Body weight and weight/height were measured in 535 children adopted at the median age of 3 months, and in 250 natural children in French-Canadian origin living in 374 Montreal homes, to determine whether the shared environment contributed to the familial resemblance of weight in children aged one to 21. The mid-parent vs natural children's correlation ( r2 X 100) was 9.55% for body weight and 6.60% for W/H (p less than 0.01), whereas the mid-parent vs adopted children's correlation was 0.00% for both characteristics. The sib-sib correlation in 80 homes with greater than 1 natural child was 15.2% for weight and 13.48% for W/H (p less than 0.001), whereas in 138 homes with greater than 1 adopted child, the adoptee-adoptee correlations were, respectively, 0.00% and 0.07%. It is concluded that heredity explains most of the familial aggregation of patterns of weight and weight/height in children. This conclusion does not necessarily apply to obesity, since weight indices in children do not accurately reflect excess fat tissue, and half of the adoptees were adopted after the age of three months.
Prosopagnosia is an acquired neurological impairment characterized by an inability to experience a feeling of familiarity at the view of faces of known individuals and to identify these individuals. The inability of prosopagnosic patients to recognize faces does not entail that perceived faces go unprocessed in their brains, and there are indications that cognitive operations are still performed whereby a perceived face reactivates pertinent memories, but either these operations cannot be completed or their outcome fails to reach consciousness. A series of experiments were conducted on three severe prosopagnosic patients in an attempt to understand better this phenomenon known as covert face recognition, the conditions for its occurrence, and its functional locus. The capacity of the patients implicitly to access pertinent knowledge related to overtly unrecognized faces was inversely related to the severity of their perceptual deficit, suggesting that some preserved ability to extract the physiognomic invariants of a face is a necessary condition for the occurrence of the phenomenon. However, the results indicated that covert recognition does not take place at a perceptual or structural level although it is initiated at such a level, that it may have more than one underlying mechanism, and that it is achieved through the reactivation of specific information related to the individual's identity. Under special conditions that restricted the relevant knowledge that needed to be activated, transient overt recognition of faces was experienced by one of the prosopagnosic patients.
The results are reported for an analysis of longitudinal sequences of lateral head X-rays of 50 Montreal girls, taken annually between the ages of 6 and 15 years. Mean size changes for distances within the cranial base, the maxilla and the mandible, as well as those outlining the facial polygon, are displayed on a common proportional scale based on mean sizes at 15 years old. Mean growth velocities are displayed on both a chronological age scale and on one relative to the individual age of peak growth velocity in stature. A distinct facial pattern of growth is established, In terms of the proportion of final size achieved during childhood, it is below the cranial pattern, but above the general skeletal one. This facial pattern shows a pubertal peak in growth, but one quantitatively less important than that for stature. The timing of the two peaks is closely aligned, although the evidence favours a slightly later development for the face. The mandibular ramus provided the sole exception to this common facial pattern, though some questions on maxillary growth remain open.
Somatotype components were obtained in 239 French-Canadian families from Montreal. Endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy were anthropometrically assessed in the Health and Carter system. All three components were available in 208 pairs of siblings, while only ectomorphy was estimated in 507 parent-child pairs. Sibling correlations reached 0.40 for endomorphy, 0.30 for mesomorphy, and 0.38 for ectomorphy. Partialling out the effects of 7 socioeconomic indicators permitted an estimate of common familial environment upon covariation between relatives. Residual sibling correlations yielded broad heritability estimates (HB) of 0.50 for endomorphy, 0.42 for mesomorphy and 0.54 for ectomorphy. Narrow heritability (HN) for ectomorphy, controlling for familial indicators, was approximately 0.36 including a positive contribution from assortative mating.
Familial hyperchylomicronemia has reached a high prevalence in the French Canadian population of eastern Quebec. The birth places of 58 carriers identified through the birth of one affected child clustered in three regions. The genealogies of these 58 individuals showed that no founder was common to all of them. Three sets of founders were found, one for each region, with little overlapping between two regions. These results strongly suggest that more than one mutation, introduced by the French migrants in the 17th century, are segregating in the French Canadian population. Perche, a region situated between Paris and Normandy, appeared to be the most likely putative center of diffusion of at least one mutation in the lipoprotein lipase gene segregating in the modern-day French Canadian population of Quebec.
In the present investigation, an elite group of competitive female French-Canadian gymnasts (N = 7) were evaluated using 35 standardized morphological measures at an interval of 475 days. At the two evaluatione, the average age of the gymnasts was 13.9 and 15.3 years and at the termination 4 of the 7 girls had not yet reached menarche. Standard body lengths, widths, skinfolds and proportions were measured. Almost everybody dependent variable increased significantly while the body proportions, for the most part, stayed the same. Skinfold measures of body fat tended to remain the same or to decrease over this period. In comparison to other reference groups of female gymnasts tested over the last 10 years, these elite competiters were younger, smaller, and lighter reflecting the present day trends. Implications of this decreased body size were discussed in terms of the potential mechanical advantages that accompany these characteristics.