This study concentrates on utilizing registries and assessing their quality for population-based research. A method of successive comparisons is used to develop and update a summary record of coverage (length of time on the registry) and mortality for each individual in the Manitoba Health Services Commission data base. Various ways to ascertain the accuracy of the summary records are discussed. These techniques are validated by efforts to follow over an 8-year period 4,794 individuals interviewed in 1971 as part of ongoing research on the Manitoba elderly. Ninety-seven percent of the total elderly sample (and 99% of those successfully matched with interviewees) were traced over 8 years. Deaths recorded on hospital claims but not on the master registry and possible unrecorded out-of-hospital deaths are outstanding problems with the Manitoba data base. Further checks against 1970-1977 vital statistics information in the Canadian Mortality Data Base will be made.
There is a need to more accurately enumerate workers with musculoskeletal injuries who make lost-time claims to workers compensation boards. The objective of this study is to develop an approach to more accurately enumerate these workers.
Lost-time claims to the Ontario Workplace Safety & Insurance Board (WSIB) were reviewed. Using neck pain as an example, nature of injury and part of body codes were identified to classify cases. Claims of a random sample of 434 claimants were reviewed. The proportion of claimants classified as having neck pain was computed.
The proportion of claimants classified with soft-tissue injuries to the neck varied from 0.88 for codes including "neck/cervical region," 0.69 for "back region" to 0.05 for those coded as "shoulder/upper arm."
Restricting the enumeration of injuries to specific part of body codes can lead to a gross underestimation of the magnitude of soft-tissue disorders in epidemiological studies using workers' compensation data. The proposed approach leads to more accurate enumeration.
Implementation of the International Statistical Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10) coding system presents challenges for using administrative data. Recognizing this, we conducted a multistep process to develop ICD-10 coding algorithms to define Charlson and Elixhauser comorbidities in administrative data and assess the performance of the resulting algorithms.
ICD-10 coding algorithms were developed by "translation" of the ICD-9-CM codes constituting Deyo's (for Charlson comorbidities) and Elixhauser's coding algorithms and by physicians' assessment of the face-validity of selected ICD-10 codes. The process of carefully developing ICD-10 algorithms also produced modified and enhanced ICD-9-CM coding algorithms for the Charlson and Elixhauser comorbidities. We then used data on in-patients aged 18 years and older in ICD-9-CM and ICD-10 administrative hospital discharge data from a Canadian health region to assess the comorbidity frequencies and mortality prediction achieved by the original ICD-9-CM algorithms, the enhanced ICD-9-CM algorithms, and the new ICD-10 coding algorithms.
Among 56,585 patients in the ICD-9-CM data and 58,805 patients in the ICD-10 data, frequencies of the 17 Charlson comorbidities and the 30 Elixhauser comorbidities remained generally similar across algorithms. The new ICD-10 and enhanced ICD-9-CM coding algorithms either matched or outperformed the original Deyo and Elixhauser ICD-9-CM coding algorithms in predicting in-hospital mortality. The C-statistic was 0.842 for Deyo's ICD-9-CM coding algorithm, 0.860 for the ICD-10 coding algorithm, and 0.859 for the enhanced ICD-9-CM coding algorithm, 0.868 for the original Elixhauser ICD-9-CM coding algorithm, 0.870 for the ICD-10 coding algorithm and 0.878 for the enhanced ICD-9-CM coding algorithm.
These newly developed ICD-10 and ICD-9-CM comorbidity coding algorithms produce similar estimates of comorbidity prevalence in administrative data, and may outperform existing ICD-9-CM coding algorithms.
To examine the hospital coding response to a payment model using a case-mix measurement system based on multiple diagnoses and the resulting impact on a hospital cost model.
Financial, clinical, and supplementary data for all Ontario short stay hospitals from years 1997 to 2002.
Disaggregated trends in hospital case-mix growth are examined for five years following the adoption of an inpatient classification system making extensive use of combinations of secondary diagnoses. Hospital case mix is decomposed into base and complexity components. The longitudinal effects of coding variation on a standard hospital payment model are examined in terms of payment accuracy and impact on adjustment factors.
Introduction of the refined case-mix system provided incentives for hospitals to increase reporting of secondary diagnoses and resulted in growth in highest complexity cases that were not matched by increased resource use over time. Despite a pronounced coding response on the part of hospitals, the increase in measured complexity and case mix did not reduce the unexplained variation in hospital unit cost nor did it reduce the reliance on the teaching adjustment factor, a potential proxy for case mix. The main implication was changes in the size and distribution of predicted hospital operating costs.
Jurisdictions introducing extensive refinements to standard diagnostic related group (DRG)-type payment systems should consider the effects of induced changes to hospital coding practices. Assessing model performance should include analysis of the robustness of classification systems to hospital-level variation in coding practices. Unanticipated coding effects imply that case-mix models hypothesized to perform well ex ante may not meet expectations ex post.
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In this second and concluding report on utilization management practices at Lions Gate Hospital in British Columbia, the authors outline various initiatives that improve efficiency and increase quality of care. Topics explored are laparoscopic cholecystectomy as an example of new technology that can save time and resources, a home IV therapy program, co-ordinating care by means of coordinated care mapping, and improving operating room efficiency through rigorous scheduling.
This paper describes the development and testing of a medication reminder card specifically designed for elderly persons on complex drug regimens. The need for such a system was confirmed by a survey of approximately 100 Canadian hospital pharmacy departments where no system provided at discharge by respondents met with our criteria for the "ideal" card. The new medication reminder card was tested in 29 ambulatory and 16 institutionalized elderly persons. Over 75 percent of patients continued to use the card two weeks post enrollment and a majority of ambulatory elderly were still using the card at six weeks. In addition to organizing medications and providing a reminder for patients to take drugs, the card facilitated communication with the pharmacist (a mean of 20 minutes) and with other health care professionals. Patients found the card easy to read and the system easy to understand. Despite time constraints, eight of nine participating community pharmacists indicated they would continue to use the system for select patients. A major obstacle to the use of the card was patient reluctance, for a variety of reasons. Although the card will require further modification in design, it provides a useful alternative as a compliance aid for ambulatory and hospitalized patients on chronic, complex drug regimens.
Retrospective register study enhanced and verified by medical records.
To study whether electronic searches of discharge diagnosis are valid for epidemiological research of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD).
Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
We identified all hospital admissions with discharge codes suggesting a traumatic SCI from ICD-8 to ICD-10 in the electronic database at Haukeland University Hospital, and ascertained the cases by reviewing all hospital records.
1080 patients had an ICD diagnostic code suggesting a traumatic SCI. Only 260 were verified when reviewing the hospital records. The ICD-10 codes had superior positive predictive values (PPV) and likelihood ratios (LR+) compared with the codes from ICD-8 and ICD-9. Combining seven codes from ICD-10 (S14.0, S14.1, S24.0, S24.1, S34.1, S34.3, T91.3) gave the highest sensitivity (0.83), specificity (0.97), PPV (0.88) and LR+ (30.23).
Obtaining hospital discharge diagnoses solely from electronic databases overestimates the incidence of traumatic SCI. Identification of patients using ICD-10 codes is more complicated because acute traumatic SCI and traumatic SCI sequelae are listed with several codes. The latest ICD version proved to be most reliable when identifying patients with traumatic SCI. However, ICD data cannot be trusted without extensive validity checks for either research or for health planning and administration.
American Indian and Alaska Native Programs, Nighthorse Campbell Native Health Building, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Mail Stop F800, P.O. Box 6508, Aurora, Colorado 80045-0508, USA. Marjorie.Bezdek@uchsc.edu
OBJECTIVE: This report describes a coding scheme developed to analyze how some American Indians changed their drinking behavior and explores the contributions of this approach to our understanding of natural recovery in American-Indian communities. METHOD: We analyzed the responses to two open-ended questions about drinking in an epidemiological survey. The first question asked what helped respondents to quit or cut down on their drinking; the second asked respondents what they did instead of drinking when they wanted to drink. Codes were developed using anthropological analyses of content and then refined through analyses of frequencies and attempts to establish reliability. The frequencies of these codes were then examined by gender, age and current drinking status. RESULTS: Reliability was attained for the coding of responses to both questions. Their content reflects salient themes in the literature on natural recovery. The distribution of these codes across gender, age and current drinking status reveals interesting insights into what prompts and supports quitting and change for different members of these American-Indian communities, especially for women, older respondents and those who abstain from alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: This approach points the way to a consideration of a broad set of factors related to changes in drinking behavior in American-Indian populations that can be applied in future studies, both in American-Indian communities and, potentially, in other populations as well.
For the conduct of controlled clinical trials, epidemiologic surveys or even of medical practice of varieties of peripheral neuropathy, the usefulness, error rate and cost-effectiveness of scannable case-report forms has not been studied.
The overall performance, the frequency of the problems identified and corrected, and the time saved from use of a standard paper case report form was evaluated in multicenter treatment trials, single center epidemiologic surveys and in our neurologic practice. The paper case report form (Clinical Neuropathy Assessment [CNA]) for pen entry at study medical centers for patient, disease and demographic information (Lower Limb Function [LLF] and Neuropathy Impairment Score [NIS]) can be faxed to a core Reading and Quality Assurance Center where the form and data is electronically and interactively evaluated and corrected, if needed, by participating medical centers before electronic entry into database.
1) The approach provides a standard, scannable paper case report form for pen entry of neuropathy symptoms, impairments and disability at the bedside or in the office which is retained as a source document at the participating medical center but a facsimile can be transferred instantaneously, its data can be programmed, interactively evaluated, modified and stored while maintaining an audit trail; 2) it allowed efficient and accurate reading, transfer, analysis, and storage of data of more than 15,000 forms used in multicenter trials; 3) in 500 consecutive CNA evaluations, software programs identified and facilitated interactive corrections of omissions, discrepancies, and disease and study inconsistencies, introducing only a few readily identified and corrected entry errors; and 4) use of programmed, as compared to non-programmed assessment, was more accurate than double keyboard entry of data and was approximately five times faster.
Implementation of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision, Canada (ICD-10-CA) and the Canadian Classification of Interventions (CCI) coding system presents challenges for using Canadian administrative data. Thus, a multi-step process was conducted to develop ICD-10-CA/CCI coding algorithms to define nine comorbidities and three procedures. These clinical variables have been used in ICD-9-CM data for risk adjustment in assessment of outcomes after aortic and mitral valve replacement surgery. Among patients included in the ICD-9-CM data during 1999 and 2001 and in the ICD-10-CA/CCI data during 2002 and 2003 in a Canadian Health Region, frequencies of the nine comorbidities and the three procedures remained generally similar across databases. The newly developed ICD-10-CA/CCI and previous ICD-9-CM coding algorithms are comparable in detecting these clinical variables. However, performance of ICD-10-CA/CCI coding algorithms in risk adjustment should be evaluated in a larger database.
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