This study examines the adequacy of the dietary intake based on age, sex, and level of nutritional risk among 98 frail elderly persons receiving home care through Community Care Access Centres. The dietary intakes were measured using 24-hour recalls and were compared with the dietary reference intake. The participants' intakes of both macronutrients and micronutrients were found to be inadequate. On average, elderly persons were consuming more than the recommended amount of protein, but the average intakes of many vitamins and minerals were less than optimal based on the average intakes. Paradoxically, more than half of elderly participants were overweight or obese. The results highlight the need for appropriate nutrition, education, and support for elderly persons receiving home care.
Frail older people have a decreased ability to respond to stressors and may therefore be more susceptible to adverse events related to inadequately treated pain. Conversely, aging- and frailty-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics may predispose frail older people to adverse events of analgesics.
The aim of this study was to explore whether analgesic use is associated with frailty status and whether there are differences in the types of analgesics used between frailty groups among community-dwelling older people.
The study population consisted of 605 community-dwelling people aged >75 years. Demographic, diagnostic and drug use data were collected during standardized nurse interviews. Participants were classified as frail, pre-frail or robust using the Cardiovascular Health Study frailty criteria (weight loss, weakness, exhaustion, slowness and low physical activity).
Overall, 11.4 % (n = 69) of the study participants were frail and 49.4 % (n = 299) were pre-frail. The prevalence of prescription and non-prescription analgesic use was higher among frail (68.1 %) than among pre-frail (54.5 %) and robust (40.5 %) older people (p
This study provides evidence that a number of frailty-related characteristics (older age, de novo admission to long-term care (LTC), comorbidities [Charlson Index, osteoporosis, osteoporosis risk factors, sarcopenia risk factors, and dementia]) have increased in the hip fracture population from 2001-2008. This will have significant impact on community resources, as the number of people discharged to the community is also increasing.
The aim of this study is to estimate secular changes in the prevalence of selected frailty-related characteristics among the hip fracture population in the Canadian province of Quebec (2001-2008) and the potential impact of these changes on healthcare services.
The Quebec hospitalization database was used to identify nontraumatic hip fractures for the purposes of calculating age- and sex-specific rates. Also estimated were time trends for selected frailty-related characteristics and discharge destinations.
A significant decline in fracture rates was evident for all age groups except for those
The prevalence of frailty increases with age in older adults, but frailty is largely unreported for younger adults, where its associated risk is less clear. Furthermore, less is known about how frailty changes over time among younger adults. We estimated the prevalence and outcomes of frailty, in relation to accumulation of deficits, across the adult lifespan.
We analyzed data for community-dwelling respondents (age 15-102 years at baseline) to the longitudinal component of the National Population Health Survey, with seven two-year cycles, beginning 1994-1995. The outcomes were death, use of health services and change in health status, measured in terms of a Frailty Index constructed from 42 self-reported health variables.
The sample consisted of 14,713 respondents (54.2% women). Vital status was known for more than 99% of the respondents. The prevalence of frailty increased with age, from 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7%-2.4%) among those younger than 30 years to 22.4% (95% CI 19.0%-25.8%) for those older than age 65, including 43.7% (95% CI 37.1%-50.8%) for those 85 and older. At all ages, the 160-month mortality rate was lower among relatively fit people than among those who were frail (e.g., 2% v. 16% at age 40; 42% v. 83% at age 75 or older). These relatively fit people tended to remain relatively fit over time. Relative to all other groups, a greater proportion of the most frail people used health services at baseline (28.3%, 95% CI 21.5%-35.5%) and at each follow-up cycle (26.7%, 95% CI 15.4%-28.0%).
Deficits accumulated with age across the adult spectrum. At all ages, a higher Frailty Index was associated with higher mortality and greater use of health care services. At younger ages, recovery to the relatively fittest state was common, but the chance of complete recovery declined with age.
With aging, health deficits accumulate: people with few deficits for their age are fit, and those with more are frail. Despite recent reports of improved health in old age, how deficit accumulation is changing is not clear. Our objectives were to evaluate changes over 30 years in the degree of deficit accumulation and in the relationship between frailty and mortality in older adults.
We analyzed data from two population based, prospective longitudinal cohorts, assembled in 1971-1972 and 2000-2001, respectively. Residents of Gothenburg Sweden, systematically drawn from the Swedish population registry. The 1901-1902 cohort (N = 973) had a response rate of 84.8%; the 1930 cohort (N = 500) had a response rate of 65.1%. A frailty index using 36 deficits was calculated using data from physical examinations, assessments of physical activity, daily, sensory and social function, and laboratory tests. We evaluated mortality over 12.5 years in relation to the frailty index.
Mean frailty levels were the same (x¯ = 0.20, p = .37) in the 1901-1902 cohort as in the 1930 cohort. Although the frailty index was linked to the risk of death in both cohorts, the hazards ratio decreased from 1.67 per 0.1 increment in the frailty index for the first cohort to 1.32 for the second cohort (interaction term p = .005).
Although frailty was as common at age 70 as before, its lethality appears to be less. Just why this is so should be explored further.
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Models of human mortality include a factor that summarises intrinsic differences in individual rates of ageing, commonly called frailty. Frailty also describes a clinical syndrome of apparent vulnerability. In a representative, cross-sectional, Canadian survey (n = 66,589) we calculated a frailty index as the mean accumulation of deficits and previously showed it to increase exponentially with age. Here, its density function exhibited a monotonic change in shape, being least skewed at the oldest ages. Although the shape gradually changed, the frailty index was well fitted by a gamma distribution. Of note, the variation coefficient, initially high, decreased from middle age on. Being able to quantify frailty means that health risks can be summarised at both the individual and group levels.
Emergency department (ED) use in Quebec may be measured from varied sources, eg, patient's self-reports, hospital medical charts, and provincial health insurance claims databases. Determining the relative validity of each source is complicated because none is a gold standard.
We sought to compare the validity of different measures of ED use without arbitrarily assuming one is perfect.
Data were obtained from a nursing liaison intervention study for frail seniors visiting EDs at 4 university-affiliated hospitals in Montreal.
The number of ED visits during 2 consecutive follow-up periods of 1 and 4 months after baseline was obtained from patient interviews, from medical charts of participating hospitals, and from the provincial health insurance claims database.
Latent class analysis was used to estimate the validity of each source. The impact of the following covariates on validity was evaluated: hospital visited, patient's demographic/clinical characteristics, risk of functional decline, nursing liaison intervention, duration of recall, previous ED use, and previous hospitalization.
The patient's self-report was found to be the least accurate (sensitivity: 70%, specificity: 88%). Claims databases had the greatest validity, especially after defining claims made on consecutive days as part of the same ED visit (sensitivity: 98%, specificity: 98%). The validity of the medical chart was intermediate. Lower sensitivity (or under-reporting) on the self-report appeared to be associated with higher age, low comorbidity and shorter length of recall.
The claims database is the most valid method of measuring ED use among seniors in Quebec compared with hospital medical charts and patient-reported use.