Skip header and navigation

Refine By

168 records – page 1 of 17.

A 700-year paleoecological record of boreal ecosystem responses to climatic variation from Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature85780
Source
Ecology. 2008 Mar;89(3):729-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2008
Author
Tinner Willy
Bigler Christian
Gedye Sharon
Gregory-Eaves Irene
Jones Richard T
Kaltenrieder Petra
Krähenbühl Urs
Hu Feng Sheng
Author Affiliation
Institute of Plant Sciences and Oeschger Center for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Altenbergrain 21, CH-3013 Bern, Switzerland. willy.tinner@ips.unibe.ch
Source
Ecology. 2008 Mar;89(3):729-43
Date
Mar-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Climate
Diatoms
Ecosystem
Fires
Forestry
Fossils
Geologic sediments
Greenhouse Effect
Ice Cover
Plant Physiology
Pollen
Time Factors
Trees
Abstract
Recent observations and model simulations have highlighted the sensitivity of the forest-tundra ecotone to climatic forcing. In contrast, paleoecological studies have not provided evidence of tree-line fluctuations in response to Holocene climatic changes in Alaska, suggesting that the forest-tundra boundary in certain areas may be relatively stable at multicentennial to millennial time scales. We conducted a multiproxy study of sediment cores from an Alaskan lake near the altitudinal limits of key boreal-forest species. Paleoecological data were compared with independent climatic reconstructions to assess ecosystem responses of the forest tundra boundary to Little Ice Age (LIA) climatic fluctuations. Pollen, diatom, charcoal, macrofossil, and magnetic analyses provide the first continuous record of vegetation fire-climate interactions at decadal to centennial time scales during the past 700 years from southern Alaska. Boreal-forest diebacks characterized by declines of Picea mariana, P. glauca, and tree Betula occurred during the LIA (AD 1500-1800), whereas shrubs (Alnus viridis, Betula glandulosa/nana) and herbaceous taxa (Epilobium, Aconitum) expanded. Marked increases in charcoal abundance and changes in magnetic properties suggest increases in fire importance and soil erosion during the same period. In addition, the conspicuous reduction or disappearance of certain aquatic (e.g., Isoetes, Nuphar, Pediastrum) and wetland (Sphagnum) plants and major shifts in diatom assemblages suggest pronounced lake-level fluctuations and rapid ecosystem reorganization in response to LIA climatic deterioration. Our results imply that temperature shifts of 1-2 degrees C, when accompanied by major changes in moisture balance, can greatly alter high-altitudinal terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic ecosystems, including conversion between boreal-forest tree line and tundra. The climatic and ecosystem variations in our study area appear to be coherent with changes in solar irradiance, suggesting that changes in solar activity contributed to the environmental instability of the past 700 years.
PubMed ID
18459336 View in PubMed
Less detail

Aboriginal health learning in the forest and cultivated gardens: building a nutritious and sustainable food system.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature151012
Source
J Agromedicine. 2009;14(2):263-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Mirella L Stroink
Connie H Nelson
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. mstroink@lakeheadu.ca
Source
J Agromedicine. 2009;14(2):263-9
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analysis of Variance
Food Supply
Forestry
Gardening - education - methods
Health Education - methods
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Health Surveys
Humans
Indians, North American - psychology
Nutrition Policy
Ontario
Personal Satisfaction
Seafood
Abstract
Sustainable food systems are those in which diverse foods are produced in close proximity to a market. A dynamic, adaptive knowledge base that is grounded in local culture and geography and connected to outside knowledge resources is essential for such food systems to thrive. Sustainable food systems are particularly important to remote and Aboriginal communities, where extensive transportation makes food expensive and of poorer nutritional value. The Learning Garden program was developed and run with two First Nation communities in northwestern Ontario. With this program, the team adopted a holistic and experiential model of learning to begin rebuilding a knowledge base that would support a sustainable local food system. The program involved a series of workshops held in each community and facilitated by a community-based coordinator. Topics included cultivated gardening and forest foods. Results of survey data collected from 20 Aboriginal workshop participants are presented, revealing a moderate to low level of baseline knowledge of the traditional food system, and a reliance on the mainstream food system that is supported by food values that place convenience, ease, and price above the localness or cultural connectedness of the food. Preliminary findings from qualitative data are also presented on the process of learning that occurred in the program and some of the insights we have gained that are relevant to future adaptations of this program.
PubMed ID
19437287 View in PubMed
Less detail

Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal relations and sustainable forest management in Canada: the influence of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature147560
Source
J Environ Manage. 2011 Feb;92(2):300-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2011
Author
Deborah McGregor
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography and Aboriginal Studies Program, University of Toronto, Room 5063, Sidney Smith Hall (100 St. George Street), Toronto, Ontario M5S3G3, Canada. d.mcgregor@utoronto.ca
Source
J Environ Manage. 2011 Feb;92(2):300-10
Date
Feb-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Advisory Committees
Canada
Conservation of Natural Resources
Forestry - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Indians, North American - legislation & jurisprudence
Abstract
This paper provides an overview of the emerging role of Aboriginal people in Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) in Canada over the past decade. The 1996 Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP) provided guidance and recommendations for improving Aboriginal peoples' position in Canadian society, beginning with strengthening understanding and building relationships between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal parties. This paper explores the extent to which advances in Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal relationships and Aboriginal forestry have been made as a result of RCAP's call for renewed relationships based on co-existence among nations. Such changes have begun to alter the context in which Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal relationships exist with respect to SFM. While governments themselves have generally not demonstrated the leadership called for by RCAP in taking up these challenges, industry and other partners are demonstrating some improvements. A degree of progress has been achieved in terms of lands and resources, particularly with co-management-type arrangements, but a fundamental re-structuring needed to reflect nation-to-nation relationships has not yet occurred. Other factors related to increasing Aboriginal participation in SFM, such as the recognition of Aboriginal and treaty rights, are also highlighted, along with suggestions for moving Aboriginal peoples' SFM agenda forward in the coming years.
PubMed ID
19889497 View in PubMed
Less detail

Acceleration of global vegetation greenup from combined effects of climate change and human land management.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297897
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 11; 24(11):5484-5499
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
11-2018
Author
Lanhui Wang
Feng Tian
Yuhang Wang
Zhendong Wu
Guy Schurgers
Rasmus Fensholt
Author Affiliation
Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 11; 24(11):5484-5499
Date
11-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Agriculture
Climate change
Forestry
Humans
Plant Development
Remote Sensing Technology
Urbanization
Abstract
Global warming and human land management have greatly influenced vegetation growth through both changes in spring phenology and photosynthetic primary production. This will presumably impact the velocity of vegetation greenup (Vgreenup, the daily rate of changes in vegetation productivity during greenup period), yet little is currently known about the spatio-temporal patterns of Vgreenup of global vegetation. Here, we define Vgreenup as the ratio of the amplitude of greenup (Agreenup) to the duration of greenup (Dgreenup) and derive global Vgreenup from 34-year satellite leaf area index (LAI) observations to study spatio-temporal dynamics of Vgreenup at the global, hemispheric, and ecosystem scales. We find that 19.9% of the pixels analyzed (n = 1,175,453) experienced significant trends toward higher greenup rates by an average of 0.018 m2  m-2  day-1 for 1982-2015 as compared to 8.6% of pixels with significant negative trends (p 
PubMed ID
29963745 View in PubMed
Less detail

Accident rates and types among self-employed private forest owners.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature100478
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2010 Nov;42(6):1729-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2010
Author
Ola Lindroos
Lage Burström
Author Affiliation
Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden. ola.lindroos@srh.slu.se
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2010 Nov;42(6):1729-35
Date
Nov-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Occupational - mortality - prevention & control
Adult
Causality
Cause of Death
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Forestry - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Ownership - statistics & numerical data
Private Sector - statistics & numerical data
Registries
Risk factors
Sick Leave
Sweden
Wounds and Injuries - mortality
Abstract
Half of all Swedish forests are owned by private individuals, and at least 215,000 people work in these privately owned forest holdings. However, only lethal accidents are systematically monitored among self-employed forest workers. Therefore, data from the registries of the Swedish Work Environment Authority, the Labor Insurance Organization and the regional University Hospital in Umeå were gathered to allow us to perform a more in-depth assessment of the rate and types of accidents that occurred among private forest owners. We found large differences between the registries in the type and number of accidents that were reported. We encountered difficulties in defining "self-employed forest worker" and also in determining whether the accidents that did occur happened during work or leisure time. Consequently, the estimates for the accident rate that we obtained varied from 32 to > or = 4300 injured persons per year in Sweden, depending on the registry that was consulted, the definition of the sample population that was used, and the accident severity definition that was employed. Nevertheless, the different registries gave a consistent picture of the types of accidents that occur while individuals are participating in self-employed forestry work. Severe accidents were relatively common, as self-employed forestry work fatalities constituted 7% of the total number of fatalities in the work authority registry. Falling trees were associated with many of these fatal accidents as well as with accidents that resulted in severe non-fatal injuries. Thus, unsafe work methods appeared more related to the occurrence of an accident than the equipment that was being used at the time of the accident (e.g., a chainsaw). Improvement of the workers' skills should therefore be considered to be an important prevention measure that should be undertaken in this field. The challenges in improving the safety in these smallest of companies, which fall somewhere between the purview of occupational and consumer safety, are exemplified and discussed.
PubMed ID
20728623 View in PubMed
Less detail

Airborne microfungi from eastern Canadian sawmills.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature197620
Source
Can J Microbiol. 2000 Jul;46(7):612-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2000
Author
C. Duchaine
A. Mériaux
Author Affiliation
Centre de Pneumologie, Hôpital and Université Laval, Sainte-Foy, Canada. duchaine@mediom.qc.ca
Source
Can J Microbiol. 2000 Jul;46(7):612-7
Date
Jul-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Microbiology
Allergens
Canada
Dust
Forestry
Fungi - isolation & purification
Humans
Occupational Exposure
Respiratory Tract Diseases - etiology
Abstract
Working in sawmills is associated with bioaerosol exposure and respiratory health problems. This study is the first to analyze the mycoflora of eastern Canadian sawmills and the nature of airborne contamination at different work sites. Fifty work sites (debarking, sawing, planing, and sorting) within 17 sawmills were sampled for airborne microfungi. One thousand seven hundred strains were isolated, quantified to determine the frequency of occurrence, and then identified. Unlike the European studies, we did not frequently identify the presence of fungi that were described in European sawmills as being related to respiratory health problems. In eastern Canadian sawmills, Penicillium species are the most frequently isolated microfungi.
PubMed ID
10932354 View in PubMed
Less detail

Almost 50 years of monitoring shows that climate, not forestry, controls long-term organic carbon fluxes in a large boreal watershed.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262840
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2014 Apr;20(4):1225-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
Ahti Lepistö
Martyn N Futter
Pirkko Kortelainen
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2014 Apr;20(4):1225-37
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Calibration
Carbon - analysis
Carbon Cycle
Climate
Droughts
Environmental monitoring
Finland
Floods
Forestry
Models, Theoretical
Seasons
Temperature
Abstract
Here, we use a unique long-term data set on total organic carbon (TOC) fluxes, its climatic drivers and effects of land management from a large boreal watershed in northern Finland. TOC and runoff have been monitored at several sites in the Simojoki watershed (3160 km(2) ) since the early 1960s. Annual TOC fluxes have increased significantly together with increased inter-annual variability. Acid deposition in the area has been low and has not significantly influenced losses of TOC. Forest management, including ditching and clear felling, had a minor influence on TOC fluxes - seasonal and long-term patterns in TOC were controlled primarily by changes in soil frost, seasonal precipitation, drought, and runoff. Deeper soil frost led to lower spring TOC concentrations in the river. Summer TOC concentrations were positively correlated with precipitation and soil moisture not temperature. There is some indication that drought conditions led to elevated TOC concentrations and fluxes in subsequent years (1998-2000). A sensitivity analysis of the INCA-C model results showed the importance of landscape position, land-use type, and soil temperature as controls of modeled TOC concentrations. Model predictions were not sensitive to forest management. Our results are contradictory to some earlier plot-scale and small catchment studies that have shown more profound forest management impacts on TOC fluxes. This shows the importance of scale when assessing the mechanisms controlling TOC fluxes and concentrations. The results highlight the value of long-term multiple data sets to better understand ecosystem response to land management, climate change and extremes in northern ecosystems.
PubMed ID
24501106 View in PubMed
Less detail

Analysis of Swedish Forest Owners' Information and Knowledge-Sharing Networks for Decision-Making: Insights for Climate Change Communication and Adaptation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285685
Source
Environ Manage. 2017 Jun;59(6):885-897
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2017
Author
Karin André
Julia Baird
Åsa Gerger Swartling
Gregor Vulturius
Ryan Plummer
Source
Environ Manage. 2017 Jun;59(6):885-897
Date
Jun-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Climate change
Communication
Community participation
Decision Making
Forestry - methods
Forests
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Perception
Problem Solving
Social Networking
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden
Abstract
To further the understanding of climate change adaptation processes, more attention needs to be paid to the various contextual factors that shape whether and how climate-related knowledge and information is received and acted upon by actors involved. This study sets out to examine the characteristics of forest owners' in Sweden, the information and knowledge-sharing networks they draw upon for decision-making, and their perceptions of climate risks, their forests' resilience, the need for adaptation, and perceived adaptive capacity. By applying the concept of ego-network analysis, the empirical data was generated by a quantitative survey distributed to 3000 private forest owners' in Sweden in 2014 with a response rate of 31%. The results show that there is a positive correlation, even though it is generally weak, between forest owner climate perceptions and (i) network features, i.e. network size and heterogeneity, and (ii) presence of certain alter groups (i.e. network members or actors). Results indicate that forest owners' social networks currently serve only a minimal function of sharing knowledge of climate change and adaptation. Moreover, considering the fairly infrequent contact between respondents and alter groups, the timing of knowledge sharing is important. In conclusion we suggest those actors that forest owners' most frequently communicate with, especially forestry experts providing advisory services (e.g. forest owner associations, companies, and authorities) have a clear role to communicate both the risks of climate change and opportunities for adaptation. Peers are valuable in connecting information about climate risks and adaptation to the actual forest property.
Notes
Cites: Conserv Biol. 2016 Jun;30(3):582-9226801337
Cites: Ambio. 2014 Oct;43(6):745-5824570210
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Dec 21;107(51):22026-3121135232
Cites: Am J Bot. 2009 Oct;96(10):1767-7821622297
Cites: J Epidemiol Community Health. 2012 Sep;66(9):759-6022766781
Cites: J Environ Manage. 2012 Apr 15;96(1):17-2522208394
Cites: PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e5018223185568
PubMed ID
28275850 View in PubMed
Less detail

An inventory of collaborative arrangements between Aboriginal peoples and the Canadian forest sector: linking policies to diversification in forms of engagement.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115901
Source
J Environ Manage. 2013 Apr 15;119:47-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-15-2013
Author
Jean-François Fortier
Stephen Wyatt
David C Natcher
Margaret A Peggy Smith
Martin Hébert
Author Affiliation
Université Laval, Department of Sociology, 1030 Avenue des Sciences-Humaines, Local 3469, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6, Canada. jean-francois.fortier.1@ulaval.ca
Source
J Environ Manage. 2013 Apr 15;119:47-55
Date
Apr-15-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods
Consumer Participation
Cooperative Behavior
Decision Support Techniques
Environmental Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
Forestry - methods
Humans
Indians, North American
Abstract
This paper examines collaborative arrangements between Aboriginal peoples and the forest sector across Canada. Using a broad definition of collaboration, we identified 1378 arrangements in 474 Aboriginal communities in all Canadian provinces and territories, except Nunavut. We categorize these collaborative arrangements into five broad types: treaties and other formal agreements; planning and management activities; influence on decision-making; forest tenures; and economic roles and partnerships. Consistent data was available for only the first three types, which showed that close to 60% of Aboriginal communities use each approach. However, this masks significant differences between provinces. For example, economic roles and partnerships are in place in all New Brunswick communities and 74% of communities in British Columbia, but only 12% of Manitoban communities. The proportion of communities that have been involved in participatory processes in forest decision-making (such as advisory committees and consultation processes) is particularly high in Quebec with 88% of communities, but only 32% of communities hold forest tenures. We also find that three-quarters of all communities choose to engage in two or more approaches, despite the demands that this can place upon the time and energy of community members. We finally consider how policy environments in different jurisdictions affect the frequency of certain types of collaboration. This empirical study, and the typology that it demonstrates, can inform policy development for Aboriginal involvement in Canadian forestry and help guide future research into broader issues of collaborative governance of natural resources.
PubMed ID
23454413 View in PubMed
Less detail

168 records – page 1 of 17.