increased cancer risk in the mouth and pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, liver, colon, rectum and breast from high alcohol intake. It has been calculated that a 65% increase of the intake of vegetables and fruits will reduce the incidence of cancer by about 23% or about 4,000 cases in Norway every year. It is also estimated that recommended diets, together with maintenance of physical activity and appropriate body mass, can reduce cancer incidence by 30-40%.
During May-June 1998, the Ontario Ministry of Health and local health departments in Ontario received reports of clusters of cases of cyclosporiasis associated with events held during May. This report describes the preliminary findings of the investigation of a cluster in Toronto, Ontario, and summarizes the findings from investigations of 12 other clusters. These investigations indicated that fresh raspberries imported from Guatemala were linked to the multicluster outbreak.
To estimate the contents of flavonoids in the Danish diet, we have used a high performance liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of fruits, vegetables and beverages. The flavonoid contents were quantified, and the observations were verified by mass spectrometry. The investigation is not completed, but we are able to give an preliminary estimate of the daily flavonoid intake at 26 mg/day. The major food contributors are tea, onions, apples, oranges, and orange juice. Other food subjects have high flavonoid contents, but the daily intake is low, so their contributions to the average daily intake are negligible.
Plant sterols are known to have serum cholesterol lowering effects. A high dietary intake might therefore have a positive impact on health. All food items of vegetable origin contain some amount of plant sterols. The aim of this study was to analyse the plant sterol content of vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in Sweden, and to compare fresh and cooked samples of the same items. Altogether 20 different vegetables and 14 fruits were analysed. All vegetables and fruits were purchased in two shops in the city of Gothenburg, Sweden. Lyophilization was performed within one month of the items being purchased. The samples were frozen at -20 (C and analysed within six months, with a GLC method after acid hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis and silylation with tri-methylsilylether. The acid hydrolysis was done in order to detect the fraction of glycosylated plant sterols, which are split during boiling with HCl. The median plant sterol content of vegetables was 14 (3.8-50) mg/100 g edible portion. The highest concentrations were found in broccoli. Brussels sprouts, cauliflower and olives. The median plant sterol content of fruits was 16 (3-44) mg/100 g edible portion. The highest concentrations were found in oranges and passion fruits. The plant sterol concentrations were thus low in vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in Sweden. A serum cholesterol lowering effect attributed to the plant sterols in vegetables and fruits would therefore be of limited significance.
Epidemiological studies worldwide have implicated dietary and nutritional factors in the development of oral and pharyngeal cancer. Dietary information in these case-control studies generally was collected through food-frequency questionnaires. Consistently, these studies observed a protective effect of a diet high in fruit intake, reflected in a 20-80% reduction in oral cancer risk. A high intake of foods considered to be dietary staples in particular cultural groups, possibly indicating a generally impoverished diet, has been linked to excess risk. Indigenous dietary practices that in single studies were found to increase risk include a high intake of chili powder and wood stove cooking. Supplementation with various vitamins has been protective in a few studies. Chemoprevention trials generally have found that chemopreventive agents reduce the size of oral leukoplakia lesions or the frequency of second primary oral cancers. The most consistent dietary findings across multiple cultural settings are a protective effect of high fruit consumption and the carcinogenic effect of high alcohol intake.
During June and July 1991, more than 400 laboratory-confirmed infections with Salmonella poona occurred in 23 states and in Canada. This report describes several investigations that indicated this was a large nationwide outbreak related to consumption of cantaloupes.