To compare nurses' and physicians' documentation of geriatric issues and explore double documentation and undocumented areas of importance in an acute care setting in two Nordic countries.
158 participants, aged 75+, of whom the Minimum Data Set for Acute Care (MDS-AC) instrument was conducted at admission and from which 56 variables were taken in comparison with notes from patient records documented by nurses and/or physicians in two acute care hospitals, in Finland and Iceland.
Documentation of the impairment of personal Activities of Daily Living (ADL) was missing in 40-60% of the nurses' reports and 80-97% of the physician's reports. Even poorer was the documentation of the impairment of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), of which 75% was not reported by the nurses and 85-96% by the physicians. Cognitive function was recorded in only 30-40% of the cases.
The traditional patient record in acute care setting lacks several variables of functional abilities of the older patients. Nurses took more responsibility in the documentation of functional abilities, compared with physicians, but they could improve. Using a standardized instrument such as the MDS-AC can improve documentation and make a basis for a clearer delineation in responsibilities for documentation between nurses and physicians and thereby improve outcome of care.
OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that physical exercise induces an antiinflammatory response that is associated with reduced chronic activation of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha system in frail elders and that the increase in muscle strength after resistance training is limited by systemic low-grade inflammation. DESIGN: A 12-week controlled resistance-training study. SETTING: Nursing homes in Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-one frail nursing home residents aged 86 to 95 completed the study. INTERVENTION: Ten participants were randomized to a program of resistance training of knee extensors and flexors three times a week for 12 weeks; the remaining 11 participants served as a control group who joined social activities supervised by an occupation therapist. MEASUREMENTS: Muscle strength, plasma levels of TNF-alpha, soluble TNF receptor (sTNFR)-1, and interleukin (IL)-6 were measured before and at the end of the intervention period. RESULTS: The training program improved muscle strength but did not affect plasma levels of TNF-alpha and sTNFR-I or IL-6. However, plasma levels of sTNFR-I at baseline were inversely correlated with the increase in muscle strength. CONCLUSION: Low-grade activation of the TNF system could limit the increase in muscle strength after resistance training in the oldest old. Furthermore, data suggest that the antiinflammatory response induced by 12 weeks of resistance training is not sufficient to reduce chronic activation of the TNF system, but the small sample size limited this interpretation.