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Accumulated state of the Yukon River watershed: part I critical review of literature.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121234
Source
Integr Environ Assess Manag. 2013 Jul;9(3):426-38
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2013
Author
Monique G Dubé
Breda Muldoon
Julie Wilson
Karonhiakta'tie Bryan Maracle
Author Affiliation
Canadian Rivers Institute, University of New Brunswick, Alberta, Canada. Dub.mon@hotmail.com
Source
Integr Environ Assess Manag. 2013 Jul;9(3):426-38
Date
Jul-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology
Animal Migration
Animals
British Columbia - epidemiology
Climate change
Environment
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Fish Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology - parasitology
Fishes - physiology
Fresh Water - analysis - microbiology - parasitology
Humans
Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Seasons
Water Movements
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - metabolism - toxicity
Water Quality
Yukon Territory - epidemiology
Abstract
A consistent methodology for assessing the accumulating effects of natural and manmade change on riverine systems has not been developed for a whole host of reasons including a lack of data, disagreement over core elements to consider, and complexity. Accumulated state assessments of aquatic systems is an integral component of watershed cumulative effects assessment. The Yukon River is the largest free flowing river in the world and is the fourth largest drainage basin in North America, draining 855,000 km(2) in Canada and the United States. Because of its remote location, it is considered pristine but little is known about its cumulative state. This review identified 7 "hot spot" areas in the Yukon River Basin including Lake Laberge, Yukon River at Dawson City, the Charley and Yukon River confluence, Porcupine and Yukon River confluence, Yukon River at the Dalton Highway Bridge, Tolovana River near Tolovana, and Tanana River at Fairbanks. Climate change, natural stressors, and anthropogenic stresses have resulted in accumulating changes including measurable levels of contaminants in surface waters and fish tissues, fish and human disease, changes in surface hydrology, as well as shifts in biogeochemical loads. This article is the first integrated accumulated state assessment for the Yukon River basin based on a literature review. It is the first part of a 2-part series. The second article (Dubé et al. 2013a, this issue) is a quantitative accumulated state assessment of the Yukon River Basin where hot spots and hot moments are assessed outside of a "normal" range of variability.
PubMed ID
22927161 View in PubMed
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Acidification remediation alternatives: exploring the temporal dimension with cost benefit analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143359
Source
Ambio. 2010 Feb;39(1):40-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2010
Author
Göran Bostedt
Stefan Löfgren
Sophia Innala
Kevin Bishop
Author Affiliation
Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83 Umeå, Sweden. goran.bostedt@sekon.slu.se
Source
Ambio. 2010 Feb;39(1):40-8
Date
Feb-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Conservation of Natural Resources
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Ecosystem
Environmental Monitoring - economics
Environmental Remediation - economics
Fresh Water - analysis - chemistry
Humans
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Socioeconomic Factors
Soil - analysis
Sulfur Compounds
Sweden
Time Factors
Water Pollutants, Chemical - adverse effects - economics
Abstract
Acidification of soils and surface waters caused by acid deposition is still a major problem in southern Scandinavia, despite clear signs of recovery. Besides emission control, liming of lakes, streams, and wetlands is currently used to ameliorate acidification in Sweden. An alternative strategy is forest soil liming to restore the acidified upland soils from which much acidified runoff originates. This cost-benefit analysis compared these liming strategies with a special emphasis on the time perspective for expected benefits. Benefits transfer was used to estimate use values for sport ffishing and nonuse values in terms of existence values. The results show that large-scale forest soil liming is not socioeconomically profitable, while lake liming is, if it is done efficiently-in other words, if only acidified surface waters are treated. The beguiling logic of "solving" an environmental problem at its source (soils), rather than continuing to treat the symptoms (surface waters), is thus misleading.
Notes
Cites: Nature. 2007 Nov 22;450(7169):537-4018033294
PubMed ID
20496651 View in PubMed
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Altitudinal and thermal gradients of hepatic Cyp1A gene expression in natural populations of Salmo trutta from high mountain lakes and their correlation with organohalogen loads.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98080
Source
Environ Pollut. 2010 May;158(5):1392-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2010
Author
Sergio Jarque
Eva Gallego
Mireia Bartrons
Jordi Catalan
Joan O Grimalt
Benjamin Piña
Author Affiliation
Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034-Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
Source
Environ Pollut. 2010 May;158(5):1392-8
Date
May-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Altitude
Animals
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 - genetics - metabolism
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - toxicity
Fish Proteins - genetics - metabolism
Fresh Water - analysis
Gene Expression - drug effects
Hydrocarbons, Halogenated - analysis - toxicity
Liver - enzymology
Norway
Temperature
Trout - metabolism
Abstract
The biomarker of xenobiotic exposure cytochrome p450A1 (Cyp1A) was used to analyze the biological response to chemical pollution in Salmo trutta (brown trout) from nine high mountain European lakes in Norway, Tatras, Tyrol, and central Pyrenees. Hepatic Cyp1A mRNA levels correlated both with the reciprocal of absolute annual average air temperatures of the sampled lakes and with muscle concentrations of several hydrophobic organohalogen compounds (OC), including chlorinated polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), DDE, and DDT. The correlation between Cyp1A expression and OC content was observed across the whole temperature range (between -0.7 degrees C and +6.2 degrees C), but also in the absence of any thermal gradient. We concluded that airborne pollutants accumulate in high mountain lake fish at concentrations high enough to increase Cyp1A expression, among other possible effects. As geographical distribution of semi-volatile OC is strongly influenced by air temperatures, future climate modifications will potentially enhance their physiological effects in lake ecosystems.
PubMed ID
20149942 View in PubMed
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Anencephalus and drinking water composition.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature249965
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1977 May;105(5):460-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1977
Author
J M Elwood
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1977 May;105(5):460-8
Date
May-1977
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anencephaly - epidemiology - etiology - mortality
Calcium - analysis
Canada
Congenital Abnormalities - mortality
Drinking
Female
Fetal Death - epidemiology
Fresh Water - analysis
Humans
Hydrocephalus - mortality
Lithium - analysis
Magnesium - analysis
Pregnancy
Spinal Dysraphism - mortality
Water - analysis
Water Softening
Water supply
Abstract
The mortality rate (stillbirths and infant deaths) from anencephalus from 1950-1969 in 36 cities of over 50,000 population in Canada showed a negative association (r = -.39) with the concentration of magnesium in water sampled at domestic taps. The mortality rates showed negative associations with mean income and longitude, and a multiple regression model using the three factors showed significant effects of each and accounted for 69% of the intercity variation in rates. There were no significant associations seen with water calcium concentration or total hardness. Income, magnesium and longitude were also negatively associated with mortality rates from spina bifida, hydrocephalus, other congenital abnormalities, and total stillbirth and infant death rates, but the association with magnesium was significant only for total stillbirths. The negative association of anencephalus mortality and magnesium levels was also seen in a sample of 14 smaller towns in Ontario.
PubMed ID
324271 View in PubMed
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Anomalously weak Labrador Sea convection and Atlantic overturning during the past 150 years.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294791
Source
Nature. 2018 04; 556(7700):227-230
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
04-2018
Author
David J R Thornalley
Delia W Oppo
Pablo Ortega
Jon I Robson
Chris M Brierley
Renee Davis
Ian R Hall
Paola Moffa-Sanchez
Neil L Rose
Peter T Spooner
Igor Yashayaev
Lloyd D Keigwin
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, University College London, London, UK. d.thornalley@cantab.net.
Source
Nature. 2018 04; 556(7700):227-230
Date
04-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Atlantic Ocean
Climate Change - statistics & numerical data
Convection
Fresh Water - analysis
Greenland
History, 15th Century
History, 16th Century
History, 17th Century
History, 18th Century
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
History, Medieval
Ice Cover - chemistry
Newfoundland and Labrador
Oceans and Seas
Reproducibility of Results
Seawater - analysis
Time Factors
Water Movements
Abstract
The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is a system of ocean currents that has an essential role in Earth's climate, redistributing heat and influencing the carbon cycle1, 2. The AMOC has been shown to be weakening in recent years 1 ; this decline may reflect decadal-scale variability in convection in the Labrador Sea, but short observational datasets preclude a longer-term perspective on the modern state and variability of Labrador Sea convection and the AMOC1, 3-5. Here we provide several lines of palaeo-oceanographic evidence that Labrador Sea deep convection and the AMOC have been anomalously weak over the past 150 years or so (since the end of the Little Ice Age, LIA, approximately AD 1850) compared with the preceding 1,500 years. Our palaeoclimate reconstructions indicate that the transition occurred either as a predominantly abrupt shift towards the end of the LIA, or as a more gradual, continued decline over the past 150 years; this ambiguity probably arises from non-AMOC influences on the various proxies or from the different sensitivities of these proxies to individual components of the AMOC. We suggest that enhanced freshwater fluxes from the Arctic and Nordic seas towards the end of the LIA-sourced from melting glaciers and thickened sea ice that developed earlier in the LIA-weakened Labrador Sea convection and the AMOC. The lack of a subsequent recovery may have resulted from hysteresis or from twentieth-century melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet 6 . Our results suggest that recent decadal variability in Labrador Sea convection and the AMOC has occurred during an atypical, weak background state. Future work should aim to constrain the roles of internal climate variability and early anthropogenic forcing in the AMOC weakening described here.
Notes
CommentIn: Nature. 2018 Apr;556(7700):149 PMID 29643490
CommentIn: Nature. 2018 Apr;556(7700):180-181 PMID 29636556
PubMed ID
29643484 View in PubMed
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Application of a Finnish mutagenicity model to drinking waters in the U.S.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature205146
Source
Chemosphere. 1998 Aug;37(3):451-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1998
Author
K M Schenck
L J Wymer
B W Lykins
R M Clark
Author Affiliation
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA.
Source
Chemosphere. 1998 Aug;37(3):451-64
Date
Aug-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Ammonia - analysis
Carbon - analysis
Chlorine - adverse effects - analysis
Environmental monitoring
Finland
Fresh Water - analysis
Humans
Models, Theoretical
Mutagenicity Tests
Mutagens - analysis
Neoplasms - chemically induced
Resins, Synthetic - chemistry
United States
Water Pollutants, Chemical - adverse effects - analysis
Water Purification
Abstract
Recent epidemiological studies conducted in Finland have reported a positive correlation between the mutagenicity of chlorinated drinking waters and certain human cancers. In these studies, past exposure to drinking water mutagenicity was assessed using a model developed by Vartiainen et al. [1] based on data collected in Finland. In this model, mutagenicity, as determined in the Ames assay, is a function of the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the water, chlorine dose, and to a minor extent, the concentration of ammonia. A study has been initiated to assess the applicability of this model to source waters and water treatment practices in the United States. Water samples were collected from three full-scale treatment plants and one pilot-scale plant. All the plants used chlorine exclusively for disinfection. One full-scale plant used ground water. Surface water sources were used by the other plants. TOC and ammonia concentrations were determined analytically and chlorine doses were obtained from the treatment plants. The water samples were concentrated by XAD resin adsorption for testing in the Ames assay. The observed levels of mutagenicity in the finished waters were 1.5 to 2-fold higher than those predicted using the model as specified in Vartiainen et al. [1]. Consequently, further validation is needed prior to widespread use of the Finnish model to assess exposure to mutagenicity in chlorinated drinking waters in the United States.
PubMed ID
9661275 View in PubMed
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The arctic water resource vulnerability index: an integrated assessment tool for community resilience and vulnerability with respect to freshwater.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature92966
Source
Environ Manage. 2008 Sep;42(3):523-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2008
Author
Alessa Lilian
Kliskey Andrew
Lammers Richard
Arp Chris
White Dan
Hinzman Larry
Busey Robert
Author Affiliation
Resilience and Adaptive Management Group, University of Alaska Anchorage, 3211 Providence Drive, Anchorage, AK, 99508, USA.
Source
Environ Manage. 2008 Sep;42(3):523-41
Date
Sep-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Arctic Regions
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods
Ecosystem
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Fresh Water - analysis
Greenhouse Effect
Humans
Rain
Risk assessment
Water Supply - analysis - standards
Abstract
People in the Arctic face uncertainty in their daily lives as they contend with environmental changes at a range of scales from local to global. Freshwater is a critical resource to people, and although water resource indicators have been developed that operate from regional to global scales and for midlatitude to equatorial environments, no appropriate index exists for assessing the vulnerability of Arctic communities to changing water resources at the local scale. The Arctic Water Resource Vulnerability Index (AWRVI) is proposed as a tool that Arctic communities can use to assess their relative vulnerability-resilience to changes in their water resources from a variety of biophysical and socioeconomic processes. The AWRVI is based on a social-ecological systems perspective that includes physical and social indicators of change and is demonstrated in three case study communities/watersheds in Alaska. These results highlight the value of communities engaging in the process of using the AWRVI and the diagnostic capability of examining the suite of constituent physical and social scores rather than the total AWRVI score alone.
PubMed ID
18560929 View in PubMed
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Arsenic concentrations in well water and risk of bladder and kidney cancer in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature201045
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1999 Sep;107(9):705-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1999
Author
P. Kurttio
E. Pukkala
H. Kahelin
A. Auvinen
J. Pekkanen
Author Affiliation
National Public Health Institute, Unit of Environmental Epidemiology, Kuopio, Finland. paivi.kurttio@ktl.fi
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1999 Sep;107(9):705-10
Date
Sep-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arsenic - analysis
Arsenic Poisoning - complications
Female
Finland
Fresh Water - analysis
Humans
Kidney Neoplasms - chemically induced
Male
Risk
Smoking - adverse effects
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms - chemically induced
Water Pollutants, Chemical - toxicity
Water Supply - analysis
Abstract
We assessed the levels of arsenic in drilled wells in Finland and studied the association of arsenic exposure with the risk of bladder and kidney cancers. The study persons were selected from a register-based cohort of all Finns who had lived at an address outside the municipal drinking-water system during 1967-1980 (n = 144,627). The final study population consisted of 61 bladder cancer cases and 49 kidney cancer cases diagnosed between 1981 and 1995, as well as an age- and sex-balanced random sample of 275 subjects (reference cohort). Water samples were obtained from the wells used by the study population at least during 1967-1980. The total arsenic concentrations in the wells of the reference cohort were low (median = 0.1 microg/L; maximum = 64 microg/L), and 1% exceeded 10 microg/L. Arsenic exposure was estimated as arsenic concentration in the well, daily dose, and cumulative dose of arsenic. None of the exposure indicators was statistically significantly associated with the risk of kidney cancer. Bladder cancer tended to be associated with arsenic concentration and daily dose during the third to ninth years prior to the cancer diagnosis; the risk ratios for arsenic concentration categories 0.1-0.5 and [Greater/equal to] 0.5 microg/L relative to the category with
Notes
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PubMed ID
10464069 View in PubMed
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Artificial sweeteners in a large Canadian river reflect human consumption in the watershed.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257215
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e82706
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
John Spoelstra
Sherry L Schiff
Susan J Brown
Author Affiliation
Water Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario, Canada ; Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e82706
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Fresh Water - analysis - chemistry
Geography
Humans
Ontario
Rivers - chemistry
Sweetening Agents - analysis - chemistry
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - chemistry
Abstract
Artificial sweeteners have been widely incorporated in human food products for aid in weight loss regimes, dental health protection and dietary control of diabetes. Some of these widely used compounds can pass non-degraded through wastewater treatment systems and are subsequently discharged to groundwater and surface waters. Measurements of artificial sweeteners in rivers used for drinking water production are scarce. In order to determine the riverine concentrations of artificial sweeteners and their usefulness as a tracer of wastewater at the scale of an entire watershed, we analyzed samples from 23 sites along the entire length of the Grand River, a large river in Southern Ontario, Canada, that is impacted by agricultural activities and urban centres. Municipal water from household taps was also sampled from several cities within the Grand River Watershed. Cyclamate, saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame were found in elevated concentrations despite high rates of biological activity, large daily cycles in dissolved oxygen and shallow river depth. The maximum concentrations that we measured for sucralose (21 µg/L), cyclamate (0.88 µg/L), and saccharin (7.2 µg/L) are the highest reported concentrations of these compounds in surface waters to date anywhere in the world. Acesulfame persists at concentrations that are up to several orders of magnitude above the detection limit over a distance of 300 km and it behaves conservatively in the river, recording the wastewater contribution from the cumulative population in the basin. Acesulfame is a reliable wastewater effluent tracer in rivers. Furthermore, it can be used to assess rates of nutrient assimilation, track wastewater plume dilution, separate human and animal waste contributions and determine the relative persistence of emerging contaminants in impacted watersheds where multiple sources confound the usefulness of other tracers. The effects of artificial sweeteners on aquatic biota in rivers and in the downstream Great Lakes are largely unknown.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24349342 View in PubMed
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Assessment of doses to the offspring of the Techa River cohort due to intakes of radionuclides by the mother.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature183429
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2003;105(1-4):609-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
M O Degteva
E I Tolstykh
M I Vorobiova
Author Affiliation
Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Medgorodok, 454076, Chelyabinsk, Russia. marina@urcrm.chel.su
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2003;105(1-4):609-14
Date
2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body Burden
Bone Marrow - embryology - metabolism
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Cohort Studies
Computer simulation
Female
Fetus - metabolism
Fresh Water - analysis
Humans
Maternal Exposure
Maternal-Fetal Exchange - physiology
Models, Biological
Pregnancy
Radiation Dosage
Radioactive Waste - analysis
Radioisotopes - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Radiometry - methods - standards
Russia
Strontium Radioisotopes - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Tissue Distribution
Water Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Abstract
The Techa River was contaminated as a result of radioactive releases by the Mayak plutonium production facility in 1949-1956. The residents of riverside communities were exposed to internal irradiation from radionuclides ingested mainly with river water, and also to external gamma irradiation resulting from shoreline and flood-plain contamination. The most important role in population exposure was played by (89,90)Sr and 137Cs. The persons born after the onset of the contamination have been identified as the 'Techa River Offspring Cohort' (TROC). The TROC has the potential to provide direct data on health effects in progeny that resulted from exposure of a general population to chronic radiation. This report describes the results of the calculation of fetal doses due to intakes of radionuclides by their mothers. Particular attention has been given to fetal dose from 90Sr because this nuclide is the most significant in terms of population dose for the Techa River. The comparison of the fetal bone marrow doses evaluated using different approaches proposed in the literature has shown a large dispersal in dose values. The main cause of this is the difference in model assumptions simplifying some developmental aspects of fetal haematopoiesis and bone formation. This paper presents an analysis of these basic assumptions that could be useful for further improvements in fetal dosimetry.
PubMed ID
14527035 View in PubMed
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70 records – page 1 of 7.