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An outbreak of calicivirus associated with consumption of frozen raspberries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature199353
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 1999 Dec;123(3):469-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1999
Author
A. Pönkä
L. Maunula
C H von Bonsdorff
O. Lyytikäinen
Author Affiliation
Helsinki City Center of the Environment, Finland.
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 1999 Dec;123(3):469-74
Date
Dec-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Caliciviridae - pathogenicity
Caliciviridae Infections - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Food Contamination
Frozen Foods - virology
Fruit - virology
Gastroenteritis - etiology - virology
Humans
Male
Retrospective Studies
Abstract
In April 1988, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred among employees in a large company in Helsinki, Finland. A retrospective cohort study, using a self-administered questionnaire, was carried out to ascertain the cause and extent of the outbreak. To meet the case definition, employees had to have had diarrhoea and/or vomiting since 2 April, 1998. A subanalysis was made in the biggest office, consisting of 360 employees, of whom 204 (57%) completed the questionnaire. Of these 108 (53%) met the case definition. Employees who had eaten raspberry dressing were more likely to meet the case definition than those who had not (Attack Rate (AR) 65% versus AR 18% Relative Risk, (RR) 3.7, 95%, Confidence Intervals (CI) 2.0-6.7). Four stool specimens obtained from affected kitchen staff who had all eaten the raspberry dressing and who had all become ill simultaneously with the employees were positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for calicivirus. The data suggest that the primary source of the outbreak was imported frozen raspberries contaminated by calicivirus.
PubMed ID
10694159 View in PubMed
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Assessment of Nutritional Adequacy of Packaged Gluten-free Food Products.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271315
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2014 Dec;75(4):186-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
Tasha Kulai
Mohsin Rashid
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2014 Dec;75(4):186-90
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bread - adverse effects - analysis - economics
British Columbia
Costs and Cost Analysis
Diet, Gluten-Free - adverse effects - economics
Diet, High-Fat - adverse effects - economics
Edible Grain - adverse effects - chemistry - economics
Fast Foods - adverse effects - analysis - economics
Flour - adverse effects - analysis - economics
Food Labeling
Frozen Foods - adverse effects - analysis - economics
Humans
Meat Products - adverse effects - analysis - economics
Newfoundland and Labrador
Nova Scotia
Nutritive Value
Serving Size
Abstract
There is concern about the nutritional quality of processed gluten-free (GF) products. The aim was to investigate the nutrient composition and cost of processed GF products compared with similar regular products.
Product size, price, caloric value, and macro- and micronutrient composition were compared between foods labeled "Gluten-free" and comparable regular products in 5 grocery stores in 3 Canadian cities. Data were calculated per 100 g of product.
A total of 131 products were studied (71 GF, 60 regular). Overall, calories were comparable between GF and regular foods. However, fat content of GF breads was higher (mean 7.7 vs. 3.6 g, P = 0.003), whereas protein was lower (mean 5.0 vs. 8.0 g, P = 0.001). Mean carbohydrate content of GF pasta was higher (78 vs. 74 g, P = 0.001), whereas protein (7.5 vs. 13.3 g, P
PubMed ID
26067071 View in PubMed
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Bacterial flora and antimicrobial resistance in raw frozen cultured seafood imported to Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115815
Source
J Food Prot. 2013 Mar;76(3):490-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2013
Author
Gazi M Noor Uddin
Marianne Halberg Larsen
Luca Guardabassi
Anders Dalsgaard
Author Affiliation
Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
Source
J Food Prot. 2013 Mar;76(3):490-9
Date
Mar-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Aquaculture
Bacteria - drug effects - growth & development
Colony Count, Microbial
Consumer Product Safety
Denmark
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Resistance, Bacterial - genetics
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
Fishes - microbiology
Food Handling - methods
Frozen Foods - analysis - microbiology - standards
Humans
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Seafood - analysis - microbiology - standards
Abstract
Intensified aquaculture includes the use of antimicrobials for disease control. In contrast to the situation in livestock, Escherichia coli and enterococci are not part of the normal gastrointestinal flora of fish and shrimp and therefore not suitable indicators of antimicrobial resistance in seafood. In this study, the diversity and phenotypic characteristics of the bacterial flora in raw frozen cultured and wild-caught shrimp and fish were evaluated to identify potential indicators of antimicrobial resistance. The bacterial flora cultured on various agar media at different temperatures yielded total viable counts of 4.0 × 10(4) to 3.0 × 10(5) CFU g(-1). Bacterial diversity was indicated by 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 84 isolates representing different colony types; 24 genera and 51 species were identified. Pseudomonas spp. (23% of isolates), Psychrobacter spp. (17%), Serratia spp. (13%), Exiguobacterium spp. (7%), Staphylococcus spp. (6%), and Micrococcus spp. (6%) dominated. Disk susceptibility testing of 39 bacterial isolates to 11 antimicrobials revealed resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, erythromycin, and third generation cephalosporins. Resistance to third generation cephalosporins was found in Pseudomonas, a genus naturally resistant to most ß-lactam antibiotics, and in Staphylococcus hominis. Half of the isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. Results indicate that identification of a single bacterial resistance indicator naturally present in seafood at point of harvest is unlikely. The bacterial flora found likely represents a processing rather than a raw fish flora because of repeated exposure of raw material to water during processing. Methods and appropriate indicators, such as quantitative PCR of resistance genes, are needed to determine how antimicrobials used in aquaculture affect resistance of bacteria in retailed products.
PubMed ID
23462087 View in PubMed
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Convenience food use in eight hospitals in Ontario.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature245159
Source
J Can Diet Assoc. 1981 Jan;42(1):39-46
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1981
Author
E M Upton
P D Glencross
Source
J Can Diet Assoc. 1981 Jan;42(1):39-46
Date
Jan-1981
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Efficiency
Food Preservation
Food Service, Hospital - economics
Frozen Foods
Humans
Ontario
Abstract
A ten point Conventional Convenience Rating Scale (CCRS) was developed to classify and analyze differences in use of convenience food for menu items of selective regular and diabetic diets for seven days in eight active treatment hospitals. Statistical analysis showed that the CCRS score detected differences between six meal components, three meals and four areas of production within each diet type. The convenience hospital had generally highest CCRS scores for all meal components; dessert CCRS scores were primarily dependent on the presence or absence of a bakeshop on the premises. Breakfast had the highest mean meal CCRS scores and lunch the lowest. CCRS scores were lowest for menu items which were prepared in the chef's area and in the salad and sandwich area. There was a significant inverse relationship (r = 0.895) between mean hospital CCRS score and aggregate skill level of food production employees. No correlation was found between the mean hospital CCRS score and 1) meal-days per food production labour minute, 2) total food cost per meal-day and 3) food production labour cost per meal-day. Among other recommendations, this research suggests that further investigation be made to assess the adequacy of the standards of performance used in this study and commonly used as indicators of institutional foodservice efficiency.
PubMed ID
10309348 View in PubMed
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The epidemiology of trichinellosis in the Arctic territories of a Far Eastern District of the Russian Federation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301962
Source
J Helminthol. 2019 Jan; 93(1):42-49
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-2019
Author
A Uspensky
L Bukina
I Odoevskaya
S Movsesyan
M Voronin
Author Affiliation
K.I. Skrjabin's Institute of Fundamental and Applied Parasitology of Animals and Plants,117218, 28 str. Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya,Moscow,Russia.
Source
J Helminthol. 2019 Jan; 93(1):42-49
Date
Jan-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Antibodies, Helminth - blood
Aquatic Organisms - parasitology
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Frozen Foods - parasitology
Humans
Immunoglobulin G - blood
Larva - physiology
Meat - parasitology
Prevalence
Russia - epidemiology
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Trichinella - immunology
Trichinellosis - epidemiology - ethnology
Abstract
Trichinellosis, a zoonotic disease caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella, is still a public health concern in the Arctic. The aims of this study were to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-Trichinella IgG in aboriginal peoples of two settlements in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (Russian Federation) on the Arctic coast of the Bering Sea, and to evaluate the survival of Trichinella nativa larvae in local fermented and frozen meat products. A seroprevalence of 24.3% was detected in 259 people tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The highest prevalence was detected among people who consumed traditional local foods made from the meat of marine mammals. Trichinella nativa larvae were found to survive for up to 24 months in a fermented and frozen marine mammal meat product called kopalkhen. Since the T. nativa life cycle can be completed in the absence of humans, it can be expected to persist in the environment and therefore remain a cause of morbidity in the human populations living in Arctic regions.
PubMed ID
29382411 View in PubMed
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Frozen chicken nuggets and strips--a newly identified risk factor for Salmonella Heidelberg infection in British Columbia, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature179449
Source
J Food Prot. 2004 Jun;67(6):1111-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2004
Author
Laura MacDougall
Murray Fyfe
Lorraine McIntyre
Ana Paccagnella
Keir Cordner
Alan Kerr
Jeff Aramini
Author Affiliation
Epidemiology Services, British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver, British Columbia, V5Z 4R4, Canada. laura.macdougall@bccdc.ca
Source
J Food Prot. 2004 Jun;67(6):1111-5
Date
Jun-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
British Columbia
Chickens
Consumer Product Safety
Cooking - methods
Food Contamination
Food Labeling
Food Microbiology
Frozen Foods - microbiology
Humans
Odds Ratio
Poultry Products - microbiology
Risk factors
Salmonella - isolation & purification
Salmonella Food Poisoning - prevention & control
Abstract
Salmonella enterica var. Heidelberg was isolated from an unusual food source during routine case follow-up, prompting a case control investigation of frozen chicken nuggets and strips. Most frozen nuggets and strips are raw; however, par-frying lends a cooked appearance. As such, suitable food preparation precautions might not be undertaken by consumers. Cases were confirmed in the laboratory between 1 January and 1 April 2003. Controls were generated through forward-digit dialing and individually matched by age category. Telephone interviews were conducted, and limited sampling of unopened product was performed. Eighteen matched pairs were interviewed. The odds of infection were 11 times higher in individuals who had consumed frozen processed chicken nuggets and strips (95% confidence interval, 1.42
PubMed ID
15222535 View in PubMed
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Hepatitis A outbreak in British Columbia, Canada: the roles of established surveillance, consumer loyalty cards and collaboration, February to May 2012.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104305
Source
Euro Surveill. 2014;19(18)
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
H M Swinkels
M. Kuo
G. Embree
A. Andonov
B. Henry
J A Buxton
Author Affiliation
Office of the Medical Health Officer, Public Health Fraser Health Authority, Surrey, Canada.
Source
Euro Surveill. 2014;19(18)
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cooperative Behavior
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Frozen Foods - virology
Fruit - virology
Genotype
Hepatitis A - epidemiology - virology
Hepatitis A virus - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Humans
Immunoglobulin M - blood
Molecular Sequence Data
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Population Surveillance - methods
RNA, Viral - genetics
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Abstract
Non-travel-related hepatitis A is rare in Canada. We describe a hepatitis A outbreak investigation in British Columbia in February to May 2012 in which exposure history was collected from nine confirmed non-travel-related cases. Suspected foods were tested for hepatitis A virus (HAV): a frozen fruit blend was identified as a common exposure for six of the nine cases using supermarket loyalty cards. Consumption of the product was confirmed in each case. Genetic analysis confirmed HAV genotype 1B in the six exposed cases. Of the three non-exposed cases, the virus could not be genotyped for two of them; the virus from the other case was found to be genotype 1A and this case was therefore not considered part of the outbreak. HAV was detected by PCR from pomegranate seeds, a component of the identified frozen fruit blend. Historically low levels of HAV infection in British Columbia triggered early recognition of the outbreak. Loyalty card histories facilitated product identification and a trace-back investigation implicated imported pomegranate seeds.
PubMed ID
24832119 View in PubMed
Less detail

Multiple norovirus outbreaks linked to imported frozen raspberries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136040
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2012 Feb;140(2):260-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2012
Author
E. Sarvikivi
M. Roivainen
L. Maunula
T. Niskanen
T. Korhonen
M. Lappalainen
M. Kuusi
Author Affiliation
Department of Infectious Disease Surveillance and Control, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland. emmi.sarvikivi@thl.fi
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2012 Feb;140(2):260-7
Date
Feb-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Caliciviridae Infections - epidemiology - virology
Disease Outbreaks
Feces - virology
Finland - epidemiology
Food Microbiology
Frozen Foods - virology
Fruit - virology
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - virology
Humans
Incidence
Norovirus - isolation & purification
RNA, Viral - genetics
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Rosaceae - virology
Abstract
In 2009, the number of foodborne norovirus outbreaks in Finland seemed markedly high, and many outbreaks seemed to be linked to imported frozen raspberries. We reviewed the data regarding all notified foodborne outbreaks in 2009 in Finland in order to assess the magnitude of the problem and to summarize the information on raspberry-linked outbreaks. Between March and August, 13 norovirus outbreaks affecting about 900 people could be linked to imported frozen raspberries. Two raspberry samples corresponding to two batches of raspberries were positive for norovirus. These two batches proved to have been the likely source in six of the 13 outbreaks. Analytical studies had not been conducted for six outbreaks, and virological test results were inconclusive in two. However, combining epidemiological and microbiological methods often enabled finding the source, as exemplified in investigation of a large school outbreak. To ensure prompt control measures in similar situations in the future, both aspects of outbreak investigations should be strengthened.
PubMed ID
21418716 View in PubMed
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Non-heat-treated frozen raspberries the most likely vehicle of a norovirus outbreak in Oslo, Norway, November 2013.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283322
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2016 Oct;144(13):2765-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2016
Author
M. Einöder-Moreno
H. Lange
M. Grepp
E. Osborg
K. Vainio
L. Vold
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2016 Oct;144(13):2765-72
Date
Oct-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Caliciviridae Infections - epidemiology - virology
Cohort Studies
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Food Microbiology
Foodborne Diseases - epidemiology - virology
Frozen Foods - virology
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - virology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norovirus - physiology
Norway - epidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Rubus - virology
Young Adult
Abstract
In November 2013, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health was notified of a gastroenteritis outbreak following two meetings held at a conference centre. Identical food and beverages were served during the meetings. We investigated in order to identify the vehicle of infection and implement control measures. Meeting participants completed an online questionnaire on consumption of foods and beverages. We asked symptomatic participants to provide a stool sample. We defined a case as diarrhoea and/or vomiting in a participant who became ill within 3 days after the meeting. We calculated attack rates (AR) and adjusted risk ratios (aRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using binomial regression. We conducted environmental investigations. Overall, 147/168 (88%) participants responded, of which 74 (50%) met the case definition. All five stool samples provided were norovirus positive. No kitchen staff reported being sick. Risk of illness was higher in those who consumed raspberry mousse (aRR 3·4, 95% CI 1·4-8·2) and sliced fresh fruit (aRR 1·9, 95% CI 1·3-2·8). Seventy cases (95%) ate raspberry mousse. Frozen raspberries used for the mousse were imported and not heat-treated before consumption. Non-heat-treated frozen raspberries were the most likely outbreak vehicle. Contamination by a food handler could not be excluded. We recommend heat-treatment of imported frozen berries before consumption.
PubMed ID
26878755 View in PubMed
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16 records – page 1 of 2.