To examine factors related to regularity of adult day center (ADC) attendance among seniors with functional limitations.
Using data collected as part of a larger study, we identified the proportion of scheduled days attended among 101 ADC users in Montréal and identified determinants of this attendance.
More regular attendance was associated with previous profession of ADC participant or spouse in a sector other than health care, receiving formal help for activities of daily living or instrumental activities of daily living on days of expected ADC participation, participating for the whole day rather than half a day, lower participation in prevention and health-promotion activities, and lower caregiver burden among persons with cognitive impairments and higher caregiver burden among persons without cognitive impairments.
To enhance ADC intervention effects, levels of participation should be maximized. Study findings suggest ways to promote more regular attendance.
While the active participation of general practitioners (GPs) in integrated health services networks (IHSNs) plays a critical role in their success, little is known about the incentives and barriers to their actual participation.
Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews and a mail survey with GPs enrolled in SIPA (system of integrated care for older persons) at 2 sites in Montreal. A total of 61 GPs completed the questionnaire, from which 22 were randomly selected for the qualitative study, with active and non-active participation in the IHSN.
The key themes associated with GP participation were clinician characteristics, consequences perceived at the outset, the SIPA implementation process, relationships with the SIPA team and professional consequences. The incentive factors reported were collaborative practices, high rates of elderly and SIPA patients in their clienteles, concerns about SIPA, the selection of frail elderly patients, close relationships with the case manager, the perceived efficacy of SIPA, and improved professional practices. Barriers to GP participation included high expectations, GP recruitment, lack of information on SIPA, difficult relationships with SIPA geriatricians and deterioration of physician-patient relationships. Four profiles of participation were identified: 2 groups of participants active in SIPA and 2 groups of participants not active in SIPA. The active GPs were familiar with collaborative practices, had higher IHSN patient rates, expressed more concerns than expectations, reported satisfactory relationships with case managers and perceived the efficacy of SIPA. Both active and non-active GPs reported quality care in the IHSN and improved professional practice.
Throughout the implementation process, the participation of GPs in an IHSN depends on numerous professional (clinician characteristics) and organizational factors (GP recruitment, relationships with case managers). Our study provides guiding principles for establishing future integrated models of care. It suggests practical guidelines to support the active participation of GPs in these networks such as physicians with collaborative practices, recruitment of significant number of patients per physicians, the information provided and the accompaniment by geriatricians.
The term frailty is used to describe older persons at high risk for adverse health outcomes. In 2001, Fried et al. proposed a now widely cited definition which suggests that frailty is a clinical entity related to, but distinct from, ADL disability and comorbidity. Frailty status was assessed based on the presence of any three of the following five characteristics: shrinking, weakness, poor endurance, slowness, and low activity. The objectives of the current study are to estimate the prevalence of frailty in a sample of community-dwelling older persons, to identify sociodemographic and health variables associated with frailty, and to examine the complex relationships between frailty and comorbidity, ADL disability and IADL disability.
This study is based on cross-sectional analysis of 740 community-dwelling seniors from the Montreal Unmet Needs Study (MUNS). The five characteristics of frailty were operationalised using measures available in MUNS. The Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test was used to identify variables associated with frailty. Overlaps between frailty, comorbidity and disability were assessed using proportions.
Overall, 7.4% were classified as frail, 49.7% prefrail and 42.8% non-frail. Frailty was associated with age, sex, income, education, number of chronic diseases, ADL disability, and IADL disability. Among those classified as frail, 29.1% had disabilities in ADLs, 92.7% in IADLs and 81.8% had comorbidity.
Findings on the relationship between frailty and sociodemographic variables, morbidity and disability, support previous studies, providing further evidence that although frailty seems to be a distinct geriatric concept, it also overlaps with other concepts.
Frailty puts individuals at increased risk for poor health outcomes. Elderly individuals use a disproportionate amount of emergency department (ED) resources. To investigate the relationship between frailty markers and the effect on ED use by community-dwelling seniors, we conducted a secondary analysis of a 22-month prospective randomized control trial in Montreal, Canada, using the Service Intégrés pour les Personnes Âgées en Perte d'Autonomie (SIPA) database. We assessed a sample of 565 individuals using five frailty markers: physical activity, strength, cognition, energy, and mobility. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess for potential relationship between frailty markers and ED visits. The findings revealed that 70 per cent of the participants had at least three frailty markers. No relationship was found between frailty markers and ED visits. These results suggest that in severely functionally disabled, community-dwelling elderly, the presence of frailty markers does not appear to predict ED visits.
We know that health status in older people is heterogeneous and that many need complex care. What is now required is a comprehensive description of this heterogeneity and the estimation of its effects on patterns of service utilization.
This study examines the possibility of classifying older people according to their complex health conditions and whether the way in which they consume services differs based on these classes.
We used latent class analysis to model heterogeneity and classify community living elderly into homogenous health state categories (ie, health profiles). The number of health profiles present in the sample was revealed using 17 health indicators collected at baseline in the demonstration project of SIPA (French acronym for System of Integrated Care for the frail elderly), a system of integrated care for frail older people (n = 1164). These profiles were then used in 2-part econometric models to study access and costs of several measures of services using data collected prospectively over the 22-months of the SIPA trial.
We identified 4 substantially meaningful health profiles (prevalence: 23%, 11%, 36%, 30%) characterized by differences along the physical, cognitive, and disability dimensions of health. Subsequent econometric modeling showed a differential effect of health profiles on use and costs along the continuum of health and social services.
For older people with complex care needs, classification into homogeneous health subgroups unmasks differences in utilization patterns that can be used by decision makers in their attempt to improve the trajectory of care and adjust the distribution of resources to the needs of older people.
Little is known about the contribution of frailty in improving patient-level prediction beyond readily available clinical information. The objective of this study is to compare the predictive ability of 129 combinations of seven frailty markers (cognition, energy, mobility, mood, nutrition, physical activity, and strength) and quantify their contribution to predictive accuracy beyond age, sex, and number of chronic diseases.
Two cohorts from the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly were used. The model with the best predictive fit in predicting 6-year incidence of disability was determined using the Akaike Information Criterion. Predictive accuracy was measured by the C statistic.
Incident disability was 23% in one cohort and 20% in the other cohort. The "best model" in each cohort was found to be a model including between five and seven frailty markers including cognition, mobility, nutrition, physical activity, and strength. Predictive accuracy of the 129 models ranged from 0.73 to 0.77 across both cohorts. Adding frailty markers to age, sex, and chronic disease increased predictive accuracy by up to 3% in both cohorts (p
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The complex formed by chronic illness, episodes of acute illness, physiological disabilities, functional limitations, and cognitive problems is prevalent among frail elderly persons. These individuals rely on assistance from social and health care programs, which in Canada are still fragmented. SIPA (Services intégrés pour les personnes âgées fragiles) is an integrated service model based on community services, a multidisciplinary team, case management that retains clinical responsibility for all the health and social services required, and the capacity to mobilize resources as required and according to the care protocol. The SIPA demonstration project used an experimental design, with random allocation of the 1,230 participants from two areas of Montreal to an experimental and a control group. The costs of institutional services were $4,270 less for those in the SIPA group compared to the control group; the costs of community care were $3,394 more. The proportion of persons waiting in acute care hospitals for nursing home placement was twice as high in the control group as in the SIPA group. The costs of acute hospitalizations for persons in the SIPA group with ADL disabilities were at least $4,000 lower than those for persons in the control group. In conclusion, the SIPA trial showed that it is possible to undertake ambitious and rigorous demonstration projects in Canada. These results were obtained without an increase in the overall costs of health and social services, without reducing the quality of care, and without increasing the burden on elderly persons and their relatives.
Over the past two decades, there has been a substantial growth in the body of literature on frailty in older persons. However, there is no consensus on its definition or the criteria used to identify frailty. In response to this lack of consensus, the Canadian Initiative on Frailty and Aging carried out a set of systematic reviews of the literature in ten areas of frailty research: biological basis; social basis; prevalence; risk factors; impact; identification; prevention and management; environment and technology; health services; health and social policy. This paper describes the methodology that was developed for the systematic reviews.
A Central Coordination Group (CCG) was responsible for developing the methodology. This involved the development of search strategies and keywords, article selection processes, quality assessment tools, and guidelines for the synthesis of results. Each review was conducted by two experts in the content area, with the assistance of methodologists and statisticians from the CCG.
Conducting a series of systematic literature reviews involving a range of disciplines on a concept that does not have a universally accepted definition posed several conceptual and methodological challenges. The most important conceptual challenge was determining what would qualify as literature on frailty. The methodological challenges arose from our goal of structuring a consistent methodology for reviewing literature from diverse fields of research. At the outset, certain methodological guidelines were deemed essential to ensure the validity of all the reviews. Nevertheless, it was equally important to permit flexibility in the application of the proposed methodology to capture the essence of frailty research within the given fields.
The results of these reviews allowed us to establish the status of current knowledge on frailty and promote collaboration between disciplines. Conducting systematic literature reviews in health science that involve multiple disciplines is a mechanism to facilitate interdisciplinary collaboration and a more integrated understanding of health. This initiative highlighted the need for further methodological development in the performance of multidisciplinary systematic reviews.
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The purpose of the study was to understand better the clinical collaboration process among primary care physicians (PCPs), case managers (CMs), and geriatricians in integrated models of care.
We conducted a qualitative study with semistructured interviews. A purposive sample of 35 PCPs, 7 CMs, and 4 geriatricians was selected in 2 integrated models of care for frail elderly patients in Canada and France: System of Integrated Care for Older Patients of Montreal and Coordination of Care for Older Patients of Paris. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach.
The dynamics of the collaboration process develop in three phases: (1) initiating relationships, (2) developing real two-way collaboration, and (3) developing interdisciplinary teamwork. The findings suggest that CMs and geriatricians collaborated well from the start and throughout the care management process. Real collaboration between the CMs and the PCPs occurred only later and was mostly fostered by the interventions of the geriatricians. PCPs and geriatricians collaborated only occasionally.
The findings provide information about PCPs' commitment to the integrated models of care, the legitimization of the CM's role among PCPs, and the appropriate positioning of geriatricians in such models.
Frailty and fitness are important attributes of older persons, but population samples of their prevalence, attributes, and outcomes are limited.
The authors report data from the community-dwelling sample (n = 9008) of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, a representative, 5-year prospective cohort study. Fitness and frailty were determined by self-reported exercise and function level and testing of cognition.
Among the community-dwelling elderly population, 171 per 1000 were very fit and 12 per 1000 were very frail. Frailty increased with age, so that by age 85 years and older, 44 per 1000 were very frail. The risk for adverse health outcomes increased markedly with frailty: Compared with older adults who exercise, those who were moderately or severely frail had a relative risk for institutionalization of 8.6 (95% confidence interval, 4.9 to 15.2) and for death of 7.3 (95% confidence interval, 4.7 to 11.4). These risks persist after adjustments for age, sex, comorbid conditions, and poor self-rated health. At all ages, men reported higher levels of exercise and less frailty compared with women. Decreased fitness and increased frailty were also associated with poor self-ratings of health (42% in the most frail vs 7% in the most fit), more comorbid illnesses (6 vs 3), and more social isolation (34% vs 29%).
Fitness and frailty form a continuum and predict survival. Exercise influences survival, even in old age. Relative fitness and frailty can be determined quickly in a clinical setting, are potentially useful markers of the risk for adverse health outcomes, and add value to traditional medical assessments that focus on diagnoses.