Skip header and navigation

Refine By

256 records – page 1 of 26.

Adapting the planning and management of Norway spruce forests in mountain areas of Romania to environmental conditions including climate change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature309130
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2020 Jan 01; 698:133761
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-01-2020
Author
Gheorghe Marian Tudoran
Mihai Zotta
Author Affiliation
"Transilvania" University, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering, Department of Forest Engineering, Forest Management Planning and Terrestrial Measurements, 1, Ludwig van Beethoven Str., Bra?ov 500123, Bra?ov, Romania. Electronic address: tudoran.george@unitbv.ro.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2020 Jan 01; 698:133761
Date
Jan-01-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Climate change
Forestry - methods
Forests
Norway
Picea
Romania
Abstract
In Romania, natural Norway spruce forests are spread across upper mountain slopes (1300-1800?m). They perform multiple functions, being especially recognised for their economic value. However, where planted forests extend beyond the spruce's naturally occurring areas, they are frequently exposed to deleterious environmental factors. In Romania, forest planning is based on typological studies that were carried out between 1950 and 1970, and the regulations are applied in a somewhat flexible manner. In the context of the potential threats from climate change that could amplify induced destabilising phenomena, the risks to which these forests are becoming exposed can only be mediated through flexible management and the permanent adaptation of forest planning. For this reason, the purpose of this study was to develop a strategy for adapting forest management plan guidelines, with a view to improving ecosystem stability. A Norway spruce forest was chosen from the south-eastern Carpathians, which is included in the Natura 2000 Fagaras Mountains site. The models on which we based our current stand compositions resulted from long-term monitoring and analysis of species and stand structures. Stand structure - and forest structure, in general - is key to the continuous existence of stand functions and ecosystem services. Through design decisions, we promote biodiversity and the natural, better adapted, regeneration of local provenances. We highlight the rationale behind forest management planning and its regulations, with respect to the sustainable management of Norway spruce forests, which are vulnerable to potential changes in their structure as a result of climate change. Based on our findings, we propose the adaptation of measures used in forest management planning for Norway spruce forests to include protective functions that can be applied to all man-made Norway spruce forests introduced in former beech forest regions, and mixed coniferous/beech forests, that are vulnerable to changing environmental factors.
PubMed ID
31493576 View in PubMed
Less detail

Afforestation effects on SOC in former cropland: oak and spruce chronosequences resampled after 13 years.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261397
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2014 Sep;20(9):2938-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2014
Author
Teresa G Bárcena
Per Gundersen
Lars Vesterdal
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2014 Sep;20(9):2938-52
Date
Sep-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Carbon - analysis
Carbon Sequestration - physiology
Denmark
Forests
Linear Models
Picea - growth & development
Quercus - growth & development
Soil - chemistry
Species Specificity
Time Factors
Abstract
Chronosequences are commonly used to assess soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration after land-use change, but SOC dynamics predicted by this space-for-time substitution approach have rarely been validated by resampling. We conducted a combined chronosequence/resampling study in a former cropland area (Vestskoven) afforested with oak (Quercus robur) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) over the past 40 years. The aims of this study were (i) to compare present and previous chronosequence trends in forest floor and top mineral soil (0-25 cm) C stocks; (ii) to compare chronosequence estimates with current rates of C stock change based on resampling at the stand level; (iii) to estimate SOC changes in the subsoil (25-50 cm); and (iv) to assess the influence of two tree species on SOC dynamics. The two chronosequence trajectories for forest floor C stocks revealed consistently higher rates of C sequestration in spruce than oak. The chronosequence trajectory was validated by resampling and current rates of forest floor C sequestration decreased with stand age. Chronosequence trends in topsoil SOC in 2011 did not differ significantly from those reported in 1998, however, there was a shift from a negative rate (1998: -0.3 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) ) to no change in 2011. In contrast SOC stocks in the subsoil increased with stand age, however, not significantly (P = 0.1), suggesting different C dynamics in and below the former plough layer. Current rates of C change estimated by repeated sampling decreased with stand age in forest floors but increased in the topsoil. The contrasting temporal change in forest floor and mineral soil C sequestration rates indicate a shift in C source-sink strength after approximately 40 years. We conclude that afforestation of former cropland within the temperate region may induce soil C loss during the first decades followed by a recovery phase of yet unknown duration.
PubMed ID
24753073 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Altitude-belt zonality of wood vegetation within mountainous regions of the Sayan Mountains: a model of ecological second-order phase transitions ].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259810
Source
Zh Obshch Biol. 2014 Jan-Feb;75(1):38-47
Publication Type
Article
Author
V G Sukhovol'skii
T M Ovchinnikova
S D Baboi
Source
Zh Obshch Biol. 2014 Jan-Feb;75(1):38-47
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Altitude
Biodiversity
Ecosystem
Forests
Models, Statistical
Plant Dispersal - physiology
Siberia
Trees - physiology
Abstract
As a description of altitude-belt zonality of wood vegetation, a model of ecological second-order transitions is proposed. Objects of the study have been chosen to be forest cenoses of the northern slope of Kulumyss Ridge (the Sayan Mauntains), while the results are comprised by the altitude profiles of wood vegetation. An ecological phase transition can be considered as the transition of cenoses at different altitudes from the state of presence of certain tree species within the studied territory to the state of their absence. By analogy with the physical model of second-order, phase transitions the order parameter is introduced (i.e., the area portion occupied by a single tree species at the certain altitude) as well as the control variable (i.e., the altitude of the wood vegetation belt). As the formal relation between them, an analog of the Landau's equation for phase transitions in physical systems is obtained. It is shown that the model is in a good accordance with the empirical data. Thus, the model can be used for estimation of upper and lower boundaries of altitude belts for individual tree species (like birch, aspen, Siberian fir, Siberian pine) as well as the breadth of their ecological niches with regard to altitude. The model includes also the parameters that describe numerically the interactions between different species of wood vegetation. The approach versatility allows to simplify description and modeling of wood vegetation altitude zonality, and enables assessment of vegetation cenoses response to climatic changes.
PubMed ID
25486796 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Analysis of cytogenetic stability in natural populations of terrestrial mollusks (based on DNA comet assay)].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261183
Source
Ontogenez. 2014 May-Jun;45(3):180-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
É A Snegin
Source
Ontogenez. 2014 May-Jun;45(3):180-6
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Comet Assay
Cytogenetic Analysis
Forests
Genomic Instability
Russia
Snails - metabolism
Abstract
Abstract-Alkaline gel electrophoresis of isolated cells (comet assay) was used to assess degree of nuclear DNA damage in populations of terrestrial mollusks Bradybaenafruticum Müll., Chondrula tridens Müll., Cepaea vindobonensis Fer., and Stenomphalia ravergieri Fer. living in the forest-steppe landscape of the southern part of the Mid-Russian Upland. Evidence of differences in the parameters studied was found. The age dynamics of the degree of damage of the genetic apparatus was observed. Possible causes of the identified differences are discussed.
PubMed ID
25720277 View in PubMed
Less detail

Analysis of Swedish Forest Owners' Information and Knowledge-Sharing Networks for Decision-Making: Insights for Climate Change Communication and Adaptation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285685
Source
Environ Manage. 2017 Jun;59(6):885-897
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2017
Author
Karin André
Julia Baird
Åsa Gerger Swartling
Gregor Vulturius
Ryan Plummer
Source
Environ Manage. 2017 Jun;59(6):885-897
Date
Jun-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Climate change
Communication
Community participation
Decision Making
Forestry - methods
Forests
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Perception
Problem Solving
Social Networking
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden
Abstract
To further the understanding of climate change adaptation processes, more attention needs to be paid to the various contextual factors that shape whether and how climate-related knowledge and information is received and acted upon by actors involved. This study sets out to examine the characteristics of forest owners' in Sweden, the information and knowledge-sharing networks they draw upon for decision-making, and their perceptions of climate risks, their forests' resilience, the need for adaptation, and perceived adaptive capacity. By applying the concept of ego-network analysis, the empirical data was generated by a quantitative survey distributed to 3000 private forest owners' in Sweden in 2014 with a response rate of 31%. The results show that there is a positive correlation, even though it is generally weak, between forest owner climate perceptions and (i) network features, i.e. network size and heterogeneity, and (ii) presence of certain alter groups (i.e. network members or actors). Results indicate that forest owners' social networks currently serve only a minimal function of sharing knowledge of climate change and adaptation. Moreover, considering the fairly infrequent contact between respondents and alter groups, the timing of knowledge sharing is important. In conclusion we suggest those actors that forest owners' most frequently communicate with, especially forestry experts providing advisory services (e.g. forest owner associations, companies, and authorities) have a clear role to communicate both the risks of climate change and opportunities for adaptation. Peers are valuable in connecting information about climate risks and adaptation to the actual forest property.
Notes
Cites: Conserv Biol. 2016 Jun;30(3):582-9226801337
Cites: Ambio. 2014 Oct;43(6):745-5824570210
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Dec 21;107(51):22026-3121135232
Cites: Am J Bot. 2009 Oct;96(10):1767-7821622297
Cites: J Epidemiol Community Health. 2012 Sep;66(9):759-6022766781
Cites: J Environ Manage. 2012 Apr 15;96(1):17-2522208394
Cites: PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e5018223185568
PubMed ID
28275850 View in PubMed
Less detail

Annual climate variation modifies nitrogen induced carbon accumulation of Pinus sylvestris forests.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302068
Source
Ecol Appl. 2017 09; 27(6):1838-1851
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
09-2017
Author
Hyungwoo Lim
Ram Oren
Sune Linder
Fredrik From
Annika Nordin
Nils Fahlvik
Tomas Lundmark
Torgny Näsholm
Author Affiliation
Department of Forest Ecology & Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-901 83, Umeå, Sweden.
Source
Ecol Appl. 2017 09; 27(6):1838-1851
Date
09-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Carbon Sequestration
Climate
Forests
Nitrogen - metabolism
Norway
Pinus sylvestris - metabolism
Seasons
Sweden
Trees - metabolism
Wood - chemistry - metabolism
Abstract
We report results from long-term simulated external nitrogen (N) input experiments in three northern Pinus sylvestris forests, two of moderately high and one of moderately low productivity, assessing effects on annual net primary production (NPP) of woody mass and its interannual variation in response to variability in weather conditions. A sigmoidal response of wood NPP to external N inputs was observed in the both higher and lower productivity stands, reaching a maximum of ~65% enhancement regardless of the native site productivity, saturating at an external N input of 4-5 g N·m-2 ·yr-1 . The rate of increase in wood NPP and the N response efficiency (REN , increase in wood NPP per external N input) were maximized at an external N input of ~3 g N·m-2 ·yr-1 , regardless of site productivity. The maximum REN was greater in the higher productivity than the lower productivity stand (~20 vs. ~14 g C/g N). The N-induced enhancement of wood NPP and its REN were, however, markedly contingent on climatic variables. In both of the higher and lower productivity stands, wood NPP increased with growing season precipitation (P), but only up to ~400 mm. The sensitivity of the response to P increased with increasing external N inputs. Increasing growing season temperature (T) somewhat increased the N-induced drought effect, whereas decreasing T reduced the drought effect. These responses of wood NPP infused a large temporal variation to REN , making the use of a fixed value unadvisable. Based on these results, we suggest that regional climate conditions and future climate scenarios should be considered when modeling carbon sequestration in response to N deposition in boreal P. sylvestris, and possibly other forests.
PubMed ID
28464423 View in PubMed
Less detail

Ant (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) diversity along a pollution gradient near the Middle Ural Copper Smelter, Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283169
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Apr;24(11):10768-10777
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2017
Author
Elena Belskaya
Alexey Gilev
Eugen Belskii
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Apr;24(11):10768-10777
Date
Apr-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Ants
Copper
Ecosystem
Forests
Russia
Abstract
Ants are considered to be suitable indicators of ecological change and are widely used in land management and environmental monitoring. However, responses of ant communities to industrial pollution are less known so far. We studied pollution-related variations of ant diversity and abundance near the Middle Ural Copper Smelter (Russia) in 2009 and 2013, with pitfall traps set up at 10 sites in Picea obovata and Abies sibirica forest. This study provided evidences for humped pollution-induced dynamics of ant diversity and abundance. Species richness and diversity peaked in the habitat intermediate between slightly damaged and fully destroyed forest ecosystems. The total abundance of ants peaked in the middle of the pollution gradient and was determined mainly by the dominant species Formica aquilonia. The abundance of other species increased towards the smelter, but was less important for total abundance than that of red wood ants. Community dominants changed with increase of exposure; F. aquilonia, a typical species of mature forests, was replaced by species of open habitats, Lasius niger and Myrmica ruginodis. Habitat variables and competition between species seem to affect local ant communities more strongly than pollution exposure. Stand basal area and cover of the field layer were the main determinants of ant diversity and abundance of individual species.
PubMed ID
28290083 View in PubMed
Less detail

Applying ecosystem services as a framework to analyze the effects of alternative bio-economy scenarios in Nordic catchments.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature305468
Source
Ambio. 2020 Nov; 49(11):1784-1796
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-2020
Author
Jan E Vermaat
Bart Immerzeel
Eija Pouta
Artti Juutinen
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU-MINA), Ås, Norway. jan.vermaat@nmbu.no.
Source
Ambio. 2020 Nov; 49(11):1784-1796
Date
Nov-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Conservation of Natural Resources
Ecosystem
Forests
Norway
Abstract
The inherently unknown future development of a Nordic bio-economy was studied with four scenarios applied in an ecosystem service assessment framework. This framework couples CORINE land use cover with estimates of 15 final ecosystem services from the CICES 5.1 classification in biophysical and monetary terms. Current land use in two catchments, Lillebæk (83% cropland, area 4.7 km2, Denmark) and Ovre Haldenvassdraget (67% forest, 1006 km2, Norway) was compared with four scenarios for 2050. One scenario focusing on sustainability and environmental awareness led to considerable changes in land use and ecosystem service delivery (more diverse provisioning and higher value of regulating services, but not a higher total economic value), whereas the other three did not deviate markedly from the current scenario. Projected land use scenarios were verified with experts and stakeholder representatives. We conclude that the framework has sufficient resolution to show differences in service delivery among scenarios.
PubMed ID
32594455 View in PubMed
Less detail

Are we missing the Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia forest for the MRSA trees?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302561
Source
Infect Dis (Lond). 2018 01; 50(1):59-61
Publication Type
Journal Article
Comment
Date
01-2018
Author
Kevin B Laupland
Author Affiliation
a Department of Medicine , Royal Inland Hospital , Kamloops , Canada.
Source
Infect Dis (Lond). 2018 01; 50(1):59-61
Date
01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Comment
Keywords
Bacteremia
Cross Infection
Finland
Forests
Humans
Incidence
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcal Infections
Staphylococcus aureus
Trees
Abstract
In this edition of the journal, Jokinen et al. report on a population based study of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) in Finland. They observe increasing incidence of cases over time that are associated with an increase in blood culture sampling. As compared to methicillin-sensitive SAB that increases during the study period, the incidence of methicillin-resistant SAB increases and then decreases. The proportion of cases with penicillin-sensitive SAB markedly increases in the study representing 43% of isolates in the most recent year of surveillance. While much attention and focus is typically placed on methicillin-resistant SAB, the major part of the burden of illness associated with SAB is from methicillin-sensitive and penicillin-sensitive strains. A narrow focus on prevention of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus will only have a limited impact on the overall burden of disease due to SAB.
Notes
CommentOn: Infect Dis (Lond). 2018 Jan;50(1):52-58 PMID 29161942
PubMed ID
29161941 View in PubMed
Less detail

Assessment of the Main Natural Disturbances on Norwegian Forest Based on 20 Years of National Inventory.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285117
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(8):e0161361
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Olalla Díaz-Yáñez
Blas Mola-Yudego
Rune Eriksen
José Ramón González-Olabarria
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(8):e0161361
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Ecosystem
Forests
Fungi - physiology
Moths
Norway
Snow
Wind
Abstract
The re-measurement of permanent forest inventories offers a unique opportunity to assess the occurrence and impact of forest disturbances. The present study aims at exploring the main forest damages in Norway based on the extensive data of several consecutive national forest inventories during the period 1995-2014. Five of the most common disturbance agents in Norway are selected for analysis: wind, snow, browsing, fungus and insect damage. The analyses focuses on the frequency and variation along time, the average damage at stand level and the spatial patterns of damage occurrence, resulting in a characterization of the damage produced by disturbances in Norway. The highest damage occurrences by disturbance agent are due to browsing, snow and wind. Snow presents a decreasing temporally trend in damage frequency in the studied period. By forest type, mature and intermediate birch forest are found to be more affected by snow damage, whereas mature spruce forest is by wind damage. The results from this study provide support to the hypothesis that damages by autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) on birch are more common in mature stands. No major attacks from bark beetle (Ips typographus) are found, probably related to the lack of major storm damages in the period. Forest types susceptibility to fungus has no apparent variation over time except in the last years, as increased occurrence is observed on mature spruce stands probably correlated with warmer than average periods. Browsing damage causes the most severe losses, as expected, in young stands, and is allocated mainly on the most productive forests. Although some of the disturbances present locally moderate effects, the results show no major disturbances threatening Norwegian forests in the studied period. Finally, the Norwegian national forest inventory demonstrates its reliability as a basis to understand the occurrence and effects of major natural disturbances.
Notes
Cites: Ecology. 2006 Feb;87(2):283-9016637352
Cites: Trends Ecol Evol. 2005 Jul;20(7):387-9416701401
Cites: J Anim Ecol. 2007 Mar;76(2):258-6817302833
Cites: Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2016 Aug;91(3):760-8126010526
Cites: Environ Manage. 1999 Sep;24(2):209-21710384030
PubMed ID
27570973 View in PubMed
Less detail

256 records – page 1 of 26.