Bone mass density, fracture history, self-reported osteoporosis as proxy variables for estrogen and the risk of non-small-cell lung cancer--a population based cohort study, the HUNT study: are proxy variables friends or faults?
Lung cancer has the highest mortality of all cancers. Patients with early stage disease have the best cure rates and that emphasizes the importance of early detection. About half of all non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) are estrogen receptor positive. The impact of estrogen and its receptors for NSCLC carcinogenesis has been studied but is still unclear. Low estrogen levels are associated with osteoporosis. We hypothesize that low bone mineral density (BMD), a positive history of fracture or self-reported osteoporosis, used as a proxy variable for life time estrogen exposure, are associated with a low incidence of NSCLC. We analyzed data from a cohort study, the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2 (1995-1997) linked to the Norwegian Cancer Registry. Using the logistic regression model we calculated the odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for the risk of NSCLC for the three proxy variables, stratified by sex. Participants older than 50 years of age, having measured bone density (N = 18,156), having answered the questions on self-reported fracture (N = 37,883) and osteoporosis (N = 25,701) and known body mass index (BMI) (N = 29,291), were evaluated for inclusion. In 6996 participants all these information was available in addition to tobacco use, and in women also hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). Lung function (FEV1 percent of predicted) was included in a sensitivity analysis. We identified 132 (1.9%) cases of NSCLC, 59 (1.2%) and 73 (3.3%) cases in women and men, respectively. Low BMD was associated with a higher risk of NSCLC, OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.09-5.18 and OR: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.39-5.16 in women and men, respectively. No association was found between the two other proxy variables and the risk of NSCLC. Inclusion of lung function in the model did not change the results. Contrary to our hypothesis, women and men with low BMD had a higher risk for NSCLC. In addition the study demonstrates that the risk depends on which proxy variable was chosen, and we may ask: are proxy variables reliable?
Nonsurgical hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) is a rare disorder most often caused by mutations in different genes. It is characterized by hypocalcaemia with inappropriately low PTH levels. Knowledge about this group of patients, including their mortality and morbidity, is very sparse. The aim was to identify all patients diagnosed with nonsurgical HypoPT in Denmark and assess their mortality and risk of complications. Through registers and review of individual patient hospital charts we identified all patients diagnosed with nonsurgical HypoPT in Denmark between 1977 and 2012. We assessed their mortality and morbidity by comparing them with a group of age- and gender-matched population-based controls. We identified a total of 180 patients with nonsurgical HypoPT among whom 123 (68%) were alive at the date of follow-up (prevalence of 2.3/100,000 inhabitants). Compared with controls, mortality was not increased, but patients had a significantly increased risk of renal insufficiency (hazard ratio [HR] 6.01), cardiovascular diseases (HR 1.91), neuropsychiatric complications (HR 2.45), infections (HR 1.94), seizures (HR 10.05), cataract (HR 4.21), and fractures at the upper extremities (HR 1.93). In contrast patients had significantly reduced risk of malignant diseases (HR 0.44). In conclusion, nonsurgical HypoPT is a rare disease associated with a number of complications that should be considered when taking care of these patients.
Fractures are a serious complication after stroke. Among patients with femoral neck fractures, a large subgroup have had a previous stroke. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of fractures after stroke. Included in the study were 1139 patients consecutively admitted for acute stroke. Fractures occurring from stroke onset until the end of the study or death were registered retrospectively. Hip fracture incidence was compared with corresponding rates from the general population. Patients were followed up for a total of 4132 patient-years (median 2.9 years). There were 154 fractures in 120 patients and median time between the onset of stroke and the first fracture was 24 months. Women had significantly more fractures than men (chi 2 = 15.6; p
The study objective was to determine whether diabetes is a risk factor for incident hip or major osteoporotic fractures independent of the WHO fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX). Men and women with diabetes (n = 3518) and nondiabetics (n = 36,085) aged =50 years at the time of bone mineral density (BMD) testing (1990 to 2007) were identified in a large clinical database from Manitoba, Canada. FRAX probabilities were calculated, and fracture outcomes to 2008 were established via linkage with a population-based data repository. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine if diabetes was associated with incident hip fractures or major osteoporotic fractures after controlling for FRAX risk factors. Mean 10-year probabilities of fracture were similar between groups for major fractures (diabetic 11.1 ± 7.2 versus nondiabetic 10.9 ± 7.3, p = 0.116) and hip fractures (diabetic 2.9 ± 4.4 versus nondiabetic 2.8 ± 4.4, p = 0.400). Diabetes was a significant predictor of subsequent major osteoporotic fracture (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42-1.83) after controlling for age, sex, medication use, and FRAX risk factors including BMD. Similar results were seen after adjusting for FRAX probability directly (HR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.40-1.79). Diabetes was also associated with significantly higher risk for hip fractures (p
OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of chronic pain after surgery for pelvic fracture using a strict definition and measures of intensity and health-related quality of life. METHODS: In April 2004, a questionnaire was sent to 221 patients who underwent surgery for pelvic fracture in the period 1996 to 2000. Chronic pain was defined as pain at present that related back to the pelvic fracture and was not a consequence of other disease. Health-related quality of life was measured using the 15D questionnaire. RESULTS: The response rate was 72.9% after a median follow-up of 5.6 years. Chronic pain was seen in 48.4% (95% confidence interval, 40.7%-56.2%). These patients had a combination of somatic nociceptive, visceral nociceptive, and neuropathic pain and had significantly lower health-related quality of life. Also, the use of opioids (14.1% vs. 4.8%) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories/paracetamol (57.7% vs. 21.7%), the request for financial compensation (75.6% vs. 45.8%), and complications related to leg function (62.8% vs. 20.5%) were significantly higher in the group with chronic pain than in the group without chronic pain. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic pain after pelvic fracture is a major problem that affects a patient's quality of life. The use of analgesics was higher in these patients, and they had more complications. Chronic pain after surgery for pelvic fracture deserves more attention.
This retrospective case control study was done in order to investigate whether patients who sustain a "nonosteoporotic fracture" early in life also continue to sustain fragility fractures later in life. All patients who had been treated at the Department of Orthopedics in Malmö with a tibial shaft fracture from 1949 to 1963 (n = 767) or an ankle fracture from 1961 to 1965 (n = 786) were included in this study. At the time of follow-up in 1992, 231 of the patients who sustained a tibial shaft fracture and 260 of the patients who sustained an ankle fracture were still living in the city of Malmö. Objective registration was done of all subsequent fractures that these former patients had sustained. Comparison was done with corresponding data from double numbers of age- and sex-matched controls who at that time (1950s and 1960s) had no such fractures. At the time of the fracture as well as today, the controls were living in the area of Malmö. Individuals with earlier tibial or ankle fractures had an increased incidence of fractures generally classified as fragility fractures. There was no difference in this respect between men and women, nor whether the initial fracture had been diaphyseal or metaphyseal. We conclude that sustenance of fractures early in life may serve as a predictor for fragility fractures later in life.
In the structure of intrahospital infections the infections of urinary tract make up from 20 to 40%. This problem represents special medical-social significance for trauma departments as patients with trauma are being in forced situation for along time. 380 patients older than 60 years (average age 73.6 ± 9.2 years) with a fracture of proximal femur against background of the systemic osteoporosis having in-patient treatment in the trauma department of the Republic Hospital No2 were being examined and treated from 2011 to 2013. Urinary tract infections were diagnosed in 130 (34.2%) patients (average age 77.3 ± 8.3 years). Women (80%-82%) with the average age 77.7 ± 8.2 years prevailed by gender signs. From them 40 (30.8%) patients admitted with prehospital urinary tract infections and intrahospital urinary tract infections were diagnosed in 90 (69.2%) patients. In etiological structure of urinary tract infections the part of gram-negative microorganisms made up 47.4%, the leading role belonged to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. Escherichia coli (23.3%) and Klibsiella pneumonia (12%) were the most significant from them. Gram-positive microorganisms 44% were sown in the second place. More frequently Enterococci (33.6%) were separated such as Enterococcus faecium (18.1%) and Enterococcus faecalis (15.5%). Intrahospital urinary tract infections resistant to antimicrobial therapy were observed in 6.7% patients with systemic osteoporosis and fracture of proximal femur. The average duration of preoperative preparation and in-patient treatment of patients with fracture of proximal femurand concomitant urinary tract infections is much more (3.9 days and 5.4 bed-days correspondingly) higher than the average indications of all operated patients in the department.
Lactose intolerance (LI) often results in decreased calcium intake. To test if long-term low intake of calcium affects bone strength, we examined fracture risks related to LI in women aged 38-57 years. The 11,619 Finnish women aged 47-56 years who responded to the baseline postal inquiry of the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention Study in 1989 formed the study population. In all, 896 women reported LI and 1299 women reported a fracture in 1980-1989. Current intake of dairy calcium was lower in women with LI (570 mg/d) than in the other women (850 mg/d) (p