Knowledge translation (KT) research in long-term care (LTC) is still in its early stages. This protocol describes the evaluation of a multifaceted, interdisciplinary KT intervention aimed at integrating evidence-based osteoporosis and fracture prevention strategies into LTC care processes.
The Vitamin D and Osteoporosis Study (ViDOS) is underway in 40 LTC homes (n = 19 intervention, n = 21 control) across Ontario, Canada. The primary objectives of this study are to assess the feasibility of delivering the KT intervention, and clinically, to increase the percent of LTC residents prescribed =800 IU of vitamin D daily. Eligibility criteria are LTC homes that are serviced by our partner pharmacy provider and have more than one prescribing physician. The target audience within each LTC home is the Professional Advisory Committee (PAC), an interdisciplinary team who meets quarterly. The key elements of the intervention are three interactive educational sessions led by an expert opinion leader, action planning using a quality improvement cycle, audit and feedback reports, nominated internal champions, and reminders/point-of-care tools. Control homes do not receive any intervention, however both intervention and control homes received educational materials as part of the Ontario Osteoporosis Strategy. Primary outcomes are feasibility measures (recruitment, retention, attendance at educational sessions, action plan items identified and initiated, internal champions identified, performance reports provided and reviewed), and vitamin D (=800 IU/daily) prescribing at 6 and 12 months. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of residents prescribed calcium supplements and osteoporosis medications, and falls and fractures. Qualitative methods will examine the experience of the LTC team with the KT intervention. Homes are centrally randomized to intervention and control groups in blocks of variable size using a computer generated allocation sequence. Randomization is stratified by home size and profit/nonprofit status. Prescribing data retrieval and analysis are performed by blinded personnel.
Our study will contribute to an improved understanding of the feasibility and acceptability of a multifaceted intervention aimed at translating knowledge to LTC practitioners. Lessons learned from this study will be valuable in guiding future research and understanding the complexities of translating knowledge in LTC.
Daily physical education in the school curriculum in prepubertal girls during 1 year is followed by an increase in bone mineral accrual and bone width--data from the prospective controlled Malmö pediatric osteoporosis prevention study.
The aim of this study was to evaluate a general school-based 1-year exercise intervention program in a population-based cohort of girls at Tanner stage I. Fifty-three girls aged 7-9 years were included. The school curriculum-based exercise intervention program included 40 minutes/school day. Fifty healthy age-matched girls assigned to the general school curriculum of 60 minutes physical activity/week served as controls. Bone mineral content (BMC, g) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD, g/cm(2)) were measured with dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the total body (TB), lumbar spine (L2-L4 vertebrae), third lumbar vertebra (L3), femoral neck (FN), and leg. Volumetric bone mineral density (g/cm(3)) and bone width were calculated at L3 and FN. Total lean body mass and total fat mass were estimated from the TB scan. No differences at baseline were found in age, anthropometrics, or bone parameters when the groups were compared. The annual gain in BMC was 4.7 percentage points higher in the lumbar spine and 9.5 percentage points higher in L3 in cases than in controls (both P
BACKGROUND: Low-energy fractures among the elderly may be prevented by measures aimed at reducing the risk of falling or increasing the strength of the skeleton. Acceptance of these interventions in the target population is necessary for their success. METHODS: The total elderly population in a Danish municipality 7,543 community-dwelling persons aged 66+ years, were offered participation in one of three intervention programs: 2,550 persons were offered a home safety inspection, evaluation of prescribed medicine, and identification of possible health and food problems (Program I); 2,445 persons were offered 1000 mg of elemental calcium and 400 IU (10 microg) of vitamin D(3) per day in combination with evaluation of prescribed medicine (Program II); and 2,548 persons were offered a combination of the two programs (Program III). Acceptance was defined as willingness to receive an introductory visit by a nurse. RESULTS: Acceptance of Program I was 50%; of Program II, 56% (P
Dietary intake of folate, but not vitamin B2 or B12, is associated with increased bone mineral density 5 years after the menopause: results from a 10-year follow-up study in early postmenopausal women.
The Osteoporosis Clinic, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism C, Aarhus Sygehus, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus Sygehus, Tage-Hansens Gade 2, DK-8000, Aarhus C, Denmark. email@example.com
Folate, vitamin B2 (riboflavin), and vitamin B12 may affect bone directly or through an effect on plasma homocysteine levels. Previously, a positive association has been found between plasma levels and bone mineral density (BMD) as well as risk of fracture. However, there are limited data on whether dietary intakes affect bone. Our aim was to investigate whether intake of folate, vitamin B2) and vitamin B12, as assessed by food records affects BMD and fracture risk. In a population-based cohort including 1,869 perimenopausal women from the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study, associations between intakes and BMD were assessed at baseline and after 5 years of follow-up. Moreover, associations between intakes and 5- and 10-year changes in BMD as well as risk of fracture were studied. Intakes of folate, vitamin B2, and vitamin B12 were 417 (range 290-494) microg/day, 2.70 (range 1.70-3.16) mg/day, and 4.98 (range 3.83-6.62) microg/day, respectively, i.e., slightly above the intakes recommended by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. At year 5, but not at baseline, cross-sectional analyses showed positive correlations between daily intake from diet and from diet plus supplements of folate and BMD at the femoral neck (P
In assessing the role of calcium, it must be stressed that calcium is not the cause of bone health but simply a necessary condition for it. It is mechanical usage that is of primary importance for bone. In just the same way iron is essential for hemoglobin synthesis and protein is essential for muscle mass, but neither is sufficient by itself. What, then, ought we to expect from a high calcium intake? Can we prevent estrogen-withdrawal bone loss? No. Calcium is not a substitute for estrogen, anymore than it is a substitute for exercise. Will calcium slow the remodeling loss that occurs with aging? Yes, to some extent; as calcium slows remodeling, it will inevitably slow remodeling-related loss. But most importantly, a high calcium intake will prevent calcium-deficiency bone loss. The only question, therefore, is the extent to which calcium deficiency loss may contribute significantly to bone fragility in various populations. The bone loss and fracture data reviewed briefly here indicate that an important portion of the osteoporotic fracture burden is calcium-related. What that portion is will be a function of the fraction of the population with inadequate intakes in any given country. Better than half of all adult American women have calcium intakes less than 500 mg/day, whereas only a small fraction of Dutch or Danish women, for example, would be under that level. Hence, a population-wide program to increase calcium intake in the United States would be likely to yield a greater benefit than in either the Netherlands or Denmark. That does not mean, of course, that there could not be substantial benefit to individuals with low intakes in all countries. Calcium intakes of greater than or equal to 1,500 mg are both safe and natural. While not all bone loss and low trauma fractures are due to low calcium intake, some almost certainly are. Adaptation to low intakes does occur, but it is seldom sufficient to compensate for the low intake. We cannot easily distinguish those who need more calcium from those who need less, and for that reason it makes good sense to ensure an adequate calcium intake for the entire adult population. What should that intake be? During adolescence, 1,500 mg will come close to ensuring the achievement of genetically programmed levels of peak bone mass.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Treatment of breast cancer with aromatase inhibitors is associated with damage to bones. NCIC CTG MA.27 was an open-label, phase 3, randomised controlled trial in which women with breast cancer were assigned to one of two adjuvant oral aromatase inhibitors-exemestane or anastrozole. We postulated that exemestane-a mildly androgenic steroid-might have a less detrimental effect on bone than non-steroidal anastrozole. In this companion study to MA.27, we compared changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine and total hip between patients treated with exemestane and patients treated with anastrozole.
In MA.27, postmenopausal women with early stage hormone (oestrogen) receptor-positive invasive breast cancer were randomly assigned to exemestane 25 mg versus anastrozole 1 mg, daily. MA.27B recruited two groups of women from MA.27: those with BMD T-scores of -2·0 or more (up to 2 SDs below sex-matched, young adult mean) and those with at least one T-score (hip or spine) less than -2·0. Both groups received vitamin D and calcium; those with baseline T-scores of less than -2·0 also received bisphosphonates. The primary endpoints were percent change of BMD at 2 years in lumbar spine and total hip for both groups. We analysed patients according to which aromatase inhibitor and T-score groups they were allocated to but BMD assessments ceased if patients deviated from protocol. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00354302.
Between April 24, 2006, and May 30, 2008, 300 patients with baseline T-scores of -2·0 or more were accrued (147 allocated exemestane, 153 anastrozole); and 197 patients with baseline T-scores of less than -2·0 (101 exemestane, 96 anastrozole). For patients with T-scores greater than -2·0 at baseline, mean change of bone mineral density in the spine at 2 years did not differ significantly between patients taking exemestane and patients taking anastrozole (-0·92%, 95% CI -2·35 to 0·50 vs -2·39%, 95% CI -3·77 to -1·01; p=0·08). Respective mean loss in the hip was -1·93% (95% CI -2·93 to -0·93) versus -2·71% (95% CI -4·32 to -1·11; p=0·10). Likewise for those who started with T-scores of less than -2·0, mean change of spine bone mineral density at 2 years did not differ significantly between the exemestane and anastrozole treatment groups (2·11%, 95% CI -0·84 to 5·06 vs 3·72%, 95% CI 1·54 to 5·89; p=0·26), nor did hip bone mineral density (2·09%, 95% CI -1·45 to 5·63 vs 0·0%, 95% CI -3·67 to 3·66; p=0·28). Patients with baseline T-score of -2·0 or more taking exemestane had two fragility fractures and two other fractures, those taking anastrozole had three fragility fractures and five other fractures. For patients who had baseline T-scores of less than -2·0 taking exemestane, one had a fragility fracture and four had other fractures, whereas those taking anastrozole had five fragility fractures and one other fracture.
Our results demonstrate that adjuvant treatment with aromatase inhibitors can be considered for breast cancer patients who have T-scores less than -2·0.
Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute, Pfizer, Canadian Institutes of Health Research.
Vadstena is a small community in the county of OstergÃ¶tland, Sweden, where a project began in 1989 to prevent osteoporosis and to lower the expected incidence of osteoporotic fractures. Persons aged 40-70 years who had a low bone mineral density (BMD) value at screening of the distal radius by single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) were invited to participate in a training study during one year. The definition of low BMD was a densitometry value below -1 SD (standard deviation) from a sex- and age-specific reference value (z-score). Fifteen persons wanted to exercise in a group and 15 persons wanted to become a control group. All participants answered a questionnaire about lifestyle, occupation, diseases, medication and heredity. Clinical tests were made regarding mobility of the joints and muscles, balance and physical fitness. BMD for the hip and the lumbar spine were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) before and after the investigation period. The training programme was carried out for 60 min twice a week during one year and had the intention to improve bone mass, muscle strength and flexibility, balance skill and aerobic capacity. After the training period there was a significant increase in BMD at the greater trochanter (P
The prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases including hypertension, dyslipidemia (hyperlipidemia) and diabetes increases with aging, and all these conditions are risk factors of arteriosclerotic diseases such as cerebrovascular event (stroke) and myocardial infarction. The term "metabolic domino" has been used to describe the collective concept of the development and progression of these lifestyle-related diseases, the sequence of events, and the progression process of complications. Like the first tile of a domino toppling game, undesirable lifestyle such as overeating and underexercising first triggers obesity, and is followed in succession by onset of an insulin resistance state (underlied by a genetic background indigenous to Japanese) , hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and further postprandial hyperglycemia (the pre-diabetic state) , the so-called metabolic syndrome, at around the same time. On the other hand, apart from the other lifestyle-related diseases, the prevalence of osteoporosis also increases rapidly accompanying aging. Osteoporosis is known to be strongly related to disorders due to the metabolic domino such as arteriosclerosis and vascular calcification, and a new disease category called "osteo-vascular interaction" has attracted attention recently. Regarding "osteo-vascular interaction" , a close relation between bone density loss or osteoporotic changes and vascular lesion-associated lifestyle-related diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes has been reported. Therefore, as a common preventive factor for bone mass loss or osteoporosis and lifestyle-related diseases including hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes (osteo-vascular interaction) , exercise has been recognized anew as an important non-pharmaceutical therapy that should take top priority. This article overviews the evidence of exercise therapy for the prevention of osteoporosis and other lifestyle-related diseases, from the viewpoint of health promotion, especially of the skeletal system (motor system) .
In 1999 the National Council on Nutrition and Physical Activity in Norway appointed a committee to look into the relationship between health and physical activity, and to provide some guidelines to various populations regarding physical activity. The committee, which consisted of Sigmund B. Str?mme, Sigmund A. Anderssen, Ingvar Hjermann, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen, Sigbj?rn Smeland, Sverre Maehlum, and Anita Andaas Aadland, produced a comprehensive 84-page report (rapport nr. 2/2000) on physical activity and health based on the currently available scientific evidence. An extract from the first part of the report, which concentrates on the significance of physical activity for various population groups follows below.
Snowmobile accidents are now common in winter; there is a local pattern of facial fractures associated with accidents involving these machines. Facial fractures connected with snowmobile accidents over a period of two successive winters were reviewed; 14 were found to be of special interest because of their severity and localized extent. Compared with motor vehicle accidents most of these fractures were isolated; the patients often had suffered only minimal trauma elsewhere. After reviewing the histories of these patients it was clear that alcohol, night driving, inadequate facial protection and the use of unknown terrain were common precipitating factors. Elimination of these hazards and the use of appropriate protective head-gear would probably reduced the number and severity of such injuries.