This study aimed at evaluating face and content validity, feasibility and reliability of process quality indicators developed previously in the United States or other countries. The indicators can be used to evaluate care and services for vulnerable older adults affected by cognitive impairment or dementia within an integrated service system in Quebec, Canada.
A total of 33 clinical experts from three major urban centres in Quebec formed a panel representing two medical specialties (family medicine, geriatrics) and seven health or social services specialties (nursing, occupational therapy, psychology, neuropsychology, pharmacy, nutrition, social work), from primary or secondary levels of care, including long-term care. A modified version of the RAND(R)/University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) appropriateness method, a two-round Delphi panel, was used to assess face and content validity of process quality indicators. The appropriateness of indicators was evaluated according to a) agreement of the panel with three criteria, defined as a median rating of 7-9 on a nine-point rating scale, and b) agreement among panellists, judged by the statistical measure of the interpercentile range adjusted for symmetry. Feasibility of quality assessment and reliability of appropriate indicators were then evaluated within a pilot study on 29 patients affected by cognitive impairment or dementia. For measurable indicators the inter-observer reliability was calculated with the Kappa statistic.
Initially, 82 indicators for care of vulnerable older adults with cognitive impairment or dementia were submitted to the panellists. Of those, 72 (88%) were accepted after two rounds. Among 29 patients for whom medical files of the preceding two years were evaluated, 63 (88%) of these indicators were considered applicable at least once, for at least one patient. Only 22 indicators were considered applicable at least once for ten or more out of 29 patients. Four indicators could be measured with the help of a validated questionnaire on patient satisfaction. Inter-observer reliability was moderate (Kappa = 0.57).
A multidisciplinary panel of experts judged a large majority of the initial indicators valid for use in integrated care systems for vulnerable older adults in Quebec, Canada. Most of these indicators can be measured using patient files or patient or caregiver interviews and reliability of assessment from patient-files is moderate.
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In the Mauricie and Centre-du-Québec region of the province of Quebec, Canada, an integrated services network has been implemented for frail seniors. It combines three of the best practices in the field of integrated services, namely: single-entry point, case management and personalized care plan. A shared interdisciplinary electronic health record (EHR) system was set up in 1998. A consensus on the relevance of using EHRs is growing in Quebec, in Canada and around the world. However, technology has out-paced interest in the notions of confidentiality, informed consent and the impact perceived by the clientele. This study specifically examines how frail seniors perceive these issues related to an EHR. The conceptual framework is inspired by the DeLone and McLean model whose main attributes are: system quality, information quality, utilisation modes and the impact on organisations and individuals. This last attribute is the focus of this study, which is a descriptive with quantitative and qualitative component. Thirty seniors were surveyed. Positive information they provided falls under three headings: (i) being better informed; (ii) trust and consideration for professionals; and (iii) appreciation of innovation. The opinions of the seniors are generally favourable regarding the use of computers and the EHR in their presence. Improvements in EHR systems for seniors can be encouraged.
Little is known as yet about the impact of telesurveillance services on social participation. To document the interaction between telesurveillance services and social participation of the elderly living at home, a study was conducted in the context of a government call center employing nurses. A focus group study was realized with elders (n = 4), caregivers (n = 6), healthcare system practitioners and industry employees (n = 7). A qualitative analysis was performed using the Disability Creation Process model and generally accepted criteria for evaluating telehealth interventions. The results showed, on the one hand, factors that facilitate the use of telesurveillance services (user's intellectual capabilities, acceptance of clinical settings, relevance of recommendations, cost of service, and accessibility) and, on the other, factors that reinforce such use (user behaviors; level of satisfaction; impact on informal caregiver; system's level of performance; technical features; and life-habit aspects such as personal transportation, sleep, housekeeping, personal care, interpersonal relationships, and recreational activities).