Closed and open grade I (low-energy) tibial shaft fractures are a common and costly event, and the optimal management for such injuries remains uncertain.
We explored costs associated with treatment of low-energy tibial fractures with either casting, casting with therapeutic ultrasound, or intramedullary nailing (with and without reaming) by use of a decision tree.
From a governmental perspective, the mean associated costs were USD 3,400 for operative management by reamed intramedullary nailing, USD 5,000 for operative management by non-reamed intramedullary nailing, USD 5,000 for casting, and USD 5,300 for casting with therapeutic ultrasound. With respect to the financial burden to society, the mean associated costs were USD 12,500 for reamed intramedullary nailing, USD 13,300 for casting with therapeutic ultrasound, USD 15,600 for operative management by non-reamed intramedullary nailing, and USD 17,300 for casting alone.
Our analysis suggests that, from an economic standpoint, reamed intramedullary nailing is the treatment of choice for closed and open grade I tibial shaft fractures. Considering financial burden to society, there is preliminary evidence that treatment of low-energy tibial fractures with therapeutic ultrasound and casting may also be an economically sound intervention.
The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the relative costs of treating simple and spiral wedge (requiring closed reduction under anaesthesia) tibial shaft fractures in a plaster cast or with intramedullary locking nail.
The material consisted of 26 fractures treated in a plaster cast and 51 fractures treated with an intramedullary locking nail. The costs caused by the direct costs (treatment, hospitalisation, and outpatient appointments) as well as indirect costs (lost productivity) were taken into account. Costs caused by complications were also included in the analysis.
Mean direct costs per patient were FIM 22920 and FIM 26952 and mean overall costs per patient were FIM 120486 and FIM 82224 in plaster cast and intramedullary locking nailing groups, respectively (FIM 1 = USD 0.19). The higher mean overall costs of the plaster cast group were attributable to the longer sick leave periods in this group (218 days in plaster cast group and 124 in intramedullary nailing group).
Plaster cast treatment of simple and spiral wedge tibial shaft fractures requiring closed reduction under anaesthesia is more expensive to society than operative treatment with intramedullary locking nail.
Forearm fractures are common among children. Unlike most pediatric fractures, there is a risk of unsatisfactory results in forearm shaft fractures. The healing of a tubular bone is most unlikely in the diaphysis far away from the metaphyseal zones. The treatment of forearm shaft fractures is evolving. The purpose of the study was to analyze the pattern of forearm shaft fractures and their treatment in a population of children in recent years.
All the children (from 0 to 16 years) with a both-bone forearm shaft fracture (AO-segment 22-D) during the years 1997 to 2009 in a catchment area of about 86,000 children were included in this population-based study. There were 291 fractures in all. The age-related annual incidences, background factors, seasonal variation, injury types, treatment, reoperations, and short-term outcome were determined.
The incidence of all forearm shaft fractures increased threefold in 1997 to 2009 (p
Strategies to manage tibial fractures include nonoperative and operative approaches. Strategies to enhance healing include a variety of bone stimulators. It is not known what forms of management for tibial fractures predominate among Canadian orthopedic surgeons. We therefore asked a representative sample of orthopedic trauma surgeons about their management of tibial fracture patients.
This was a cross-sectional survey of 450 Canadian orthopedic trauma surgeons. We inquired about demographic variables and current tibial shaft fracture management strategies.
268 surgeons completed the survey, a response rate of 60%. Most respondents (80%) managed closed tibial shaft fracture operatively; 47% preferred reamed intramedullary nailing and 40% preferred unreamed. For open tibial shaft fractures, 59% of surgeons preferred reamed intramedullary nailing. Some surgeons (16%) reported use of bone stimulators for management of uncomplicated open and closed tibial shaft fractures, and almost half (45%) made use of this adjunctive modality for complicated tibial shaft fractures. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and electrical stimulation proved equally popular (21% each) and 80% of respondents felt that a reduction in healing time of 6 weeks or more, attributed to a bone stimulator, would be clinically important.
Current practice regarding orthopedic management of tibial shaft fractures in Canada strongly favors operative treatment with intramedullary nailing, although respondents were divided in their preference for reamed and unreamed nailing. Use of bone stimulators is common as an adjunctive modality in this injury population. Large randomized trials are needed to provide better evidence to guide clinical decision making regarding the choice of reamed or unreamed nailing for tibial shaft fractures, and to inform surgeons about the actual effect of bone stimulators.
To determine if there is a difference in morbidity and mortality in orthopaedic trauma patients with femoral shaft fractures undergoing early definitive care with intramedullary (IM) nails in the supine versus the lateral position.
Retrospective cohort study, single centered.
One level 1 trauma center.
Nine hundred eighty-eight patients representing 1027 femoral shaft fractures treated with IM nails were identified through a prospectively gathered database between 1987 and 2006.
Antegrade IM nail insertion with reaming of the femoral canal in either the supine or lateral position.
Mortality was the primary outcome. Admission to intensive care unit (ICU) was the secondary outcome measure and a surrogate measure of morbidity. Literature review was performed to identify factors shown to contribute to morbidity and mortality in orthopaedic trauma patients. Intraoperative position in either the supine or lateral position was added to this list. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the magnitude and effect of the independent variables on each of the study end points. To determine if a more significant trend toward less favorable outcomes was observed with increasing severity of injury, particularly injuries of the chest and thorax, subgroup analysis was performed for all those with a femur fracture and an Injury Severity Score > or =18 and all those with a femur fracture and an Abbreviated Injury Score chest > or =3.
Intraoperative position in either the supine or lateral position was not a significant predictor of mortality or ICU admission for the original cohort or the subgroup of Injury Severity Score > or =18. However, for the subgroup of Abbreviated Injury Score chest > or =3, intraoperative positioning in the lateral position had a statistically significant protective effect against ICU admission (P = 0.044).
For polytrauma patients with femoral shaft fractures, surgical stabilization using IM nails inserted with reaming of the femoral canal in the lateral position is not associated with an increased risk of mortality or ICU admission.
We analysed registry-based data on 14,915 patients treated for pertrochanteric fracture obtained from the Finnish Health Care Register during the years 1999-2009. Data on the comorbidities, residential status and deaths of the cohort were extracted from several Finnish registries using patients' unique personal identification numbers. The use of intramedullary implants increased substantially during the study period. One-year mortality was slightly higher in the patients treated with intramedullary implant (26.6% vs. 24.9%; P=0.011). In the first year after the fracture, there were more new operations on hip and thigh in patients treated with an intramedullary implant (11.1% vs. 8.9%; P
In a standard total knee replacement, tibial component alignment is a key factor for the long term success of the surgery. The purpose of this study is to compare the accuracy of extramedullary and intramedullary tibial cutting guides used in indigenous and imported implants respectively, in positioning of the tibial components in megaprosthetic knee replacements.
A comparative study of the accuracy of extramedullary and intramedullary tibial cutting guides was carried out in 92 megaprosthetic knee replacements for distal femoral tumors. For the proximal tibia cut for tibial component placement, an extramedullary guide was used in 65 patients and an intramedullary guide was used in 27 patients. Tibial component alignment angles were measured in postoperative X-rays with the help of CAD software.
There was more varus placement in coronal plane with extramedullary cutting guide (-1.18 +/- 2.4 degrees) than the intramedullary guide (-0.34 +/- 2.31 degrees) but this did not reach statistical significance. The goal of 90 +/- 2 degrees alignment of tibial component was achieved in 54% of patients in the extramedullary group versus 67% in the intramedullary group. In terms of sagittal plane alignment, extramedullary guide showed less accurate results (2.09 +/- 2.4 degrees) than intramedullary guide (0.50 +/- 3.80 degrees) for tibial component alignment, though 78% of patients were aligned within the goal of 0-5 degrees of tibial slope angle in extramedullary group versus 63% in intramedullary group. The mean error in the measurements due to rotation of the knee during taking the X-rays was less than 0.1 degrees and distribution of the X-rays with the rotation of knee was similar in both the groups.
Overall, in megaprosthetic knee replacement intramedullary guides gave more accurate results in sagittal plane and exhibited similar variability as of extramedullary guides in coronal plane.
Oulu University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Division of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Oulu, Finland; Medical Research Center, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Postoperative infection is a severe complication after operative treatment of ankle fractures, associated with age, comorbidities, and severe soft tissue injuries. We assessed the efficacy of intramedullary fibular nailing for treating ankle fractures in patients at high risk of wound complications.
41 high-risk patients were included in the study. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records to assess the risk profile, the treatment data, and possible infections and re-operations. After a minimum of 2 years eight patients had died, three had advanced-staged dementia and two were lost to follow-up. Remaining 28 patients reported the functional outcome and QoL through patient-reported questionnaires. Radiographs and cone-beam computed tomography were performed, as well as range-of-motion was measured.
No surgical wound infections were found. The mean Olerud-Molander score was 67 points (SD 28 [20-100]). The osteoarthritis stages and the range-of-motion were significantly different between the injured and uninjured ankles, but we detected no significant effect on the QoL.
Intramedullary fibular fixation appeared to be a safe treatment choice for ankle fractures in high-risk patients.