BACKGROUND: Methyl 2-octynoate is a synthetic fragrance which was first described to have sensitizing properties in 1935. It is one of the 26 fragrances to be labelled on the ingredient list according to current European cosmetics regulation. OBJECTIVES: To report the experience with patch testing with methyl 2-octynoate 1% and 2% in pet. METHODS: 230 eczema patients were consecutively patch tested with 1% methyl 2-octynoate at department of Dermato-allergology Gentofte Hospital, Denmark and 120 eczema patients were consecutively patch tested with 2% M2O in Finn Chambers at the Départment de Dermatologie, CHU Saint Jacques, France. RESULTS: Three cases of active sensitization were observed. 2 (0.87%) of the 230 Danish subjects tested with 1% in pet. and of the 120 French subjects patch tested with 2% in pet. 1 (0.83%). There was no statistical difference in active sensitization between the two groups (P = 0.72). Allergic contact dermatitis was observed in two patients (1.67%) in the French group and none in the Danish group. CONCLUSION: Contact allergy to methyl 2-octynoate was frequently seen when patch testing with 2% in pet. However, active sensitization was also observed, when patch testing with concentrations of 1% and 2% methyl 2-octynoate. The patch test concentration should be below 1% in pet., but a safe concentration remains to be defined.
The APHEA 2 project investigated short-term health effects of particles in eight European cities. In each city associations between particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microm (PM(10)) and black smoke and daily counts of emergency hospital admissions for asthma (0-14 and 15-64 yr), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and all-respiratory disease (65+ yr) controlling for environmental factors and temporal patterns were investigated. Summary PM(10) effect estimates (percentage change in mean number of daily admissions per 10 microg/m(3) increase) were asthma (0-14 yr) 1.2% (95% CI: 0.2, 2.3), asthma (15-64 yr) 1.1% (0.3, 1.8), and COPD plus asthma and all-respiratory (65+ yr) 1.0% (0.4, 1.5) and 0.9% (0.6, 1.3). The combined estimates for Black Smoke tended to be smaller and less precisely estimated than for PM(10). Variability in the sizes of the PM(10) effect estimates between cities was also investigated. In the 65+ groups PM(10) estimates were positively associated with annual mean concentrations of ozone in the cities. For asthma admissions (0-14 yr) a number of city-specific factors, including smoking prevalence, explained some of their variability. This study confirms that particle concentrations in European cities are positively associated with increased numbers of admissions for respiratory diseases and that some of the variation in PM(10) effect estimates between cities can be explained by city characteristics.
Previous studies of bipolar disorders indicate that childhood abuse and substance abuse are associated with the disorder. Whether both influence the clinical picture, or if one is mediating the association of the other, has not previously been investigated.
A total of 587 patients with bipolar disorders were recruited from Norway and France. A history of childhood abuse was obtained using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Diagnosis and clinical variables, including substance abuse, were based on structured clinical interviews (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders or French version of the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies).
Cannabis abuse was significantly associated with childhood abuse, specifically emotional and sexual abuse (? 2 = 8.63, p = 0.003 and ? 2 = 7.55, p = 0.006, respectively). Cannabis abuse was significantly associated with earlier onset of the illness (z = -4.17, p
Authors investigated, cross-nationally, the factors, including demographic, psychiatric (including cognitive), physical, and behavioral, determining whether older people take their prescribed medication. Older adults are prescribed more medication than any other group, and poor adherence is a common reason for non-response to medication.
Researchers interviewed 3,881 people over age 65 who receive home care services in 11 countries, administering a structured interview in participants' homes. The main outcome measure was the percentage of participants not adherent to medication.
In all, 12.5% of people (N=456) reported that they were not fully adherent to medication. Non-adherence was predicted by problem drinking (OR=3.6), not having a doctor review their medication (OR=3.3), greater cognitive impairment (OR=1.4 for every one-point increase in impairment), good physical health (OR=1.2), resisting care (OR=2.1), being unmarried (OR=2.3), and living in the Czech Republic (OR=4.7) or Germany (OR=1.4).
People who screen positive for problem drinking and who have dementia (often undiagnosed) are less likely to adhere to medication. Therefore, doctors should consider dementia and problem drinking when prescribing for older adults. Interventions to improve adherence in older adults might be more effective if targeted at these groups. It is possible that medication-review enhances adherence by improving the doctor-patient relationship or by emphasizing the need for medications.
Human development reportedly includes critical and sensitive periods during which environmental stressors can affect traits that persist throughout life. Controversy remains over which of these periods provides an opportunity for such stressors to affect health and longevity. The elaboration of reproductive biology and its behavioral sequelae during adolescence suggests such a sensitive period, particularly among males. We test the hypothesis that life expectancy at age 20 among males exposed to life-threatening stressors during early adolescence will fall below that among other males. We apply time-series methods to cohort mortality data in France between 1816 and 1919, England and Wales between 1841 and 1919, and Sweden between 1861 and 1919. Our results indicate an inverse association between cohort death rates at ages 10-14 and cohort life expectancy at age 20. Our findings imply that better-informed and more strategic management of the stressors encountered by early adolescents may improve population health.
Many studies have shown associations between a history of childhood trauma and more severe or complex clinical features of bipolar disorders (BD), including suicide attempts and earlier illness onset. However, the psychopathological mechanisms underlying these associations are still unknown. Here, we investigated whether affective lability mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and the severe clinical features of BD.
A total of 342 participants with BD were recruited from France and Norway. Diagnosis and clinical characteristics were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS) or the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I). Affective lability was measured using the short form of the Affective Lability Scale (ALS-SF). A history of childhood trauma was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Mediation analyses were performed using the SPSS process macro.
Using the mediation model and covariation for the lifetime number of major mood episodes, affective lability was found to statistically mediate the relationship between childhood trauma experiences and several clinical variables, including suicide attempts, mixed episodes and anxiety disorders. No significant mediation effects were found for rapid cycling or age at onset.
Our data suggest that affective lability may represent a psychological dimension that mediates the association between childhood traumatic experiences and the risk of a more severe or complex clinical expression of BD.
Narcolepsy usually starts around adolescence; however, there is great variability in the clinical presentation of narcolepsy.
To determine the age at onset in conjunction with severity of narcoleptic symptoms in two large populations of narcoleptic patients with a similar genetic background.
Information on age at onset and severity of the condition was obtained in 317 patients with well-defined narcolepsy-cataplexy from Montpellier (France) and in 202 from Montreal (Canada).
The mean age at onset was 23.4 years in Montpellier and 24.4 in Montreal. The age at onset was bimodal in two independent patient populations: a first peak occurring at 14.7 years, and a second peak occurring at 35. Age at onset clearly differentiates patients with a positive family history of narcolepsy (early onset) from those without a family history. Other clinical and polygraphic findings may indicate that young age at onset is associated with increased severity of the condition (higher frequency of cataplexy and decreased mean sleep latency on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test).
Bimodal distribution of age at onset of narcolepsy was found in two independent patient populations. Our data suggest that age at onset is genetically determined.
In February 1997, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported a 12 percent decline in AIDS deaths over a 1-year period, the first drop in total deaths from AIDS in the United States. The decline was greatest in the West and Northeast, followed by the Midwest and South. By ethnicity, the drop was greatest among non-Hispanic whites and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Deaths increased in women and persons infected heterosexually, but declined for men and other risk groups, such as men who have sex with men and injection drug users. France also reported a 25 percent reduction in AIDS deaths from 1995 to 1996, as well as a 21 percent decrease in diagnosed AIDS cases from the first to second half of 1996.